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Embryo dune development drivers: beach morphology, growing season precipitation, and storms
Puijenbroek, M.E.B. van; Limpens, J. ; Groot, Alma de; Riksen, M.J.P.M. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Slim, P.A. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Berendse, F. - \ 2017
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 42 (2017)11. - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 1733 - 1744.
For development of embryo dunes on the highly dynamic land–sea boundary, summer growth and the absence of winter erosion are essential. Other than that, however, we know little about the specific conditions that favour embryo dune development. This study explores the boundary conditions for early dune development to enable better predictions of natural dune expansion. Using a 30 year time series of aerial photographs of 33 sites along the Dutch coast, we assessed the influence of beach morphology (beach width and tidal range), meteorological conditions (storm characteristics, wind speed, growing season precipitation, and temperature), and sand nourishment on early dune development. We examined the presence and area of embryo dunes in relation to beach width and tidal range, and compared changes in embryo dune area to meteorological conditions and whether sand nourishment had been applied. We found that the presence and area of embryo dunes increased with increasing beach width. Over time, embryo dune area was negatively correlated with storm intensity and frequency. Embryo dune area was positively correlated with precipitation in the growing season and sand nourishment. Embryo dune area increased in periods of low storm frequency and in wet summers, and decreased in periods of high storm frequency or intensity. We conclude that beach morphology is highly influential in determining the potential for new dune development, and wide beaches enable development of larger embryo dune fields. Sand nourishment stimulates dune development by increasing beach width. Finally, weather conditions and non-interrupted sequences of years without high-intensity storms determine whether progressive dune development will take place.
|Relating climate and sand transport to incipient dune development
Puijenbroek, M.E.B. van; Limpens, J. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Berendse, F. - \ 2014
Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-14833, 2014 EGU General Assembly 2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Relating climate and sand transport to incipient dune development. Marinka van Puijenbroek, Juul Limpens, Maurits Gleichman, and Frank Berendse Nature Conversation and Plant Ecologie Group, Wageningen University, Wagingen, Netherlands (firstname.lastname@example.org) Sea levels are continuously rising, increasing the risk of flooding and coastal erosion in low-elevation countries, such as the Netherlands. Coastal dunes are seen as a flexible and natural type of coastal defence, that is able to keep pace with rising water levels. Until now most research has focussed on dynamics and maintenance of established dunes, largely ignoring two critical transitions in early dune development: the transition from bare beach to vegetated incipient dune and that from incipient dune to established foredune. This knowledge is essential to enable more accurate prediction and even stimulation of new dune formation through sand nourishment. We explored the relative contributions of climate and sand transport to incipient dune development combining a 30 year time-series of aerial photographs (1979 – 2010) of the natural Wadden Island coast with high-resolution monitoring data of sand volume changes and climatic parameters. We selected 20 strips of 2.5 km in length along the coast of the Wadden Islands, with a 2 km buffer between them to avoid autocorrelation. For each of these strips of coast we assessed the changes in presence and area of incipient dunes over periods of 5-6 years. Change in fore dune volume and beach width were derived from high resolution beach elevation data. Seawater level and climate data were derived from a nearby meteorological station Preliminary analysis of the first half of the dataset showed that incipient dune area was positively related to beach width, but negatively to storm intensity. In our poster we will present the whole dataset and discuss the implications of our results for future dune development and anthropogenic sand nourishment schemes.
