Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Verkennende studie naar hittestress bij melkvee tijdens weidegang in gematigde klimaatstreken
Timmerman, M. ; Reenen, K. van; Holster, H. ; Evers, A. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1117) - 53
An exploratory study has been conducted to gain insight into the effects of heat stress during grazing on milk production, health and welfare of dairy cows, and the economic consequences of this under Dutch climate conditions. Furthermore an exploration was carried out into options to reduce the effects of heat stress during grazing. The results of this study are described in this report.
Afbraak van organische stof uit (bewerkte) rundermest na toediening aan een zandgrond
Boer, H.C. de; Timmerman, M. ; Verdoes, N. ; Schilder, H. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1095) - 24
Orthofosfaat gehalten in varkensmest en potentieel voor terugwinning
Timmerman, M. ; Verdoes, N. ; Kupers, G.C.C. ; Verheijen, R. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1089) - 26
This report describes the results of the research into the orthophosphate content in (separated) pig manure and faeces. Manure from several different animal categories was collected and separated with a screw press or a centrifuge, and samples were collected of the manure and fractions and analyzed on the content of available orthophosphate and total phosphate. Furthermore, the orthophosphate was extracted from the liquid fractions of the centrifuge with calcium hydroxide. The orthophosphate contents were low with the exception of the faeces of piglets and finisher pigs fed dry feed which had a content of around 2459 mg/kg.
Effect van vergisting op het orthofosfaat gehalte in rundermest en potentieel voor terugwinning
Timmerman, M. ; Boer, H.C. de; Verdoes, N. ; Schilder, H. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1088) - 22
This report describes the results of the research into the effect of anaerobic digestion on the orthophosphate content in dairy manure. On different dairy farms with a manure digester and separators samples were taken from the manure, digestate, liquid fraction, thick fraction and analyzed on the content of orthophosphate. Furthermore, the orthophosphate was extracted from the liquid fraction with calcium hydroxide. The orthophosphate content decreases as a result of anaerobic digestion. The orthophosphate content was on average 34 mg/kg in the digestate and was lower than in the incoming manure with average content of 75 mg/kg.
Fosfaatvormen in melkveemest en potentieel voor terugwinning
Timmerman, M. ; Regelink, I.C. ; Verdoes, N. ; Kupers, G. ; Blanken, K. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1087) - 30
This report describes the results of the research into the phosphate forms and the potential of recovery of phosphate from dairy manure. On different dairy farms with different types of manure separators, slurry robots and scrapers samples were taken from the manure, liquid fraction, thick fraction and/or faeces and analyzed on the content of different phosphate forms. Furthermore calcium hydroxide was added to the liquid fraction to separate the orthophosphate with the sediment and are the thick fractions diluted and acidified to pH 6 and 5 to determine the amount of phosphate being released as orthophosphate. On the basis of these analysis is the potential for recovery of phosphate determined.
The potential of recovery of orthophosphate from dairy manure
Verdoes, N. ; Timmerman, M. - \ 2017
Creating Resilience in Pigs Through Artificial Intelligence (CuRly Pig TAIL)
Timmerman, Maikel - \ 2017
Creating Resilience in Pigs Through Artificial InteLligence (CuRly Pig Tail)
Timmerman, M. ; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Reimert, I. ; Vermeer, H.M. ; Barth, R. ; Kootstra, G.W. ; Riel, J.W. van; Lokhorst, C. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Assessment of Animal Welfare at Farm and Group level. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863143 - p. 262 - 262.
The pig provides a huge amount of health and welfare information by its behaviour and
appearance (e.g. lying, eating, skin colour, eye colour, hair coat and tail-posture). By careful
observation of this body language we believe it is possible to identify (early) signals of
discomfort, upcoming disease and undesired behaviour. By early detection of these signals
interventions can be carried out in an earlier stage than currently is done to restore health
and welfare of the pig herd. Good health and welfare is the foundation of high resilience in
animals, which makes them less vulnerable for disturbances (e.g. infections). For a farmer it
is, however, impossible to continuously monitor the body language and behaviour of every
pig on his or her farm. By using a combination of non-invasive techniques to collect signals
from the pigs and their housing environment (e.g. a camera and a water meter) the pigs can
be observed 24/7. By combining computer vision and pig knowledge using machine and deep
learning techniques, a non-invasive monitoring system can be designed. Deep learning is
the current state-of-the-art machine learning approach for computer vision that is especially
powerful in recognising and localising image content, e.g. the location of the body parts or
visible abnormalities thereof. Deep learning is based on large convolutional neural networks
and require a large amount of manually annotated training (image) data. Ultimately with this
approach the robustness of pig husbandry systems is increased due to better health and welfare
conditions for the animals. Additionally, our approach could even lead to a new design of pig
housing systems. Furthermore, it increases the job satisfaction of the farmer. Our ambition is to
develop advanced monitoring systems that allow to stop tail docking all together, so the curly
pig tail becomes once again a common phenomenon on pig farms. To achieve this ambition,
we will explore, co-develop and test non-invasive monitoring technologies for pig husbandry
Effecten van het mestbeleid op landbouw en milieu : Beantwoording van de ec-postvragen in het kader van de evaluatie van de meststoffenwet
Velthof, G.L. ; Koeijer, T. ; Schröder, J.J. ; Timmerman, M. ; Hooijboer, A. ; Rozemeijer, J. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenendijk, P. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2782) - 139
kunstmeststoffen - mest - landbouw - mestbeleid - oppervlaktewater - waterkwaliteit - fertilizers - manures - agriculture - manure policy - surface water - water quality
Mestgassen - een onderschat gevaar
Timmerman, M. ; Zonderland, J.L. - \ 2017
Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 1 p.
