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Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions
Huyen, N.T. ; Desrues, O. ; Alferink, S.J.J. ; Zandstra, T. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2016
Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)5. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3566 - 3577.
Digestibility - Methane production - Nitrogen utilization - Sainfoin silage
Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy cow rations in northwestern Europe is still relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sainfoin silage on nutrient digestibility, animal performance, energy and N utilization, and CH4 production. Six rumen-cannulated, lactating dairy cows with a metabolic body weight (BW0.75) of 132.5 ± 3.6 kg were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or a sainfoin (SAIN)-based diet over 2 experimental periods of 25 d each in a crossover design. The CON diet was a mixture of grass silage, corn silage, concentrate, and linseed. In the SAIN diet, 50% of grass silage dry matter (DM) of the CON diet was exchanged for sainfoin silage. The cows were adapted to 95% of ad libitum feed intake for a 21-d period before being housed in climate-controlled respiration chambers for 4 d, during which time feed intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, N and energy balance, and CH4 production was determined. Data were analyzed using a mixed model procedure. Total daily DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber intake did not differ between the 2 diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were, respectively, 5.7, 4.0, 15.7, and 14.8% lower for the SAIN diet. Methane production per kilogram of DM intake was lowest for the SAIN diet, CH4 production as a percentage of gross energy intake tended to be lower, and milk yield was greater for the SAIN diet. Nitrogen intake, N retention, and energy retained in body protein were greater for the SAIN than for the CON diet. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of N intake tended to be greater for the SAIN diet. These results suggest that inclusion of sainfoin silage in dairy cow rations reduces CH4 per kilogram of DM intake and nutrient digestibility. Moreover, sainfoin silage improves milk production and seems to redirect metabolism toward body protein accretion at the expense of body fat.
Design of climate respiration chambers, adjustable to the metabolic mass of subjects
Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Alferink, S.J.J. ; Zandstra, T. ; Hendriks, P. ; Brand, H. van den; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2015
In: Indirect Calorimetry / Gerrits, Walter, Labussière, Etienne, Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862610 - p. 35 - 56.
Open-circuit respiration chambers can be used to measure gas exchange and to calculate heat production (Q) of humans and animals. When studying short-term changes in Q, the size of the respiration chamber in relation to the subject of study is a point of concern. The washout time of a chamber, defined as the proportion of the chamber size to the rate of ventilation, needs to be minimised for accurate measurement of short term changes in Q. To date, most respiration chambers have a fixed size, limiting their use for different species, sizes and number of subjects, thus hampering studying the short term dynamics of Q. This chapter presents various approaches to the design, construction and testing of respiration chambers, adjustable to the metabolic mass inside. As investment costs for constructing respiration chambers are high, flexibility in the use of chambers can contribute substantially to an efficient use of resources. Furthermore, an outline is given to sensor criteria and calibration and finally, the validation of a whole indirect-calorimetric system is described. Air leak tolerance is defined and attention is paid to caretaking of animals, excreta collection and animal and personnel welfare and safety. Respiration facilities, recently constructed at Wageningen University are presented as an example. Briefly, four 45 m2 climate chambers can be used, e.g. for heat or cold stress experiments, to incubate eggs or as a hygiene barrier. Within each chamber, one or two smaller airtight, size adaptable respiration rooms, can be built in where ambient temperature, humidity and ventilation rate can be controlled independently. In each respiration room a wide range of ventilation flow rates can be accomplished and both hypobaric and hyperbaric air pressure control can be established, allowing energy metabolism experiments with specific pathogen free animals (hyperbaric) or trials with infectious agents (hypobaric).
Effects of solid feed level and roughage-to-concentrate ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrates, and roughage in veal calves
Berends, H. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. ; Gilbert, M.S. ; Zandstra, T. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Reenen, C.G. van; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2015
Journal of Dairy Science 98 (2015)8. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 5621 - 5629.