Habitat use and diet of Skylarks (Alauda arvensis) wintering in an intensive agricultural landscape of the Netherlands
Geiger, F. ; Hegemann, A. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Flinks, H. ; Snoo, G.R. de; Prinz, S. ; Tieleman, B.I. ; Berendse, F. - \ 2014
Journal of Ornithology 155 (2014)2. - ISSN 2193-7192 - p. 507 - 518.
farmland birds - stubble fields - granivorous birds - european farmland - lowland farmland - southern england - food - abundance - intensification - conservation
In recent decades, Skylark (Alauda arvensis) populations in Europe have declined sharply due to agricultural intensification. Insufficient reproduction rates are one reason. Increased winter mortality may also be important, but studies outside the breeding season are scarce and mostly limited to the UK. We studied habitat selection of wintering Skylarks in an agricultural area in the Netherlands. We monitored Skylarks between November 2008 and March 2009 on 10 survey plots including 77 different arable fields and permanent grasslands and covering in total 480 ha. We simultaneously measured food availability, vegetation structure and field boundary characteristics. We also analysed 158 faecal pellets collected on potato and cereal stubble fields to relate Skylark diet to seasonal changes in food availability and foraging habitat. We show that cereal stubble fields larger than 4.3 ha, surrounded by no or low boundary vegetation and a density of dietary seeds of more than 860 seeds m-2, were most suitable for wintering Skylarks. Skylark group densities were low on permanent grasslands and on maize stubble fields. Densities of dietary seeds were highest in soils of potato stubble fields followed by cereal stubble fields, grasslands and maize stubble fields. Skylarks showed a strong preference for cereal grains, but their proportion in the diet fell sharply at the end of November, indicating that cereal grains were depleted and birds had to switch to less profitable food sources, such as weed seeds and leaves. We conclude that Skylarks wintering in agricultural landscapes possibly suffer from a lack of energy-rich food sources and only a few fields provide sufficient food. Conservation measures should strive to improve the wintering situation by creating food-rich habitats such as over-winter stubble with a rich layer of weeds on large fields and localised in open areas.
|Field preference and diet of foraging skylarks in winter
Geiger, F. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Snoo, G.R. de; Berendse, F. ; Flinks, H. ; Hegemann, A. ; Tieleman, B.I. - \ 2010
Veranderingen in avifauna en flora van de noordelijke Gelderse Vallei
Gleichman, J.M. ; Nijs, L.J. de; Berendse, F. - \ 2009
De Levende Natuur 110 (2009)7. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 346 - 351.
vogels - flora - plantengemeenschappen - gelderse vallei - birds - plant communities
Zowel in het begin van de jaren 1970 (voor vogels) en rond 1980 (voor planten) als in 2002 zijn inventarisaties uitgevoerd in het noordwesten van de provincie Gelderland in de gemeenten Nijkerk, Putten en Barneveld. In grote lijnen is het oorspronkelijke landschap hier nog steeds zichtbaar. Door de inventarisaties te vergelijken werd het mogelijk om grote veranderingen in biodiversiteit vast te stellen. Het gebied lijkt representatief te zijn voor de ontwikkeling van natuurwaarden in het landelijk gebied
Contrasting effects of large herbivore grazing on smaller herbivores
Bakker, E.S. ; Olff, H. ; Gleichman, J.M. - \ 2009
Basic and Applied Ecology 10 (2009)2. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 141 - 150.
body-size - microhistological analysis - prairie dogs - food quality - plant - competition - diversity - ecosystem - ecology - environments
Assemblages of large herbivores may compete for food or facilitate one another. However, small vertebrate herbivore species co-occurring with large herbivores may be affected by large herbivore grazing through changes in plant species composition, nutrient content and vegetation structure. These changes can be either positive or negative for the smaller herbivores, but this may depend on the species of small herbivores. We experimentally tested the impact of cattle grazing on habitat choice of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and common voles (Microtus arvalis). We excluded cattle for 7 years and measured changes in vegetation parameters, and the response of rabbits and voles. Rabbits were facilitated by cattle, whereas voles strongly preferred vegetation without cattle. The facilitation effect was stronger at low rabbit densities. Vegetation biomass and nitrogen concentration were not affected by cattle grazing, but vegetation height increased significantly where cattle were excluded. Plant species composition also changed following cattle exclusion; however, the main food plants of rabbits and voles remained abundant in each grazing treatment. We conclude that the response of both rabbits and voles predominantly reflect the differences in vegetation height in the presence and absence of cattle, but in a contrasting fashion. The difference in response between rabbits and voles may result from reduced perceived predation risk, which is lowest in high vegetation for voles, but in short vegetation for rabbits, which depend on their burrows for safety. The use of large herbivores in grassland conservation management can thus have a contrasting effect on different species of small herbivores
Response of Sphagnum species mixtures to increased temperature and nitrogen availability
Breeuwer, A.J.G. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Berendse, F. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Robroek, B.J.M. ; Limpens, J. - \ 2009
Plant Ecology 204 (2009)1. - ISSN 1385-0237 - p. 97 - 111.