Het vrijkomen van giftige mestgassen zoals waterstofsulfide en blauwzuurgas tijdens het opslaan, mixen en overpompen van mest zorgen voor onveilige werk- en leefomstandigheden.
Live Stock Waste 2016
Timmerman, Maikel - \ 2016
Hydrogen sulphide concentrations in manure pits of dairy barns : The release of toxic manure gases during mixing of manure are harmful for livestock and humans and are deadly at high concentrations. As far is known long-term measurements into the concentration of toxic manure gases from manure storages in dairy barns never took place. The goal of study was to get insight in the long-term course of the hydrogen sulphide (H2S) concentrations in the manure pit of a commercial dairy barn as an indicator for the occurrence of (potentially) dangerous situations in dairy barns by toxic manure gases. Also a short review of the literature was made. During manure mixing the H2S-concentration rises very quickly after the start and leads (very) rapidly to a peak value. Reported peak concentrations of more than 150 ppm H2S occurred frequently. The elevated H2S concentrations remained frequently for longer periods of time (15 minutes). The H2S-concentrations can vary strongly even during periods in which operational circumstances and actions were equal. During pumping of manure the H2S concentrations could also rise, but not as much as during manure mixing. At other times the H2S concentrations can be sometimes slightly elevated. The results from the literature review and measurements at the commercial dairy barn show that mixing of manure leads to such a quick release of H2S that health hazards due the inhalation of toxic manure gases is greatly increased. Taking appropriate safety measures before and during mixing of manure is therefore an absolute necessity for a safe and healthy working environment.
Mestgassen uit melkveemest : jaarrond metingen van H2S-concentraties
Timmerman, M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1002) - 26
dierlijke meststoffen - broeikasgassen - emissie - melkveehouderij - animal manures - greenhouse gases - emission - dairy farming
Purifying manure effluents with duckweed
Timmerman, M. ; Hoving, I.E. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 942) - 27 p.
animal manures - effluents - lemna - aquatic weeds - feeds - nutrients - ingredients - animal feeding - animal nutrition - waste water - biogas - biomass production - cultivation - biobased economy - dierlijke meststoffen - afvoerwater - schadelijke waterplanten - voer - voedingsstoffen - ingrediënten - diervoedering - diervoeding - afvalwater - biomassa productie - teelt
The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to recuperate nutrients from manure effluents and that the concerning duckweed can be utilized as a source of feed, energy and ingredients
Microalgae production using liquid fertilizers derived from animal husbandry
Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Dijk, W. van; Timmerman, M. - \ 2015
Microalgae
Microalgae production using low solid liquid fertilizers derived from animal husbandry: initial tests
Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Dijk, W. van; Timmerman, M. - \ 2015
INEMAD - 16 p.
microalgae, air scrubber, urine, digestate, mineral concentrate
Prototype van een Dynamisch Input Advies Systeem voor biogasinstallaties
Timmerman, M. ; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 897) - 58
bio-energie - biogas - gasproductie - co-vergisting - mestvergisting - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - optimalisatie - energieproductie in de landbouw - melkveehouderij - biobased economy - bioenergy - gas production - co-fermentation - manure fermentation - decision support systems - optimization - agricultural energy production - dairy farming
Het Dynamisch Input Advies Systeem (Dynamisch Vergisten) voor biogasinstallaties maakt gebruik van bedrijfsspecifieke procesgegevens voor de dagelijkse bijsturing van de input naar een biogasinstallatie. Het adviessysteem bestaat uit een methodiek die dagelijks de actuele invloed bepaalt van de input op de biogasproductie en een control algoritme die op basis van de relatie tussen de input en de biogasproductie de optimale input bepaalt. Op basis hiervan wordt de input bijgesteld in de richting van de optimale input. Het control algoritme kan worden ingesteld om de input voor de maximaal haalbare biogasproductie te bepalen of om de input te bepalen waarbij het voersaldo (energieopbrengst minus voerkosten) maximaal is. Het doel van het onderzoek was het vaststellen van het “proof of principle” van de methodiek van Dynamisch Vergisten onder praktijkomstandigheden. Het onderzoek heeft plaatsgevonden op een melkveeproefbedrijf en een praktijkbedrijf. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat het principe van Dynamisch Vergisten in staat was om de input zo te sturen dat de biogasproductie toe nam zonder dat het vergistingsproces nadelig werd beïnvloed. De toename in biogasproductie leidde tot hogere voersaldo’s. De methodiek van Dynamisch Vergisten biedt perspectief om het financiële rendement van biogasinstallaties te verbeteren.
