Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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How sectors can contribute to sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity
Kok, M. ; Alkemade, R. ; Bakkenes, M. ; Boelee, E. ; Christensen, V. ; Eerdt, M. van; Esch, S. van der; Janse, J. ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Kram, T. ; Lazarova, T. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Lucas, P. ; Mandryk, M. ; Meijer, J. ; Oorschot, M. van; Teh, L. ; Hoof, L.J.W. van; Westhoek, H. ; Zagt, R. - \ 2014
The Hague : PBL (CBD technical series no. 79) - ISBN 9292255533 - 230
Developing a methodology for a species-based and spatially explicit indicator for biodiversity on agricultural land in the EU
Overmars, K.P. ; Schulp, C.J.E. ; Alkemade, R. ; Verburg, P.H. ; Temme, A.J.A.M. ; Omtzigt, N. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2014
Ecological Indicators 37 (2014)Part A. - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 186 - 198.
farmland bird populations - use intensity - europe - landscapes - intensification - diversity - nitrogen - impacts - policy - consequences
In Europe agricultural areas are of great importance to biodiversity conservation. One of the aims of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) after 2013 is to avoid additional loss of agriculture-related biodiversity. Farmland biodiversity is a public good that provides ecosystem services necessary for the sustainability of agriculture itself as well as for a sustainable environment as a whole. To evaluate policies such as the CAP and to monitor the development of biodiversity in agricultural areas, specifically designed indicators are needed. Current EU-level indicators of agricultural biodiversity are often limited to a specific species group, for example the group of farmland birds, and are not designed for evaluation of future policies. This study presents a methodology for a new indicator that is targeted specifically at biodiversity in agricultural areas, considering a large variety of species and focussing on policy. The methodology combines maps of the potential occurrence of 132 relevant species (plants and vertebrates) on a 50 km grid, with detailed information (1 km grid) on the influence of environmental pressures on these species. A first indicator map on a 1 km grid for the EU is provided, based on available data. This map shows great variety in the state of the biodiversity of agricultural areas in the EU. Generally speaking, biodiversity in agricultural areas in the south and east of the EU is in a better state than in the west and north. However, spatial variability is high between and even within regions. The presented indicator may be used to explore the dynamics of biodiversity following policy interventions, using the biodiversity map or by modelling the effect of policies on the environmental pressures that form the basis of the indicator.
Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis
Bobbink, R. ; Hicks, K. ; Galloway, J. ; Spranger, T. ; Alkemade, R. ; Ashmore, M.R. ; Bustamante, M. ; Cinderby, S. ; Davidson, E. ; Dentener, F. ; Emmett, B. ; Erisman, J.W. ; Fenn, M. ; Gilliam, F. ; Nordin, A. ; Pardo, L. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2010
Ecological Applications 20 (2010)1. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 30 - 59.
simulated environmental-change - arctic polar semidesert - western united-states - long-term - n-deposition - nutrient limitation - critical loads - racomitrium-lanuginosum - atmospheric deposition - southern california
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is a recognized threat to plant diversity in temperate and northern parts of Europe and North America. This paper assesses evidence from field experiments for N deposition effects and thresholds for terrestrial plant diversity protection across a latitudinal range of main categories of ecosystems, from arctic and boreal systems to tropical forests. Current thinking on the mechanisms of N deposition effects on plant diversity, the global distribution of G200 ecoregions, and current and future (2030) estimates of atmospheric N-deposition rates are then used to identify the risks to plant diversity in all major ecosystem types now and in the future. This synthesis paper clearly shows that N accumulation is the main driver of changes to species composition across the whole range of different ecosystem types by driving the competitive interactions that lead to composition change and/or making conditions unfavorable for some species. Other effects such as direct toxicity of nitrogen gases and aerosols, long-term negative effects of increased ammonium and ammonia availability, soil-mediated effects of acidification, and secondary stress and disturbance are more ecosystem- and site-specific and often play a supporting role. N deposition effects in mediterranean ecosystems have now been identified, leading to a first estimate of an effect threshold. Importantly, ecosystems thought of as not N limited, such as tropical and subtropical systems, may be more vulnerable in the regeneration phase, in situations where heterogeneity in N availability is reduced by atmospheric N deposition, on sandy soils, or in montane areas. Critical loads are effect thresholds for N deposition, and the critical load concept has helped European governments make progress toward reducing N loads on sensitive ecosystems. More needs to be done in Europe and North America, especially for the more sensitive ecosystem types, including several ecosystems of high conservation importance. The results of this assessment show that the vulnerable regions outside Europe and North America which have not received enough attention are ecoregions in eastern and southern Asia (China, India), an important part of the mediterranean ecoregion (California, southern Europe), and in the coming decades several subtropical and tropical parts of Latin America and Africa. Reductions in plant diversity by increased atmospheric N deposition may be more widespread than first thought, and more targeted studies are required in low background areas, especially in the G200 ecoregions.