n-deposition - water-level - nutritional constraints - decomposition rates - northern peatlands - litter quality - climate-change - peat formation - growth - bogs
To predict the role of ombrotrophic bogs as carbon sinks in the future, it is crucial to understand how Sphagnum vegetation in bogs will respond to global change. We performed a greenhouse experiment to study the effects of two temperature treatments (17.5 and 21.7°C) and two N addition treatments (0 and 4 g N m¿2 year¿1) on the growth of four Sphagnum species from three geographically interspersed regions: S. fuscum, S. balticum (northern and central Sweden), S. magellanicum and S. cuspidatum (southern Sweden). We studied the growth and cover change in four combinations of these Sphagnum species during two growing seasons. Sphagnum height increment and production were affected negatively by high temperature and high N addition. However, the northern species were more affected by temperature, while the southern species were more affected by N addition. High temperature depressed the cover of the `wet¿ species, S. balticum and S. cuspidatum. Nitrogen concentrations increased with high N addition. N:P and N:K ratios indicated P-limited growth in all treatments and co-limitation of P and K in the high N treatments. In the second year of the experiment, several containers suffered from a severe fungal infection, particularly affecting the `wet¿ species and the high N treatment. Our findings suggest that global change can have negative consequences for the production of Sphagnum species in bogs, with important implications for the carbon sequestration in these ecosystems
|Mieren van het Hulshorsterzand: resultaten van een inventarisatie met potvallen en raamvallen
Noordijk, J. ; Boer, P. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Morssinkhof, R. - \ 2008
Forum Formicidarum 7 (2008)3. - ISSN 1572-4093 - p. 9 - 16.
|How species patch size, water table and climatic conditions affect performance of Sphagnum
Robroek, B.J.M. ; Breeuwer, A.J.G. ; Crushell, P.H. ; Kimmel, K. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Berendse, F. ; Schouten, M.G.C. ; Limpens, J. - \ 2007
In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Carbon in Peatlands, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 15 - 18 April 2007. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - p. 80 - 81.
Kansen voor geleedpotigen in bermen : acht jaar onderzoek langs de weg
Noordijk, J. ; Raemakers, I.P. ; Schaffers, A.P. ; Nijs, L.J. de; Gleichman, J.M. ; Sykora, K.V. - \ 2006
Entomologische Berichten 66 (2006)6. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 166 - 173.
arthropodengemeenschappen - insectengemeenschappen - geleedpotigen - wegbermen - maaien - arthropod communities - insect communities - arthropods - roadsides - mowing
Geleedpotigen leven onder steeds moeilijker omstandigheden. De gebieden waar ze leven raken steeds verder versnipperd. Om die reden is het belangrijk om de overgebleven soorten beter te beschermen. Zo ontstond er ook hernieuwde belangstelling voor het leven van geleedpotigen in bermen. Bermen blijken een belangrijke ecologische waarde te hebben. Dit vraagt een doordachte aanpak van het maaien van bermen
Experimental manipulation of predation risk and food quality: effect on grazing behaviour in a central-place foraging herbivore
Bakker, E.S. ; Reiffers, R.C. ; Olff, H. ; Gleichman, J.M. - \ 2005
Oecologia 146 (2005)1. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 157 - 167.
