Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Atmospheric deposition, CO2, and change in the land carbon sink
Fernández-Martínez, M. ; Vicca, S. ; Janssens, I.A. ; Ciais, P. ; Obersteiner, M. ; Bartrons, M. ; Sardans, Jordi ; Verger, Aleixandre ; Canadell, J.G. ; Chevallier, F. ; Wang, X. ; Bernhofer, C. ; Curtis, P.S. ; Gianelle, D. ; Grünwald, T. ; Heinesch, B. ; Ibrom, A. ; Knohl, A. ; Laurila, T. ; Law, Beverly E. ; Limousin, J.M. ; Longdoz, B. ; Loustau, D. ; Mammarella, I. ; Matteucci, G. ; Monson, R.K. ; Montagnani, L. ; Moors, E.J. ; Munger, J.W. ; Papale, D. ; Piao, S.L. ; Peñuelas, J. - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 13 p.

Concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have continued to increase whereas atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen has declined in Europe and the USA during recent decades. Using time series of flux observations from 23 forests distributed throughout Europe and the USA, and generalised mixed models, we found that forest-level net ecosystem production and gross primary production have increased by 1% annually from 1995 to 2011. Statistical models indicated that increasing atmospheric CO2 was the most important factor driving the increasing strength of carbon sinks in these forests. We also found that the reduction of sulphur deposition in Europe and the USA lead to higher recovery in ecosystem respiration than in gross primary production, thus limiting the increase of carbon sequestration. By contrast, trends in climate and nitrogen deposition did not significantly contribute to changing carbon fluxes during the studied period. Our findings support the hypothesis of a general CO2-fertilization effect on vegetation growth and suggest that, so far unknown, sulphur deposition plays a significant role in the carbon balance of forests in industrialized regions. Our results show the need to include the effects of changing atmospheric composition, beyond CO2, to assess future dynamics of carbon-climate feedbacks not currently considered in earth system/climate modelling.

Top-down assessment of the Asian carbon budget since the mid 1990s
Thompson, R.L. ; Patra, P.K. ; Chevallier, F. ; Maksyutov, S. ; Law, R.M. ; Ziehn, T. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. Van Der; Peters, W. ; Ganshin, A. ; Zhuravlev, R. ; Maki, T. ; Nakamura, T. ; Shirai, T. ; Ishizawa, M. ; Saeki, T. ; Machida, T. ; Poulter, B. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Ciais, P. - \ 2016
Nature Communications 7 (2016). - ISSN 2041-1723

Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is the principal driver of anthropogenic climate change. Asia is an important region for the global carbon budget, with 4 of the world's 10 largest national emitters of CO2. Using an ensemble of seven atmospheric inverse systems, we estimated land biosphere fluxes (natural, land-use change and fires) based on atmospheric observations of CO2 concentration. The Asian land biosphere was a net sink of -0.46 (-0.70-0.24) PgC per year (median and range) for 1996-2012 and was mostly located in East Asia, while in South and Southeast Asia the land biosphere was close to carbon neutral. In East Asia, the annual CO2 sink increased between 1996-2001 and 2008-2012 by 0.56 (0.30-0.81) PgC, accounting for ∼35% of the increase in the global land biosphere sink. Uncertainty in the fossil fuel emissions contributes significantly (32%) to the uncertainty in land biosphere sink change.

Global Carbon Budget 2015
Quéré, C. Le; Moriarty, R. ; Andrew, R.M. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Sitch, S. ; Korsbakken, J.I. ; Friedlingstein, P. ; Peters, G.P. ; Andres, R.J. ; Boden, T.A. ; Houghton, R.A. ; House, J.I. ; Keeling, R.F. ; Tans, P. ; Arneth, A. ; Bakker, D.C.E. ; Barbero, L. ; Bopp, L. ; Chang, J. ; Chevallier, F. ; Chini, L.P. ; Ciais, P. ; Fader, M. ; Feely, R.A. ; Gkritzalis, T. ; Harris, I. ; Hauck, J. ; Ilyina, T. ; Jain, A.K. ; Kato, E. ; Kitidis, V. ; Klein Goldewijk, K. ; Koven, C. ; Landschützer, P. ; Lauvset, S.K. ; Lefèvre, N. ; Lenton, A. ; Lima, I.D. ; Metzl, N. ; Millero, F. ; Munro, D.R. ; Murata, A. ; Nabel, J.E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, S. ; Nojiri, Y. ; O'Brien, K. ; Olsen, A. ; Ono, T. ; Pérez, F.F. ; Pfeil, B. ; Pierrot, D. ; Poulter, B. ; Rehder, G. ; Rödenbeck, C. ; Saito, S. ; Schuster, U. ; Schwinger, J. ; Séférian, R. ; Steinhoff, T. ; Stocker, B.D. ; Sutton, A.J. ; Takahashi, T. ; Tilbrook, B. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. Van Der; Werf, G.R. Van Der; Heuven, S. Van; Vandemark, D. ; Viovy, N. ; Wiltshire, A. ; Zaehle, S. ; Zeng, N. - \ 2015
Earth System Science Data 7 (2015)2. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 349 - 396.