Effects of solid feed (SF) level and roughage-to-concentrate (R:C) ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrate, and roughage were studied in veal calves. In total, 80 male Holstein-Friesian calves (45 ± 0.2 kg of body weight) were divided over 16 pens (5 calves per pen). Pens were randomly assigned to either a low (LSF) or a high (HSF) SF level and to 1 of 2 R:C ratios: 20:80 or 50:50 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Roughage was composed of 50% corn silage and 50% chopped wheat straw on a DM basis. At 27 wk of age, measurements were conducted in 32 calves. During the measurement period, SF intake was 1.2 kg of DM/d for LSF and 3.0 kg of DM/d for HSF, and milk replacer intake averaged 2.3 kg of DM/d for LSF and 1.3 kg of DM/d for HSF. To estimate passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrate, and straw, indigestible markers (CoEDTA, hexatriacontane C36, Cr-neutral detergent fiber) were supplied with the feed as a single dose 4, 24, and 48 h before assessment of their quantitative recovery in the rumen, abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine. Rumen Co recovery averaged 20% of the last milk replacer meal. Recoveries of Co remained largely unaffected by SF level and R:C ratio. The R:C ratio did not affect rumen recovery of C36 or Cr. Rumen fractional passage rate of concentrate was estimated from recovery of C36 in the rumen and increased from 3.3%/h for LSF to 4.9%/h for HSF. Rumen fractional passage rate of straw was estimated from Cr recovery in the rumen and increased from 1.3%/h for LSF to 1.7%/h for HSF. An increase in SF level was accompanied by an increase in fresh and dry rumen contents. In HSF calves, pH decreased and VFA concentrations increased with increasing concentrate proportion, indicating increased fermentation. The ratio between Cr and C36 was similar in the small and large intestine, indicating that passage of concentrate and straw is mainly determined by rumen and abomasum emptying. In conclusion, increasing SF level introduces large variation in passage kinetics of dietary components, predominantly in the rumen compartment. The SF level, rather than the R:C ratio, influences rumen recovery of concentrate and roughage. Our data provide insight in passage kinetics of milk (Co representing the milk replacer) and SF (Cr and C36 representing roughage and concentrate, respectively) and may contribute to the development of feed evaluation models for calves fed milk and SF.
|Effects of solid feed level and roughage-to-concentrate ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk, concentrates, and roughage in veal calves
Berends, H. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Stockhofe, N. ; Gilbert, M.S. ; Zandstra, T. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Reenen, K. van; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2015
In: Book of abstracts of 2015 Joint Annual Meeting of ADSA-ASAS. - - p. 869 - 869.
Effects of solid feed (SF) level and roughage-to-concentrate (R:C) ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk, concentrate, and roughage in veal calves were studied. Eighty calves (2 wk of age, 45 kg bodyweight) were divided over 16 pens. Pens were randomly assigned to a low (LSF) or a high (HSF) SF level, and to one of 2 R:C ratios; 20:80 or 50:50 on a DM basis. Roughage was composed of 50% corn silage and 50% chopped straw on a DM basis. During the measurement period at 27 wk of age, SF intake was 1.2 kg DM/d for LSF and 3.0 kg DM/d for HSF, and milk (replacer) intake averaged 2.3 kg DM/d for LSF and 1.3 kg DM/d for HSF. To estimate passage kinetics of milk, concentrate, and straw, indigestible markers (respectively CoEDTA, hexatriacontane C36, Cr-NDF) were supplied with the feed as a single dose at respectively 4, 24, and 48 h before slaughter. At slaughter, marker recovery was quantified in the rumen, abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine. Rumen Co recovery averaged 20% of the last milk meal. Recoveries of milk remained largely unaffected by SF level and R:C ratio. Ruminal recovery of C36 and Cr was unaffected by R:C ratio. Rumen fractional passage rate of concentrate was estimated from recovery of C36 in the rumen and increased (P <0.001) from 3.3%/h for LSF to 4.9%/h for HSF. Rumen fractional passage rate of straw was estimated from Cr recovery in the rumen and increased (P <0.01) from 1.3%/h for LSF to 1.7%/h for HSF. A greater SF level increased (P <0.001) fresh and dry rumen contents. In HSF calves, pH decreased (from 6.9 to 6.0; P <0.01) and VFA concentrations increased (P <0.05) with a lower R:C ratio, indicating increased fermentation. The Cr:C36 ratio was similar in the small and large intestine, indicating that passage of concentrate and straw was mainly determined by rumen and abomasum emptying. In conclusion, SF level rather than R:C ratio influences rumen passage of concentrate and roughage. Our data provide insight in passage kinetics of milk and SF and may contribute to the development of feed evaluation models for veal calves
Stability of GAA and creatine monohydrate in dry and canned canine diets
Braun, U. ; Winkler, S. ; Kunz, T. ; Zandstra, T. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2013
In: Proceedings of 17th European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition Congress. - Zelzate, Belgium : University Press - ISBN 9789058643537 - p. 38 - 38.