rabbits oryctolagus-cuniculus - functional-response - ochotona-princeps - microhabitat use - european rabbit - barnacle geese - wild rabbits - salt-marsh - voles - facilitation
Abstract The relative importance of predation risk and food quality on spatial grazing pressure and activity patterns was tested in a central-place foraging herbivore: the European rabbit. Rabbits grazed less with increasing distance from their burrows into adjacent grassland, thereby creating a gradient of increasing vegetation height and plant biomass and decreasing plant nutrient concentration. When nitrogen concentration was experimentally increased by 150% through fertilizing and mowing, rabbits visited these plots four times more frequently than the untreated control plots. Addition of predator scent (mink pellets) did not result in different patch use by rabbits. The combined addition of fertilizer and mink pellets had the same effect as addition of fertilizer alone. However, the mink pellets changed the temporal activity pattern of rabbits as measured with infrared detectors. Rabbits were predominantly nocturnal but shifted their activities to the day when mink pellets were added, resulting in equal activities during night and day. We conclude that rabbits are sensitive to perceived predation risk, but that this does not influence their spatial grazing pressure. A selection for the highest food quality on the other hand can explain the observed natural rabbit grazing gradient. Food quality was highest close to the burrows, therefore rabbits selecting for high quality food should forage most intensely close to the burrows and only move further away for higher quality items or when the vegetation close to their burrows is depleted. Through intensive grazing close to the burrows rabbits facilitated for themselves either through stimulating fresh protein rich re-growth or the return of nutrients through faeces or both. This is in contrast with central-place foraging theory where intense feeding close to the burrow is assumed to lead to reduced food resources. Keywords Facilitation - Oryctolagus cuniculus - Odour - Plant nitrogen - Rabbit
|Heathlands, dry grasslands and grazing management- experiences and experiments in The Netherlands
Gleichman, J.M. - \ 2004
In: Dünen und trockene Sandlandschaften. Gefahrdung und Schutz. Tagungsband zu einer Veranstaltung am 6.10.2003 im Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde in Münster Münster : Westfälicher Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein e.V. - ISBN 3937455035 - p. 39 - 48.
Impact of herbivores on nitrogen cycling: contrasting effects of small and large species
Bakker, E.S. ; Olff, H. ; Boekhoff, M. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Berendse, F. - \ 2004
Oecologia 138 (2004)1. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 91 - 101.
yellowstone-national-park - soil fertility - mineralization rate - n-mineralization - plant - dynamics - nutrient - grasslands - ecosystem - communities
Herbivores are reported to slow down as well as enhance nutrient cycling in grasslands. These conflicting results may be explained by differences in herbivore type. In this study we focus on herbivore body size as a factor that causes differences in herbivore effects on N cycling. We used an exclosure set-up in a floodplain grassland grazed by cattle, rabbits and common voles, where we subsequently excluded cattle and rabbits. Exclusion of cattle lead to an increase in vole numbers and a 1.5-fold increase in net annual N mineralization at similar herbivore densities (corrected to metabolic weight). Timing and height of the mineralization peak in spring was the same in all treatments, but mineralization in the vole-grazed treatment showed a peak in autumn, when mineralization had already declined under cattle grazing. This mineralization peak in autumn coincides with a peak in vole density and high levels of N input through vole faeces at a fine-scale distribution, whereas under cattle grazing only a few patches receive all N and most experience net nutrient removal. The other parameters that we measured, which include potential N mineralization rates measured under standardized laboratory conditions and soil parameters, plant biomass and plant nutrient content measured in the field, were the same for all three grazing treatments and could therefore not cause the observed difference. When cows were excluded, more litter accumulated in the vegetation. The formation of this litter layer may have added to the higher mineralization rates under vole grazing, through enhanced nutrient return through litter or through modification of microclimate. We conclude that different-sized herbivores have different effects on N cycling within the same habitat. Exclusion of large herbivores resulted in increased N annual mineralization under small herbivore grazing
Ecological anachronisms in the recruitment of temperate light-demanding tree species in wooded pastures
Bakker, E.S. ; Olff, H. ; Vandenberghe, C. ; Maeyer, K. de; Smit, R. ; Gleichman, J.M. - \ 2004
Journal of Applied Ecology 41 (2004)3. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 571 - 582.
