Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Biocultural diversity: A novel concept to assess human-nature interrelations, nature conservation and stewardship in cities
Elands, B.H.M. ; Vierikko, K. ; Andersson, E. ; Fischer, L.K. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Haase, D. ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Luz, A.C. ; Niemelä,, J. ; Santos-Reis, M. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 29 - 34.
Biocultural diversity is an evolving perspective for studying the interrelatedness between people and their natural environment, not only in ecoregional hotspots and cultural landscapes, but also in urban green spaces. Developed in the 1990s in order to denote the diversity of life in all its manifestations―biological, cultural and linguistic―co-evolving within complex socio-ecological systems such as cities, biocultural diversity was identified in the GREEN SURGE project as a response to recent challenges cities face. Most important challenges are
the loss of nature and degradation of ecosystems in and around cities as well as an alienation of urban residents from and loss of interaction with nature. The notion of biocultural diversity is dynamic in nature and takes local values and practices of relating to biodiversity of different cultural groups as a starting point for sustainable living with biodiversity. The issue is not only how to preserve or restore biocultural practices and values, but also how to modify, adapt and create biocultural diversity in ways that resonate with urban transformations. As future societies will largely diverge from today’s societies, the cultural perspective on living with (urban) nature needs careful reconsideration. Biocultural diversity is not conceived as a definite concept providing prescriptions of what to see and study, but as a reflexive and sensitising concept that can be used to assess the different values and knowledge of people that reflect how they live with biodiversity. This short communication paper introduces a conceptual framework for studying the multi-dimensional features of biocultural diversity in cities along the three key dimensions of materialized, lived and stewardship, being departure points from which biocultural diversity can be studied.
Recreational ecosystem services in European cities: Sociocultural and geographical contexts matter for park use
Fischer, L.K. ; Honold, J. ; Botzat, A. ; Brinkmeyer, D. ; Cvejic, R. ; Delshammar, T. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Haase, D. ; Kabisch, Nadja ; Karle, S.J. - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 31 (2018). - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 455 - 467.
The role of urban parks in delivering cultural ecosystem services related to outdoor recreation is widely acknowledged. Yet, the question remains as to whether the recreational opportunities of parks meet the demands of increasingly multicultural societies and whether recreational patterns vary at spatial scales. In a pan-European survey, we assessed how people use urban parks (in five cities, N = 3814) and how recreational patterns relate to respondents’ sociocultural and geographical contexts (using 19 explanatory
variables). Our results show that across Europe (i) respondents share a general pattern in their recreational activities with a prevalence for the physical uses of parks, especially taking a walk; (ii) the geographic context matters, demonstrating a high variety of uses across the cities; and that (iii) the sociocultural context is also important; e.g., the occupation and biodiversity valuations of respondents are significantly associated with the uses performed. The sociocultural context matters particularly for physical park uses and is associated to a lesser extent with nature-related uses. Given that our results attest to a high variety of park uses between sociocultural groups and the geographical context, we conclude that it is important to consider the specific backgrounds of people to enhance recreational ecosystem services in
greenspace development.
Identifying, Quantifying and Qualifying Biocultural Diversity : Assessment of biocultural diversity
Vierikko, K. ; Andersson, E. ; Branquinho, C. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Fischer, L. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Grilo, F. ; Haase, D. ; Ioja, C. ; Kowarik, Ingo - \ 2017
Copenhagen : Green Surge - 63 p.
This report is the final deliverable (D2.3) of WP2 of the GREEN
SURGE project (2013-2017) as a part of the EU FP7 (ENV.2013.6.2-
5-603567)
BCD: linkages between people and nature – database, typology and indicators
Vierikko, K. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Luz, A.C. ; Andersson, E. ; Haase, D. ; Fischer, L. ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Niemelä,, J. - \ 2017
Green Surge - 54 p.
Internal project report that outlines biocultural diversity (BCD)
database, typology and indicators in urban context as a part of the EU FP7
(ENV.2013.6.2-5-603567) GREEN SURGE project (2013-2017)
Strategies for sustainable urban development and urban-rural linkages
Nilsson, K. ; Sick Nielsen, T. ; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Bell, S. ; Boitier, B. ; Chery, J.P. ; Fertner, C. ; Groschowski, M. ; Haase, D. ; Loibl, W. ; Pauleit, S. ; Pintar, M. ; Piorr, A. ; Ravetz, J. ; Ristimäki, M. ; Rounsevell, M. ; Tosics, I. ; Westerink, J. ; Zasada, I. - \ 2014
European Journal of Spatial Development 2014 (2014). - ISSN 1650-9544 - p. 1 - 26.
