Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Artificial ultraviolet B radiation raises plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations in Burmese pythons (PYTHON BIVITTATUS)
Bos, Jan A. ; Klip, Fokko C. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. - \ 2018
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 49 (2018)3. - ISSN 1042-7260 - p. 810 - 812.
Deficiency of vitamin D can contribute to health complications that present as metabolic bone disease. The aim of this small-scale study was to determine if a high UVb irradiance would affect an increase in plasma vitamin D3 concentrations in Burmese pythons ( Python bivittatus). There have been inconsistent results throughout the literature concerning the usefulness of UVb radiation regarding vitamin D3 synthesis. Blood samples of four healthy Burmese pythons were taken at day 0 and day 310. After the first blood sample was taken, an Arcadia Superzoo T5 ASZ01 lamp was fitted in the enclosure. For 310 days, the pythons were exposed to UVb radiation. Blood plasma vitamin D3 concentrations were considerably higher after UVb exposure. This study indicates that a period of 10 mo of UVb exposure can result in an increased vitamin D3 status in Burmese pythons. Answering whether these elevated levels have health benefits for Burmese pythons (and possibly other snake species) requires further studies.
Edible insects: Source of vitamin D
Oonincx, Dennis - \ 2018
Item on cockroaches in the Netherlands
Oonincx, Dennis - \ 2018
Producing insects in the zoo
Oonincx, Dennis - \ 2018
Ultraviolet light in insect production systems
Oonincx, Dennis - \ 2018
Insecten als voedsel
Oonincx, Dennis - \ 2018
Environmental effects of producing insects: ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions, environmental risks
Oonincx, Dennis - \ 2018
Nutrient content of insects
Oonincx, Dennis - \ 2018
Can insects synthesize vitamin D after exposure to ultraviolet light?
Oonincx, Dennis - \ 2018
Insects as sources of iron and zinc in human nutrition
Mwangi, Martin N. ; Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. ; Stouten, Tim ; Veenenbos, Margot ; Melse-Boonstra, Alida ; Dicke, Marcel ; Loon, Joop J.A. Van - \ 2018
Nutrition Research Reviews 31 (2018)2. - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 248 - 255.
Anaemia - Anti-nutritional factors - Bioavailability - Food preparation methods - Insects - Iron - Zinc

Dietary deficiencies in Fe and Zn are globally widespread, causing serious health problems such as anaemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, increased risk of morbidity and mortality, stunted growth and impaired physical and cognitive development. Edible insects, of which a diversity of over 2000 species is available, are dietary components for about 2 billion individuals and are a valuable source of animal protein. In the present paper, we review the available information on Fe and Zn in edible insects and their potential as a source of these micronutrients for the rapidly growing human population. The levels of Fe and Zn present in eleven edible insect species that are mass-reared and six species that are collected from nature are similar to or higher than in other animal-based food sources. High protein levels in edible insect species are associated with high Fe and Zn levels. Fe and Zn levels are significantly positively correlated. Biochemically, Fe and Zn in insects occur predominantly in non-haem forms, bound to the proteins ferritin, transferrin and other transport and storage proteins. Knowledge gaps exist for bioavailability in the human alimentary tract, the effect of anti-nutritional factors in other dietary components such as grains on Fe and Zn absorption and the effect of food preparation methods. We conclude that edible insects present unique opportunities for improving the micronutrient status of both resource-poor and Western populations.

Evidence of Vitamin D synthesis in insects exposed to UVb light
Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Keulen, P. van; Finke, M.D. ; Baines, F.M. ; Vermeulen, M. ; Bosch, G. - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Vertebrates obtain the prohormone vitamin D primarily by endogenous cutaneous synthesis under ultraviolet b (UVb) exposure. To date, endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in insects has never been investigated. In an initial experiment, we exposed four insect species which differ in ecology and morphology (migratory locusts, house crickets, yellow mealworms and black soldier fly larvae (BSFL)) to a low irradiance UVb source. In a second experiment we exposed these species to a higher UV irradiance, and in a third we tested the effect of exposure duration on vitamin D concentrations in yellow mealworms. Low irradiance UVb tended to increase vitamin D3 levels in house crickets, vitamin D2 levels in BSFL and vitamin D2 and D3 in yellow mealworms. Higher UVb irradiance increased vitamin D3 levels in all species but BSFL. Both BSFL and migratory locusts had increased vitamin D2 levels. Longer UVb exposure of yellow mealworms increased vitamin D2 and increased vitamin D3 until a plateau was reached at 6400 IU/kg. This study shows that insects can synthesize vitamin D de novo and that the amounts depend on UVb irradiance and exposure duration.