BioScore: A tool to assess the impacts of European Community policies on Europe's biodiversity
Delbaere, B. ; Nieto Serradilla, A. ; Snethlage, M. ; Alkemade, R. ; Boitani, L. ; Eggers, J. ; Falcucci, A. ; Framstad, E. ; Heer, M. de; Hennekens, S.M. ; Kemitzoglou, D. ; Knegt, B. de; Knijf, G. de; Louette, G. ; Maes, D. ; Maiorano, L. ; Nagy, S. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Tol, S. van; Tröltzsch, K. - \ 2009
Tilburg : ECNC - ISBN 9789076762289 - 92
biodiversiteit - flora - fauna - impact - beleid - beoordeling - europa - menselijke invloed - ecologische beoordeling - biodiversity - policy - assessment - european union countries - human impact - ecological assessment
BioScore offers a European biodiversity impact assessment tool. The tool contains indicator values on the ecological preferences of more than 1000 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, butterflies, dragonflies, aquatic macro-invertebrates and vascular plants. These values are linked to policy-related pressures and environmental variables.
Cross-roads of planet earth's life : exploring means to meet the 2010 biodiversity target : solution-oriented scenarios for Global Biodiversity Outlook 2
Brink, B.J.E. ten; Alkemade, R. ; Bakkenes, M. ; Clement, J. ; Eickhout, B. ; Fish, L. ; Heer, H. de; Kram, T. ; Manders, T. ; Meijl, H. van; Miles, L. ; Nellemann, C. ; Lysenko, I. ; Oorschot, M. van; Smout, F. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Vuuren, D. van; Westhoek, H. - \ 2007
Bilthoven [etc.] : Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) [etc.] (CBD technical series no. 31) - ISBN 9789292250713 - 90
biodiversiteit - milieutoets - milieuwetgeving - milieubescherming - hulpbronnenbehoud - overheidsbeleid - modellen - wereld - biodiversiteitsbepaling - aarde - Nederland - biodiversity - environmental assessment - environmental legislation - environmental protection - resource conservation - government policy - models - world - biodiversity assessment - earth - Netherlands
A scenario study from 2000 to 2050 has been performed (by Natuur en Milieuplanbureau, UNEP and WCMC) to explore the effects of future economic, demographic and technical developments on environmental pressures and global biodiversity. Policy options that affect global biodiversity were analysed on their contribution to the 2010 biodiversity targets agreed upon under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The mean species abundance of natural occurring species was used as indicator for biodiversity. To analyse the economic and environmental consequences of changes in global drivers and policies, we developed a global economic-biophysical framework by combining the extended GTAP model (Van Meijl et al., 2005) with the IMAGE model (Alcamo et al., 1998; IMAGE Team, 2001).
Combining biodiversity modeling with political and economic development scenarios for 25 EU countries
Verboom, J. ; Alkemade, R. ; Klijn, J.A. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Reijnen, R. - \ 2007
Ecological Economics 62 (2007)2. - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 267 - 276.
biodiversiteit - klimaatverandering - milieueconomie - scenario-analyse - modellen - west-europa - biodiversity - climatic change - environmental economics - scenario analysis - models - western europe - land-use change - europe - impact - conservation - populations - landscapes - dynamics
In the EURURALIS project, a chain of models was used to predict the changes in sustainable development indicators for European human well-being, ecology and economy issues, for four alternative scenarios of the future socio-economic development. This paper describes the biodiversity analysis of the project. Models based on general relationships between environmental factors and biodiversity loss were combined with socio-economic, land-use and environmental models to derive data that were integrated into an interactive tool for policy makers. The biodiversity analysis takes into account the effects of land-use change, climate change, fragmentation by major roads, area of unfragmented patches, nitrogen deposition, forestry and disturbance. Results show that biodiversity is projected to decrease between now and 2030 in most countries for all scenarios, indicating that it is unlikely that the EU will be able to fulfill its commitment to stop biodiversity loss by 2010. This is mainly due to urbanization and increase in stress factors, and outweighs the area increase of nature arising from land abandonment. Merits, limitations and uncertainties of this approach to biodiversity assessment are discussed.