An important driving force behind urban expansion is the growth of the urban population. But for Europe, this is not a sufficient explanation. The major trend is that European cities have become much less compact. Since the mid-1950s European cities have expanded on average by 78%, whereas the population has grown by only 33%. In the PLUREL project - an integrated project within the EU’s 6th Research Framework Programme - more than 100 researchers from 15 countries analysed the impacts of urban land consumption at a pan-European level and, through six European and one Chinese case studies, identified how land use conflicts and the pressure towards peri-urban areas can be strategically managed in different development and regulatory contexts. To summarise, the following strategies were identified as important steps towards more sustainable urban-rural futures: (i) better coordination of transport, land use and open space planning; (ii) urban containment and densification – development of a green compact city; (iii) preservation of blue and green infrastructure; and (iv) preservation of agricultural land and the promotion of local production. The need also remains to strengthen governance at the regional level while at the pan-European level there is clearly a need for more policy attention to be given to urban-rural linkages.
Tools for Modelling and Assessing Peri-Urban Land Use Futures
Haase, D. ; Piorr, A. ; Schwarz, N. ; Rickebusch, S. ; Kroll, F. ; Delden, H. van; Zuin, A. ; Taylor, T. ; Boeri, M. ; Zasada, I. ; Lavalle, C. ; Vanhout, R. ; Sarretta, A. ; Müller, F. ; Rounsevell, M. ; Bell, S. - \ 2013
In: Peri-urban futures: Scenarios and models for land use change in Europe / Nilsson, K., Pauleit, S., Bell, S., Aalbers, C., Nielsen, T. S., Springer - ISBN 9783642305283
Dealing with Sustainability Trade-Offs of the Compact City in Peri-Urban Planning Across European City Regions
Westerink - Petersen, J. ; Haase, D. ; Bauer, A. ; Ravetz, J. ; Jarrige, F. ; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. - \ 2013
European Planning Studies 21 (2013)4. - ISSN 0965-4313 - p. 473 - 497.
urban form - air-quality - cities - sprawl - transformation - balance - germany - impact - energy
The compact city has become a leading concept in the planning of peri-urban areas. The compact city concept is often advocated as “sustainable” because of claims that include lower emissions and conservation of the countryside. The literature shows, however, that there are certain trade-offs in striving for compaction, especially between environmental and social aspects of sustainability. In this article, we describe expressions of the compact city concept in the planning practice of several European urban sample regions, as well as policies and developments that contradict the compact city. We look at examples of positive and negative impacts of the compact city that were observed in the sample regions. Further, we discuss attempts by planners to deal with sustainability trade-offs. Being aware that developments in the peri-urban areas are closely connected to those in the inner city, we compare the sample regions in order to learn how the compact city concept has been used in planning peri-urban areas across different contexts in Europe: in Western, Central and Mediterranean Europe, and with growing, stable or declining populations. We conclude with recommendations with respect to balance in applying the compact city concept
Environmental decision support systems (EDSS) development - Challenges and best practices
McIntosh, B.S. ; Ascough, J.C. ; Twery, M. ; Chew, J. ; Elmahdi, A. ; Haase, D. ; Harou, J.J. ; Hepting, D. ; Cuddy, S. ; Jakeman, A.J. ; Chen, S. ; Kassahun, A. ; Lautenbach, S. ; Matthews, K. ; Merritt, W. ; Quinn, N.W.T. ; Rodriguez-Roda, I. ; Sieber, S. ; Stavenga, M. ; Sulis, A. ; Ticehurst, J. ; Volk, M. ; Wrobel, M. ; Delden, H. ; El-Sawah, S. ; Rizzoli, A. ; Voinov, A. - \ 2011
Environmental Modelling & Software 26 (2011)12. - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 1389 - 1402.