Grinding performance of wheat, maize and soybeans in a multicracker system
Thomas, M. ; Vrij, M. ; Zandstra, T. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2012
Animal Feed Science and Technology 175 (2012)3-4. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 182 - 192.
particle-size - barley - digestibility - diet - pigs
This manuscript presents the effects of a recent technology for particle size reduction using a new approach in which the cracking action of two rows of discs is used. Wheat, maize and full fat soybeans were ground by a multicracker system to study the effects of disc type (ceramic versus steel discs), disc speed in revolutions per minute (2650 versus 3800 rpm), throughput (3.43 versus 6.70 metric t/h) and the gap between the discs (0.11 versus 1.04 mm). Mean particle size, width of the particle size distribution curve and total and specific mechanical energy consumption were the dependent variables under investigation. Maize, soybeans and wheat had different grinding characteristics (P
Performance and energy metabolism in restrictively fed weanling pigs are not affected by feedinig either fermented cereals or their end-products
Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Zandstra, T. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2010
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 94 (2010)6. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. e355 - e365.
epithelial-cell proliferation - growing pigs - physical-activity - organic-acids - polysaccharides - digestibility - diets - fiber
To study the effects of feeding fermented cereals or just fermentation end-products on performance and energy metabolism, 18 restrictedly fed groups of eight pigs each were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (i) a liquid control diet (C) containing 40% of a mixture of barley and wheat; or (ii) a liquid diet (F) containing 40% fermented barley and wheat; or (iii) a liquid diet as C with the addition of some important fermentation end-products (FP; organic acids and ethanol) in concentrations similar to those in the fermented F-diet. Energy and nitrogen balances, heat production, and performance traits were measured during two consecutive periods (days 1–5 and days 6–14). There was a considerable increase in average dry matter intake that tended (p = 0.06) to be higher in the FP-group than in the other groups. Apparent fecal digestibility of dry matter, ash, nitrogen and energy during period 2 were not affected (p > 0.1). Averaged over both periods, none of the energy metabolism parameters were affected by the diets (p > 0.1). However, there were diet × period interactions for metabolizable energy-intake (p = 0.07), energy retention (p <0.05), the respiratory quotient (RQ; p <0.01) and activity-related heat production (HACT, p = 0.05). Additionally, there were some differences between the diets in the average hourly patterns in RQ and HACT. In conclusion, restricted feeding of either 40% fermented cereals nor their fermentation end-products affected performance and energy metabolism traits in weanling pigs. Nevertheless, lower postprandial activity-related heat production by pigs given the fermented cereals suggest a stimulating effect of fermented cereals on short term satiety that was not seen in pigs given fermentation end-products only
Effects of prefermented cereals or the end products of fermentation on growth and metabolism of enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and on intestinal health of restrictedly fed weanling pigs
Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Koninkx, J.F.J.G. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Zandstra, T. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2010
Animal 4 (2010)1. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 40 - 51.
liquid compound diets - 6-day storage period - chain fatty-acids - gastrointestinal ecology - brush-border - performance - feed - exposure - piglets - coproducts
To unravel the underlying mechanisms that explain the positive effects of prefermented cereals on in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) architecture and function, an in vitro experiment using a human small intestinal epithelial cell model (Caco-2) was performed. A range of dilutions (0% to 10%) of the supernatants of three liquid experimental diets, as well as Na-lactate were used in an in vitro experiment to assess their effect on cellular growth, metabolism, differentiation and mucosal integrity using Caco-2. The experimental diets contained, in addition to a protein rich basal diet (60%), (1) a liquid control diet (C) containing 40% of a mixture of barley and wheat (ratio 3 : 1) or (2) a liquid diet (F) containing 40% prefermented barley and wheat or (3) C with the addition of the fermentation end-products (organic acids and ethanol) in concentrations similar to those in the fermented diet (FP). For F, the mixture of barley and wheat was fermented at 35°C for 48 h. Parallel to the in vitro experiment, 18 groups of eight weanling pigs were assigned to one of the experimental diets during a 14-day in vivo experiment. Each group was fed restrictively. The results of the in vitro experiment showed that the lowest dose of both F- and FP-supernatants had no clear effects on the cell proliferation, but incubation with 5% and 10% of the F- and FP-supernatants decreased the cell numbers at day 19. DNA, RNA, protein and glycoprotein synthesis in differentiated Caco-2 cells were stimulated by incubation with the lower concentrations (0.5% to 2.5%) of F- and FP-supernatants whereas the higher concentrations (5% and 10%) had no effect. Both the F- and FP-supernatants decreased the specific sucrase–isomaltase activity in a dose-dependent manner, but the effects on the specific aminopeptidase activities were less clear. Mucosal integrity initially decreased after incubation with the highest F- and FP-supernatants and started to recover between 24 and 48 h. The results of the in vivo experiment showed no dietary effects (P > 0.1) on GI morphology and brush-border enzyme activities at day 5 or at day 14. Time related changes in GI characteristics followed a normal pattern. In conclusion, the supernatants of diets containing either prefermented cereals or their fermentation end-products clearly modulate cellular growth, metabolism, differentiation and mucosal integrity in an in vitro model, although these effects were not observed in the in vivo characteristics measured in weanling pigs
|Retrograded maize starch decreases spontaneous physical activity and allows estimation of starch fermentation in pigs
Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Bosch, M.W. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Zandstra, T. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2009
In: Book of abstracts of the 4th International Dietary Fibre Conference, Vienna, Austria, 1-3 July 2009. - - p. 140 - 140.