Impacts of land-use change on biodiversity: An assessment of agricultural biodiversity in the European Union
Reidsma, P. ; Tekelenburg, T. ; Berg, M.M. van den; Alkemade, R. - \ 2006
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 114 (2006)1. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 86 - 102.
grazing management - succulent thicket - bird populations - south-africa - diversity - vegetation - abundance - landscape - farmland - insect
The objective of this study is to assess land-use intensity and the related biodiversity in agricultural landscapes of the EU25 for the current situation (2000), and explore future trends, based on the four EURURALIS scenarios up to 2030. Data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) were used to classify farm types in 100 regions of the EU15, according to agricultural intensity. For the ten New Member States (EU10), which are not yet considered by the FADN, country level data were used to obtain similar farm types. Three processes were considered for the assessment of future trends in agricultural land-use intensity: (1) land-use change, (2) conversion into organic farming, and (3) changes in productivity of crop and grassland production. An ecosystem quality value was attributed to each farm type according to dose-effect relationships between pressure factors and biodiversity compared to the value for an undisturbed situation. The biodiversity in agricultural landscapes was then calculated as the average ecosystem quality multiplied by the relative area size of each farm type within a region. A similar method of attributing ecosystem quality values to other land-use types allowed comparison between different land-use types. Referring to the current situation, results indicate the lowest ecosystem quality values to be found in intensively used agricultural areas in lowlands (e.g. The Netherlands and northern France) and irrigation systems (e.g. Greece), whereas relatively high values are found in Spain and the New EU Member States. Scenario results show that for the A1 scenario (Global economy), the highest loss in ecosystem quality will take place in all regions in croplands and grasslands. The B2 scenario (Regional communities) provides the best opportunities to improve ecosystem quality of agricultural landscapes. In most scenarios, agricultural land is decreasing, while the remaining agricultural areas tend to be used more intensively. The negative impact of intensification on biodiversity is partly set off by (active or spontaneous) nature development on abandoned agricultural areas, but the overall trend seems to be generally negative. The strength of this methodology is that it provides a quick overview of land-use intensity change and biodiversity trends. Through the use of this farm-type level of analysis we have provided a good picture of the differences in land-use intensity and the related biodiversity between the EU regions and the scenarios
Bepaling ecotooptype en toetsing indeling in ecologische soortengroepen van vegetaties
Runhaar, J. ; Zelfde, M. van 't; Groen, C.L.G. ; Alkemade, R. - \ 2003
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 408657009/2003) - 259
plantengemeenschappen - vegetatie - plantenecologie - flora - classificatie - modellen - nederland - plant communities - vegetation - plant ecology - classification - models - netherlands
Two models, DEMNAT and SMART/MOVE, are in use in the Netherlands to evaluate the effects of changes in environmental factors on the vegetation. Whereas DEMNAT focuses mainly on changes in groundwater dynamics in moist and wet ecosystems, SMART/MOVE has been developed to evaluate the combined effects of acidification, lowering of the groundwater and eutrophication in all ecosystems. There is a large overlap in the two models. One of the ways to bring these models more in tune with each other is to use the same basic data. This was the reasoning behind the creation of a common file with vegetation relevees to be used both to revise the classification of ecological species groups (defined as species with common environmental preferences) and to ascertain the MOVE responses
Trends en scenarios's voor de natuurverkenning 2
Luttik, J. ; Egmond, P. van; Alkemade, R. ; Berg, L.M. van den; Berkhout, P. ; Hamsvoort, C.P.C.M. van der; Kuindersma, W. ; Timmermans, W. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Natuurplanbureau (Planbureaustudies 2) - ISBN 9080720526 - 62
natuurbescherming - landschapsbescherming - landgebruiksplanning - milieubeleid - overheidsbeleid - nederland - toekomst - nature conservation - landscape conservation - land use planning - environmental policy - government policy - netherlands - future
Waar heeft het natuurbeleid de komende jaren rekening mee te houden? Diverse auteurs analyseren verwachte trends in verstedelijking, landbouw en bestuur en gaan na welke trends een positief effect kunnen hebben op natuur en landschap.
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