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yrg'1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yrg'1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yrg'1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yrg'1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yrg'1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of g'0.6 [range of g'1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP-2015).

Responding to complex societal challenges: A decade of Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) interdisciplinary research
Ignaciuk, A. ; Rice, M. ; Bogardi, J. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Dhakal, S. ; Ingram, J. ; Leemans, R. ; Rosenberg, M. - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4 (2012)1. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 147 - 158.
co2 emissions - climate-change - carbon sink - sustainability - forests - policy - asia
The Earth system is an integrated, self-regulating system under increasing pressure from anthropogenic transformation. The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), which was established by the international global environmental change research programs (i.e., DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP) facilitates the study of this system in order to understand how and why it is changing, and to explore the implications of these changes for global and regional sustainability. Crucial to this scientific enterprise are interdisciplinary Joint Projects on carbon, food, water and health. This paper analyses the scientific and institutional evolution of ESSP as a framework for interdisciplinary and integrative research of societal relevance. Case studies on food systems, carbon budgets, water security and biodiversity conservation illustrate how these projects have advanced integrated Earth system knowledge. At the institutional level, we explain the transformation of the ESSP governance and how this has further enabled interdisciplinary research. The lessons learnt from ESSP research can contribute to the development of the next generation of Earth system science for sustainability.
Letter tot the editor: Iconic CO2 Time Series at Risk
Houweling, S. ; Badawy, B. ; Baker, D.F. ; Basu, S. ; Belikov, D. ; Bergamaschi, P. ; Bousquet, P. ; Broquet, G. ; Butler, T. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Chen, J. ; Chevallier, F. ; Ciais, P. ; Collatz, G.J. ; Denning, S. ; Engelen, R. ; Enting, I.G. ; Fischer, M.L. ; Fraser, A. ; Gerbig, C. ; Gloor, M. ; Jacobson, A.R. ; Jones, D.B.A. ; Heimann, M. ; Khalil, A. ; Kaminski, T. ; Kasibhatla, P.S. ; Krakauer, N.Y. ; Krol, M. ; Maki, T. ; Maksyutov, S. ; Manning, A. ; Meesters, A. ; Miller, J.B. ; Palmer, P.I. ; Patra, P. ; Peters, W. ; Peylin, P. ; Poussi, Z. ; Prather, M.J. ; Randerson, J.T. ; Rockmann, T. ; Rodenbeck, C. ; Sarmiento, J.L. ; Schimel, D.S. ; Scholze, M. ; Schuh, A. ; Suntharalingam, P. ; Takahashi, T. ; Turnbull, J. ; Yurganov, L. ; Vermeulen, A. - \ 2012
Science 337 (2012)6098. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1038 - 1040.
Current and future CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in Southeast Asia
Hooijer, A. ; Page, S. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Silvius, M. ; Kwadijk, J. ; Wösten, H. ; Jauhiainen, J. - \ 2010
Biogeosciences 7 (2010). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1505 - 1514.
peat swamp forest - tropical peat - indonesia - malaysia - ecology - fluxes - borneo
Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia store at least 42 000 Million metric tonnes (Mt) of soil carbon. Human activity and climate change threatens the stability of this large pool, which has been decreasing rapidly over the last few decades owing to deforestation, drainage and fire. In this paper we estimate the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from drainage of lowland tropical peatland for agricultural and forestry development which dominates the perturbation of the carbon balance in the region. Present and future emissions from drained peatlands are quantified using data on peatland extent and peat thickness, present and projected land use, water management practices and decomposition rates. Of the 27.1 Million hectares (Mha) of peatland in Southeast Asia, 12.9 Mha had been deforested and mostly drained by 2006. This latter area is increasing rapidly because of increasing land development pressures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission caused by decomposition of drained peatlands was between 355 Mt y-1 and 855 Mt y-1 in 2006 of which 82% came from Indonesia, largely Sumatra and Kalimantan. At a global scale, CO2 emission from peatland drainage in Southeast Asia is contributing the equivalent of 1.3% to 3.1% of current global CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuel. If current peatland development and management practices continue, these emissions are predicted to continue for decades. This warrants inclusion of tropical peatland CO2 emissions in global greenhouse gas emission calculations and climate mitigation policies. Uncertainties in emission calculations are discussed and research needs for improved estimates are identified.
Developing a common strategy for integrative global change research and outreach: the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP)
Leemans, R. ; Asrar, G. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Ingram, J. ; Larigauderie, A. ; Mooney, H. ; Nobre, C. ; Patwardhan, A. ; Rice, M. ; Schmidt, F. ; Seitzinger, S. ; Virji, H. ; Vörösmarthy, C. ; Yuoung, O. - \ 2009