|In-feed mixing uniformity, conditioning/pelleting and storage stability of Maxus® G200 Premix in three typical European complete feedingstuffs, and mixing uniformity, transport segregation and storage stability in two European vitamin/mineral pre-mixtures for rabbits
Poel, A.F.B. van der; Zandstra, T. - \ 2008
Nederland : Wageningen University - 103 p.
Starch gelatinization and physical quality of pea flakes in canine dinners as affected by soaking, steam treatment and infrared radiation
Yang, S.C. ; Zandstra, T. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2008
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 92 (2008)3. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 310 - 315.
Cleaned, whole smooth green peas (Pisum sativum L.) were reconstituted by soaking in tap water of 40¿°C (15, 20 or 25¿min) and subsequently either toasted (100¿°C during 1.5¿min) and infrared (IR) radiated or just IR radiated. For IR radiation, a small-scale, propane-fired IR radiation plant was used with average residence times of 58 and 92¿s respectively. After exiting the conveyor belt, peas were held for a pre-determined period (holding: 0, 15 or 30¿min respectively) in a well-insulated container. Finally, all radiated peas were flaked (roll distance 0.75¿mm) in a flaking mill located posterior to the IR plant and analysed for chemical and physical properties. Initial pea starch gelatinization degree (SGD) was 10.1% at a total starch content of 410.1¿g/kg. Infrared processing during 92¿s significantly improved the SGD (from 10.1% to 32.8%) of pea flakes compared to treatment during 58¿s (SGD of 18.6%). The SGD was further improved with steam treatment of peas, prior to IR. For all determined parameters, no effect of holding time could be observed. Starch gelatinization degree can be improved by soaking, toasting and IR processing. The substantial improvement of SGD, however can be only obtained by a longer IR residence time as well as through toasting, prior to the IR processing. The improvements in SGD, however are paralleled by a lower durability of flakes (range 34.9% to 87.4%).
Effects of fermentable starch and straw-enriched housing on energy partitioning of growing pigs
Bolhuis, J.E. ; Brand, H. van den; Staals, S.T.M. ; Zandstra, T. ; Alferink, S.J.J. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2008
Animal 2 (2008)7. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1028 - 1036.