river-basin management - ecosystem management - resource management - united-states - integration - models - tools - information - policy - dss
Despite the perceived value of DSS in informing environmental and natural resource management, DSS tools often fail to be adopted by intended end users. By drawing together the experience of a global group of EDSS developers, we have identified and assessed key challenges in EDSS development and offer recommendations to resolve them. Challenges related to engaging end users in EDSS development emphasise the need for a participatory process that embraces end users and stakeholders throughout the design and development process. Adoption challenges concerned with individual and organisational capacities to use EDSS and the match between EDSS and organisational goals can be overcome through the use of an internal champion to promote the EDSS at different levels of a target organisation; coordinate and build capacity within the organisation, and; ensure that developers maintain focus on developing EDSS which are relatively easy and inexpensive to use and update (and which are perceived as such by the target users). Significant challenges exist in relation to ensuring EDSS longevity and financial sustainability. Such business challenges may be met through planning and design that considers the long-term costs of training, support, and maintenance; revenue generation and licensing by instituting processes which support communication and interactions; and by employing software technology which enables easy model expansion and re use to gain an economy of scale and reduce development costs. A final group of perhaps more problematic challenges relate to how the success of EDSS ought to be evaluated. Whilst success can be framed relatively easily in terms of interactions with end users, difficulties of definition and measurability emerge in relation to the extent to which EDSS achieve intended outcomes. To tackle the challenges described, the authors provide a set of best practice recommendations concerned with promoting design for ease of use, design for usefulness, establishing trust and credibility, promoting EDSS acceptance, and starting simple and small in functionality terms. Following these recommendations should enhance the achievement of successful EDSS adoption, but more importantly, help facilitate the achievement of desirable social and environmental outcomes.
Practices and Lessons Learned in Coping with Climatic Hazards at the River-Basin Scale: Floods and Droughts
Krysanova, V. ; Buiteveld, H. ; Haase, D. ; Hattermann, F.F. ; Niekerk, K. ; Roest, C.W.J. ; Martinez-Santos, P. ; Schluter, M. - \ 2008
Ecology and Society 13 (2008)2. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 16 p.
water-resources - management
Climatic hazards such as floods and droughts have always been a primary matter of concern for human populations. Severe floods damage settlements, transport networks, and arable land. Although devastating droughts are harmful primarily for agriculture and terrestrial ecosystems, they can also lead to local water supply shortages. Despite significant achievements in science and technology and success stories in environmental management in the 20th century, people still continue to suffer the consequences of climate hazards worldwide. This paper provides an overview of existing practices for coping with floods and droughts, compares strategies in different river basins, and outlines the areas that need improvement. First, the existing protection measures and response strategies against floods and droughts are briefly described. An overview is given of expected climate change and existing coping strategies for floods and droughts in seven case study basins. Four of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, Rhine, and Tisza, are located in Europe; the Nile and the Orange are in Africa; and the Amudarya is in Central Asia. Analysis of the coping strategies shows that structural measures exist in all seven river basins, but that nonstructural measures are generally not very extensive and/or advanced. Finally, the success stories in dealing with climatic hazards and lessons learned, taken partly from the seven case study basins and partly from literature, are summarized
Chapter three Bridging the gaps between design and use: Developing tools to support environmental management and policy
McIntosh, B.S. ; Giupponi, C. ; Voinov, A.A. ; Smith, C. ; Matthews, K.B. ; Monticino, M. ; Kolkman, M.J. ; Crossman, N. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Haase, D. ; Haase, A. ; Mysiak, J. ; Groot, J.C.J. ; Sieber, S. ; Verweij, P. ; Quinn, N. ; Waeger, P. ; Gaber, N. ; Hepting, D. ; Scholten, H. ; Sulis, A. ; Delden, H. van; Gaddis, E. ; Assaf, H. - \ 2008
In: Developments in integrated environmental assessment / Jakeman, A.J., Voinov, A.A., Rizzoli, A.E., Chen, S.H., Elsevier (Environmental Modelling, Software and Decision Support Volume 3) - ISBN 9780080568867 - p. 33 - 48.
Integrated assessment models, decision support systems (DSS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are examples of a growing number of computer-based tools designed to provide decision and information support to people engaged in formulating and implementing environmental policy and management. It is recognised that environmental policy and management users are often not as receptive to using such tools as desired but that little research has been done to uncover and understand the reasons. There is a diverse range of environmental decision and information support tools (DISTs) with uses including organisational and participatory decision support, and scientific research. The different uses and users of DISTs each present particular needs and challenges to the tool developers. The lack of appreciation of the needs of end-users by developers has contributed to the lack of success of many DISTs. Therefore it is important to engage users and other stakeholders in the tool development process to help bridge the gap between design and use. Good practice recommendations for developers to involve users include being clear about the purpose of the tool, working collaboratively with other developers and stakeholders, and building social and scientific credibility
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