plant spinescence - diversity - dynamics - forest - oak - regeneration - herbivory - availability - facilitation - competition
1. Light-demanding trees and thorny shrubs in temperate plant communities may reflect adaptations to now-extinct large grazers, such as aurochs and tarpans, rendering these adaptations ecological anachronisms. 2. We explored the ecological functions of plant traits of Quercus robur and Prunus spinosa in areas grazed by cattle and horses, the domesticated descendants of aurochs and tarpans. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that grazing induces a shifting mosaic of grassland, shrub thickets and woodlands through the key process of associational resistance: the protection of palatable young trees by thorny shrubs. 3. An exclosure experiment with transplanted Q. robur seedlings revealed that Q. robur grew best in grassland exclosures and on the edge of thorny shrub thickets, which may be viewed as an optimal balance between sufficient protection from large herbivores and sufficient light availability. 4. A cross-site comparison of four floodplain woodlands in north-western Europe showed that Q. robur can regenerate in the presence of large herbivores through spatial association with P. spinosa. However, we found that expansion of P. spinosa shrubs and Q. robur coincided with periods of low rabbit abundance and not with livestock density. From this, it appears that the process of associational resistance does not work with rabbits. 5. Synthesis and applications. With extensive grazing by large (domesticated) grazers in temperate floodplains, a shifting mosaic of grassland, shrubs and trees may develop that has high conservation value. Palatable, light-demanding Q. robur seedlings can successfully regenerate in spiny P. spinosa shrubs through associational resistance. This process does not offer protection from abundant small herbivores, such as rabbits, that can inhibit the recruitment of shrubs and trees in this mosaic vegetation. In floodplain meadows frequent flooding may be an efficient way to reduce rabbit populations, with dry conditions in summer and wet in winter. When floodplain meadows are combined with adjacent higher grounds, large herbivores can escape the floods through migration.
Small-scale shifting mosaics of two dominant grassland species: the possible role of soil-borne pathogens
Olff, H. ; Hoorens, B. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Putten, W.H. van der; Gleichman, J.M. - \ 2000
Oecologia 125 (2000). - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 45 - 54.
Effects of grazing by free-ranging cattle on vegetation dynamics in a continental north-west European heathland
Bokdam, J. ; Gleichman, J.M. - \ 2000
Journal of Applied Ecology 37 (2000). - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 415 - 431.
|Shifting Mosaics in Grazed Woodlands Driven by the Alternation of Plant Facilitation and Competition
Olff, H. ; Vera, F.W.M. ; Bokdam, J. ; Bakker, E.S. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Maeyer, K. de; Smit, R. - \ 1999
Plant Biology 1 (1999). - ISSN 1435-8603 - p. 127 - 137.
De effectiviteit van Agrarisch Natuurbeheer : evaluatie van natuurwinst door beheersovereenkomsten in de polders Westbroek en Maarsseveen
Kleijn, D. ; Boekhoff, M. ; Ottburg, F. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Berendse, F. - \ 1999
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 16 (1999)4. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 227 - 235.
natuurbescherming - landbouw - vegetatie - fauna - evaluatie - nederland - utrecht - agrarisch natuurbeheer - nature conservation - agriculture - vegetation - evaluation - netherlands - agri-environment schemes
Dit artikel geeft een opzet voor een wetenschappelijk verantwoorde methode voor het evalueren van de effectiviteit van agrarisch natuurbeheer
|Agrarisch Natuurbeheer: Duurzaam voor de agrarier en/of duurzaam voor de natuur.
Gleichman, J.M. - \ 1997
Wageningen : Leerstoelgroep Natuurbeheer en Plantenecologie, LU
|De koeien hebben het goed gedaan op de heide van Wolfheze.
Gleichman, J.M. - \ 1992
Natuurbehoud 23 (1992)3. - p. 20 - 21.