Sustainable Production of Bulk Chemicals by Application of “White Biotechnology”
Patel, M.K. ; Dornburg, V. ; Hermann, B.G. ; Shen, L. ; Overbeek, L.S. van - \ 2008
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology 24 (2008)12. - ISSN 1000-3061 - p. 2022 - 2026.
Abstract Practically all organic chemicals and plastics are nowadays produced from crude oil and natural gas. However, it is possible to produce a wide range of bulk chemicals from renewable resources by application of biotechnology. This paper focuses on White Biotechnology, which makes use of bacteria (or yeasts) or enzymes for the conversion of the fermentable sugar to the target product. It is shown that White Biotechnology offers substantial savings of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for nearly all of the products studied. Under favorable boundary conditions up to two thirds (67%) of the current non-renewable energy use for the production of the selected chemicals can be saved by 2050 if substantial technological progress is made and if the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks is successfully developed. The analysis for Europe (E.U. 25 countries) shows that land requirements related to White Biotechnology chemicals are not likely to become a critical issue in the next few decades, especially considering the large unused and underutilized resources in Eastern Europe. Substantial macroeconomic savings can be achieved under favourable boundary conditions. In principle, natural bacteria and enzymes can be used for White Biotechnology but, according to many experts in the fields, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) will be necessary in order to achieve the high yields, concentrations and productivities that are required to reach economic viability. Safe containment and inactivation of GMOs after release is very important because not all possible implications caused by the interaction of recombinant genes with other populations can be foreseen. If adequate precautionary measures are taken, the risks related to the use of genetically modified organisms in White Biotechnology are manageable. We conclude that the core requirements to be fulfilled in order to make clear steps towards a bio-based chemical industry are substantial technological progress in the bioprocess step and in downstream processing, high prices for fossil fuels and low prices for fermentable sugar. We strongly recommend to develop an integrated White Biotechnology strategy taking into account these four core requirements and other important accompanying activities
|Biotechnologie voor bulkproducten van organische chemicalien
Patel, M.K. ; Crank, M. ; Dornburg, V. ; Hermann, B.G. ; Overbeek, L.S. van - \ 2007
Milieu : opinieblad van de Vereniging van Milieuprofessionals 13 (2007)3. - ISSN 1873-5436 - p. 17 - 20.
Assessing environmental performance by combining life cycle assessment, multi-criteria analysis and environmental performance indicators
Hermann, B.G. ; Kroeze, C. ; Jawjit, W. - \ 2007
Journal of Cleaner Production 15 (2007)18. - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 1787 - 1796.
impact assessment - pulp - netherlands - emissions - agriculture - industry - europe
We present a new analytical tool, called COMPLIMENT, which can be used to provide detailed information on the overall environmental impact of a business. COMPLIMENT integrates parts of tools such as life cycle assessment, multi-criteria analysis and environmental performance indicators. It avoids disadvantages and combines complementary aspects of these three tools. The methodology is based on environmental performance indicators, expanding the scope of data collection towards a life cycle approach and including a weighting and aggregation step. A case study on the Thai pulp industry illustrates the usefulness of COMPLIMENT.