Mest vol verwaarden? Wat kan raffinage betekenen?
Starmans, D.A.J. ; Buisonjé, F.E. de; Dijk, W. van; Haan, J.J. de; Timmerman, M. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
Lelystad : WUR/ACRRES (Rappot / PPO-AGV 658) - 41
mestverwerking - samenstelling - bioraffinage - economische haalbaarheid - haalbaarheidsstudies - terugwinning - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - manure treatment - composition - biorefinery - economic viability - feasibility studies - recovery - biobased materials
Het doel van deze studie was te inventariseren welke waardevolle stoffen uit mest gewonnen kunnen worden en wat de potentie is in technologie en markt om deze te verwaarden. De inhoud van mest kan onderverdeeld worden in de volgende hoofdcategorieën: organische stof, mineralen, zware metalen, aminozuren, vluchtige vetzuren, antibiotica, hormonen. Via literatuuronderzoek is de samenstelling van elke categorie uiteen gesplitst in de verschillende stoffen met daarbij het gemiddelde gehalte van de betreffende stof in mest. Voor elke stof is de range in marktprijs nagegaan en aan de hand van het gehalte en marktprijs is de intrinsieke waarde van elke stof in de mest bepaald. Per hoofdcategorie van stoffen valt aan de hand van de waarde van de componenten te voorspellen of het mogelijk is om een sluitende business case te maken.
KringloopWijzer, goed geborgd! = Annual Nutrient Cycling Assessment (ANCA), adequately assured!?
Holster, H.C. ; Haan, M.H.A. de; Plomp, M. ; Timmerman, M. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 839) - 34
melkveehouderij - kringlopen - duurzame veehouderij - landbouw en milieu - bereikt resultaat - transparantie - rundveehouderij - dairy farming - cycling - sustainable animal husbandry - agriculture and environment - achievement - transparency - cattle husbandry
This report is an update of the formal report towards ANCA revision 2014.06. The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) model requires assurance for use as a dairy farmspecific environmental performance tool. Assurance can be given due to the fact that the electronic data it generates is produced using traceable and reliable input data.
Methaanproductie van dikke mestfracties: met en zonder voorbehandeling
Timmerman, M. ; Buisonjé, F.E. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 838) - 33
methaanproductie - dierlijke meststoffen - voorbehandeling - mestvergisting - biogas - co-vergisting - landbouw en milieu - gasproductie - biobased economy - methane production - animal manures - pretreatment - manure fermentation - co-fermentation - agriculture and environment - gas production
This report presents the international knowledge about the methane yields of solid manure fractions and the possibilities to increase the methane yields by pre-treatment. The methane yields of solids fractions in batch tests were globally in the range of 40 to 60 m3 per tonne. Promising pre-treatment technologies to increase the methane yield are: thermal treatment, two-stage digestion, steam explosion and thermochemical pre-treatment. Most research of pre-treatment technologies only looked at the increase in methane yield, but not at the increased consumption of electricity and chemicals nor at the economic return.
Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure
Timmerman, M. ; Schuman, E. ; Eekert, M. ; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2015
Environmental Technology 36 (2015)10. - ISSN 0959-3330 - p. 1223 - 1236.
co-digestion - methane production - crude glycerin - cattle manure - biogas - waste - biogasification - inhibition - ammonia
Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on manure (>90%); however, the methane yields of manure are less compared to coproducts, which is one of the reasons for manure-based biogas plants often being economically non-viable. Therefore, it is essential to begin increasing the efficiency of these biogas plants. This study investigated the effect of decreasing retention time and introducing a moderate amount of glycerin on the biogas production as methods to improve efficiency. An experiment has been conducted with two different manure types in four biogas reactors. The results of the study demonstrated that, first, it was possible to decrease the retention time to 10–15 days; however, the effect on biogas production varied per manure type. Secondly, the biogas production almost triples at a retention time of 15.6 days with an addition of 4% glycerin. The relative production-enhancing effect of glycerin did not vary significantly with both manure types. However, the absolute production-enhancing effect of glycerin differed per manure type since the biogas production per gram VS differed per manure type. Thirdly, the positive effect of the glycerin input declines with shorter retention times. Therefore, the effect of glycerin addition depends on the manure type and retention time.
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