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1 (2009)1. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 4 - 13.
The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) was established in 2001 by four global environmental change (GEC) research programmes: DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP. ESSP facilitates the study of the Earth's environment as an integrated system in order to understand how and why it is changing, and to explore the implications of these changes for global and regional sustainability. Joint research projects on carbon dynamics, food, water and health have been established. As a result of an independent review, the ESSP developed a new strategy that will provide an internationally coordinated and holistic approach to Earth system science. The approach integrates natural and social sciences from regional to the global scale. The mainstay of the ESSP is to identify and define Earth system science challenges, enable integrative research to address these challenges, and build scientific capacity. The GEC research community also faces an increasing challenge to present research results in more accessible and informative ways to stakeholders, especially to policy-makers. In response, the ESSP is developing new services that include knowledge products, Earth system science fora, a synthesis journal and interdisciplinary collaborative research. Coping with GEC is an enormous challenge and one the world must respond to successfully. Our common goal is, therefore, to develop the essential knowledge base needed to respond effectively and quickly to the great challenge of GEC.
Peatlands and the carbon cycle: from local processes to global implications - a synthesis
Limpens, J. ; Berendse, F. ; Blodau, C. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Freeman, C. ; Holden, J. ; Roulet, N. ; Rydin, H. ; Schaepman-Strub, G. - \ 2008
Biogeosciences 5 (2008). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1475 - 1491.
dissolved organic-carbon - modern methane emissions - northern peatland - interannual variability - ombrotrophic bog - phenol oxidase - blanket peat - elevated co2 - increased n - long-term
Peatlands cover only 3% of the Earth's land surface but boreal and subarctic peatlands store about 15-30% of the world's soil carbon ( C) as peat. Despite their potential for large positive feedbacks to the climate system through sequestration and emission of greenhouse gases, peatlands are not explicitly included in global climate models and therefore in predictions of future climate change. In April 2007 a symposium was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, to advance our understanding of peatland C cycling. This paper synthesizes the main findings of the symposium, focusing on (i) small-scale processes, (ii) C fluxes at the landscape scale, and (iii) peatlands in the context of climate change. The main drivers controlling most are related to some aspects of hydrology. Despite high spatial and annual variability in Net Ecosystem Exchange ( NEE), the differences in cumulative annual NEE are more a function of broad scale geographic location and physical setting than internal factors, suggesting the existence of strong feedbacks. In contrast, trace gas emissions seem mainly controlled by local factors. Key uncertainties remain concerning the existence of perturbation thresholds, the relative strengths of the CO2 and CH4 feedback, the links among peatland surface climate, hydrology, ecosystem structure and function, and trace gas biogeochemistry as well as the similarity of process rates across peatland types and climatic zones. Progress on these research areas can only be realized by stronger co-operation between disciplines that address different spatial and temporal scales.
Peatlands and the carbon cycle: From local processes to global implications - a synthesis
Limpens, J. ; Berendse, F. ; Blodau, C. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Freeman, C. ; Holden, J. ; Roulet, N. ; Rydin, H. ; Schaepman-Strub, G. - \ 2008
Biogeosciences Discussions 5 (2008). - ISSN 1810-6277 - p. 1379 - 1419.
Although peatlands cover only 3% of the Earth's land surface, boreal and subarctic peatlands store about 15¿30% of the world's soil carbon as peat. Despite their potential for large positive feedbacks to the climate system through sequestration and emission of greenhouse gases, peatlands are not explicitly included in global climate models and therefore in predictions of future climate change. In April 2007 a symposium was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, to advance our understanding of peatland C cycling through integration across disciplines and research approaches and to develop a more synthetic picture of the present and future role of peatlands in the global C cycle and their interactions with the climate system. This paper aims to synthesize the main findings of the symposium, focusing on (i) small-scale processes, (ii) C fluxes at the landscape scale, and (iii) peatlands and climate. The paper concludes with a summary of the main drivers of the C balance of peatlands, and proposes directions for new research to reduce key uncertainties in our knowledge of C cycling in peatlands in order to facilitate the explicit inclusion of these ecosystems in a new generation of earth system models.
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