Can insects synthesize vitamin D after exposure to ultraviolet light?
Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Keulen, P. van; Finke, M.D. ; Baines, F.M. ; Vermeulen, M. ; Bosch, G. - \ 2018
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 4 (2018)Supplement 1. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. S14 - S14.
A comparison of UVb compact lamps in enabling cutaneous vitamin D synthesis in growing bearded dragons
Diehl, J.J.E. ; Baines, F.M. ; Heijboer, A.C. ; Leeuwen, J.P. van; Kik, M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. - \ 2018
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 102 (2018)1. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 308 - 316.
25(OH)D - Lizard - Pogona vitticeps - Reptile - Ultraviolet light - Vitamin D - Vitamin D metabolites

The effect of exposure to different UVb compact lamps on the vitamin D status of growing bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) was studied. Forty-two newly hatched bearded dragons (<24 h old) were allocated to six treatment groups (n = 7 per group). Five groups were exposed to different UVb compact lamps for two hours per day, with a control group not exposed to UVb radiation. At 120 days of age, blood samples were obtained and concentrations of 25(OH)D3, Ca, P and uric acid were determined. In addition, plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration was determined in free-living adult bearded dragons to provide a reference level. Only one treatment resulted in elevated levels of 25(OH)D3 compared to the control group (41.0 ± 12.85 vs. 2.0 ± 0.0 nmol/L). All UVb-exposed groups had low 25(OH)D3 plasma levels compared to earlier studies on captive bearded dragons as well as in comparison with the free-living adult bearded dragons (409 ± 56 nmol/L). Spectral analysis indicated that all treatment lamps emitted UVb wavelengths effective for some cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. None of these lamps, under this regime, appeared to have provided a sufficient UVb dose to enable synthesis of plasma 25(OH)D3 levels similar to those of free-living bearded dragons in their native habitat.

Environmental impact of insect production
Oonincx, D.G.A.B. - \ 2017
In: Insects as food and feed: from production to consumption / van Huis, A., Tomberlin, J.K., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862962 - p. 79 - 93.
Nutriënt content of insects
Finke, M.D. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. - \ 2017
In: Insects as food and feed: from production to consumption / van Huis, A., Tomberlin, J.K., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862962 - p. 290 - 316.
Carrot supplementation does not affect house cricket performance (Acheta domesticus)
Veenenbos, M.E. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. - \ 2017
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 3 (2017)3. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 217 - 221.
Diet - Edible insects - Feed - Rearing - Water content

The demand for house crickets as a source of food or feed is increasing. Meeting this demand will require efficient production systems. House crickets are often fed a combination of dry feed and fresh plant material. Supplying fresh plant material could improve growth and development, but also increases labour and costs. Two experiments were conducted to verify that provision of fresh plant materials has a beneficial effect on house cricket performance. In the first experiment, house crickets were provided with an ad libitum supply of chicken feed, a water dispenser, and with carrots at different frequencies: (1) daily; (2) three times a week; (3) first week daily then three times a week; (4) two weeks daily then three times a week; and (5) no carrots. When the first cricket in a container reached adulthood, all crickets in that container were harvested. Survival, development time and body weight were determined. In a second experiment feed conversion efficiency of house crickets, either provided with carrots daily or not at all, was compared. No effects of carrot provision on survival, development time, body weight or feed conversion efficiency were found. The outcomes of these parameters were similar to other studies in which crickets were provided with chicken feed. The results indicate that supplying carrots in addition to a suitable dry feed and water does not improve house cricket survival, development time, body weight and feed conversion efficiency.

The environmental sustainability of insects as food and feed. A review
Huis, Arnold van; Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. - \ 2017
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 37 (2017)5. - ISSN 1774-0746 - 14 p.
Climate change - Edible insects - Environmental impact - Feed conversion efficiency - Insect farming - Life cycle analysis - Overharvesting - Pollution