different coping characteristics - resistant starch - physical-activity - dietary fiber - nonstarch polysaccharides - gastrointestinal-tract - potato starch - environmental enrichment - blood-glucose - fatty-acids
Both dietary fermentable carbohydrates and the availability of straw bedding potentially affect activity patterns and energy utilisation in pigs. The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of straw bedding and fermentable carbohydrates (native potato starch) on energy partitioning in growing pigs. In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 groups of 12 pigs (approximately 25 kg) were assigned to either barren housing or housing on straw bedding, and to native or pregelatinised potato starch included in the diet. Pigs were fed at approximately 2.5 times maintenance. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per group during a 7-day experimental period, which was preceded by a 30-day adaptation period. Heat production and physical activity were measured during 9-min intervals. The availability of straw bedding increased both metabolisable energy (ME) intake and total heat production (P <0.001). Housing conditions did not affect total energy retention, but pigs on straw bedding retained more energy as protein (P <0.01) and less as fat (P <0.05) than barren-housed pigs. Average daily gain (P <0.001), ME intake (P <0.001) and energy retention (P <0.01) were lower in pigs on the native potato starch diet compared to those on the pregelatinised potato starch diet. Pigs on the pregelatinised potato starch diet showed larger fluctuations in heat production and respiration quotient over the 24-h cycle than pigs on the native potato starch diet, and a higher activity-related energy expenditure. The effect of dietary starch type on activity-related heat production depended, however, on housing type (P <0.05). In barren housing, activity-related heat production was less affected by starch type (16.1% and 13.7% of total heat production on the pregelatinised and native potato starch diet, respectively) than in straw-enriched housing (21.1% and 15.0% of the total heat production on the pregelatinised and native potato starch diet, respectively). In conclusion, the present study shows that the availability both of straw bedding and of dietary starch type, fermentable or digestible, affects energy utilisation and physical activity of pigs. The effects of housing condition on protein and fat deposition suggest that environmental enrichment with long straw may result in leaner pigs. The lower energy expenditure on the physical activity of pigs on the native potato starch diet, which was the most obvious in straw-housed pigs, likely reflects a decrease in foraging behaviour related to a more gradual supply of energy from fermentation processes.
|Onderzoeksvoucher Machinefabriek Dinnissen BV (MFD)
Poel, A.F.B. van der; Zandstra, T. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Leerstoelgroep Diervoeding
Effect of housing system on balanced protein requirements in laying hens
Eits, R.M. ; Kwakkel, R.P. ; Reindsen, B.G.E. ; Zandstra, T. ; Maatman, A.A. - \ 2006
|Canine dinners: starch gelatinization and physical quality of pea flakes as affected by soaking, steam treatment and infrared radiation
Yang, S.C. ; Zandstra, T. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2006
|Effects of retrograded starch on faecal nutrient digestibility and starch fermentation in growing pigs
Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Zandstra, T. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. - \ 2006
Mineral absorption and excretion as affected by microbial phytase and their effect on energy metabolism in young piglets
Kies, A.K. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Linden, K.L. van der; Zandstra, T. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2005
The Journal of Nutrition 135 (2005)5. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1131 - 1138.
dietary electrolyte balance - aspergillus-niger phytase - growing pigs - apparent digestibility - phytic acid - heat-production - phosphorus - protein - tract - nutrients
Positive effects of dietary phytase supplementation on pig performance are observed not only when phosphorus is limiting. Improved energy utilization might be one explanation. Using indirect calorimetry, phytase-induced changes in energy metabolism were evaluated in young piglets with adequate phosphorus intake. Eight replicates of 8 group-housed barrows each were assigned to either a control or a phytase-supplemented diet [1500 phytase units (FTU)/kg feed]. Piglets were fed a restricted amount of the control or phytase diet. The diets were made limiting in energy content by formulating them to a high digestible lysine:DE ratio. Fecal nutrient digestibility, portal blood variables, organ weights, and apparent absorption and urinary excretion of ash, Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Cu, and Fe, were also measured. A model was developed to estimate energy required for absorption and excretion, which are partly active processes. Phytase tended to improve energy digestibility (P = 0.10), but not its metabolizability. Energy retention and heat production were not affected. At the end of the 3-wk period, pancreas weight (P <0.05) and blood pH were lower (P <0.01), and CO2 pressure was higher (P <0.01) due to phytase. This suggests that phytase reduced energy expenditure of the digestive tract, and increased metabolic activity in visceral organs. The potential increases in energy retention due to phytase were counterbalanced by increased energy expenditures for processes such as increased mineral absorption (for most P <0.05), and their subsequent urinary excretion. Energy costs of increased absorption of nutrients, and deposition and excretion of minerals was estimated as 4.6 kJ/(kg0.75·d), which is 1% of the energy required for maintenance. The simultaneous existence of both increases and decreases in heat production processes resulted in the absence of a net effect on energy retention.
|Effects of extrusion of air classified pea protein quality parameters
Poel, A.F.B. van der; Zandstra, T. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Animal Nutrition (ANU) - 8 p.
|Effect van het verwerken van melasse en velasse op de fysische kwaliteit van gepelleteerd rundveevoeder
Poel, A.F.B. van der; Zandstra, T. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Animal Nutrition (ANU) - 30 p.
|Air-classification of pea meal at industrial scale. ESPER Internal Report.
Poel, A.F.B. van der; Zandstra, T. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Animal Nutrition (ANU) - 32 p.