With a growing world population, increasingly demanding consumers, and a limited amount of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternatives to conventional meat products. Livestock production is, moreover, a leading cause of anthropogenic-induced climate change. To mediate this, more sustainable diets are needed, with reduced meat consumption or the use of alternative protein sources. Insects are promoted as human food and animal feed worldwide. In tropical countries, edible insects are harvested from nature, but overexploitation, habitat changes, and environmental contamination threaten this food resource. Therefore, sustainable harvesting practices need to be developed and implemented. We provide examples of (1) aquatic insects whose populations are threatened by pollution, (2) caterpillar species in Africa that are disappearing due to overexploitation and habitat change, (3) edible insects species that are considered pests in agro-ecosystems, and (4) edible insect species that can be conserved and enhanced in forest management systems. Insect farming can be conducted either on small-scale farms or in large-scale industrialized rearing facilities. We review the environmental sustainability of insect farming compared to livestock production. The major environmental advantages of insect farming compared to livestock production are as follows: (1) less land and water is required; (2) greenhouse gas emissions are lower; (3) insects have high feed conversion efficiencies; (4) insects can transform low-value organic by-products into high-quality food or feed; and (5) certain insect species can be used as animal feed or aqua feed. For instance, they can replace fish meal, which is becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. However, edible insect species intended for production should be screened for risks to humans, animals, plants, and biodiversity.

Evidence-Based Reptile Housing and Nutrition
Oonincx, Dennis ; Leeuwen, Jeroen van - \ 2017
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice 20 (2017)3. - ISSN 1094-9194 - p. 885 - 898.
Enrichment - Nutrition - Reptiles - Ultraviolet light - Vitamin D - Welfare - 017-4031
The provision of a good light source is important for reptiles. For instance, ultraviolet light is used in social interactions and used for vitamin D synthesis. With respect to housing, most reptilians are best kept pairwise or individually. Environmental enrichment can be effective but depends on the form and the species to which it is applied. Temperature gradients around preferred body temperatures allow accurate thermoregulation, which is essential for reptiles. Natural distributions indicate suitable ambient temperatures, but microclimatic conditions are at least as important. Because the nutrient requirements of reptiles are largely unknown, facilitating self-selection from various dietary items is preferable.
Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor)
Bosch, G. ; Fels, Ine van der; Rijk, T.C. de; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. - \ 2017
Toxins 9 (2017)6. - ISSN 2072-6651 - 10 p.
aflatoxins - Hermetia illucens - food waste mitigation - livestock feed - novel protein source - Tenebrio molitor
Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated crops in the food chain. First, instar black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens, BSF) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, YMW) were fed poultry feed spiked with AFB1 and formulated to contain levels of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, and up to 0.5 mg/kg dry feed. Poultry feed without any additions and feed with only the solvent added served as controls. The AFB1 in the feed did not affect survival and body weight in the BSF and YMW larvae (p > 0.10), indicating a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 in both species. Furthermore, AFB1 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were below the detection limit (0.10 µg/kg) in BSF larvae, whereas the YMW had AFB1 levels that were approximately 10% of the European Union’s legal limit for feed materials and excreted AFM1. It is concluded that both BSF larvae and YMW have a high AFB1 tolerance and do not accumulate AFB1.
Uptake of cadmium, lead and arsenic by Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens from contaminated substrates
Fels, Ine van der; Camenzuli, L. ; Lee, M.K. Van Der; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. - \ 2016
PLoS ONE 11 (2016)11. - ISSN 1932-6203

Insects have potential as a novel source of protein in feed and food production in Europe, provided they can be used safely. To date, limited information is available on the safety of insects, and toxic elements are one of the potential hazards of concern. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of cadmium, lead and arsenic in larvae of two insect species, Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) and Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly), which seem to hold potential as a source of food or feed. An experiment was designed with 14 treatments, each in triplicate, per insect species. Twelve treatments used feed that was spiked with cadmium, lead or arsenic at 0.5, 1 and 2 times the respective maximum allowable levels (ML) in complete feed, as established by the European Commission (EC). Two of the 14 treatments consisted of controls, using non-spiked feed. All insects per container (replicate) were harvested when the first larva in that container had completed its larval stage. Development time, survival rates and fresh weights were similar over all treatments, except for development time and total live weight of the half of the maximum limit treatment for cadmium of the black soldier fly. Bioaccumulation (bioaccumulation factor > 1) was seen in all treatments (including two controls) for lead and cadmium in black soldier fly larvae, and for the three arsenic treatments in the yellow mealworm larvae. In the three cadmium treatments, concentrations of cadmium in black soldier fly larvae are higher than the current EC maximum limit for feed materials. The same was seen for the 1.0 and 2.0 ML treatments of arsenic in the yellow mealworm larvae. From this study, it can be concluded that if insects are used as feed materials, the maximum limits of these elements in complete feed should be revised per insect species.

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