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Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley
Stomph, T.J. ; Jiang, W. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2009
Trends in Plant Science 14 (2009)3. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 123 - 124.
developing seeds - zn-65
In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (15) suggested two major bottlenecks in zinc biofortification in cereals: the root–shoot barrier and the process of grain filling. They also described problems and possible solutions of zinc biofortification in cereals and concluded or suggested that: (i) Plants accumulate excess zinc in root vacuoles. To accumulate more zinc in the shoot than physiologically necessary for plants requires enhancing root to shoot transfer of zinc. (ii) Translocation of zinc from leaves contributes more to total zinc allocated to cereal grains than concurrent zinc uptake during grain filling. (iii) In cereals the xylem is discontinuous at the base of each seed; therefore, zinc must be transferred from xylem to phloem before entering the grain. This creates a significant bottleneck for zinc accumulation in the grain. However, from our own work on zinc accumulation, we surmise that the bottlenecks are different in rice (Oryza sativa). These three aspects do not seem to apply to rice; therefore, zinc biofortification in rice differs from that in wheat and barley. (i) Palmgren et al.  argue that zinc that is not directly needed accumulates in root vacuoles. Data on rice, however, indicate that excess zinc is also stored in the shoots, especially in the stem . In fact, root and stem zinc levels are comparable over a wide range of plant zinc mass concentration (ZnMC, mg Zn kg–1 biomass)
Biofortification in a food chain approach for rice in China
Slingerland, M.A. ; Zhang, F.S. ; Stomph, T.J. ; Gao, X.P. ; Liang, J.F. ; Jiang, W. - \ 2009
In: Development and Uses of Biofortified Agricultural Products / Bañuelos, G.S., Lin, Z.Q., Boca Raton : CRC Press - ISBN 9781420060058 - p. 181 - 203.
|Zinc uptake and allocation in rice
Jiang, W. ; Struik, P.C. ; Keulen, H. van; Zhao, M. ; Stomph, T.J. - \ 2008
Does increased zinc uptake enhance grain zinc mass concentration in rice?
Jiang, W. ; Struik, P.C. ; Keulen, H. van; Zhao, M. ; Jin, L.N. ; Stomph, T.J. - \ 2008
Annals of Applied Biology 153 (2008)1. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 135 - 147.
developing wheat grains - deficient calcareous soils - human-nutrition - aerobic rice - hypercholesterolemic men - micronutrient density - edible portions - blood-pressure - phytic acid - brown rice
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the worlds' most important cereal and potentially an important source of zinc (Zn) for people who eat mainly rice. To improve Zn delivery by rice, plant Zn uptake and internal allocation need to be better understood. This study reports on within-plant allocation and potential Zn accumulation in the rice grain in four so-called aerobic rice cultivars (Handao297, K150, Handao502 and Baxiludao). Two controlled-condition experiments were carried out, one with a wide range of constant Zn concentrations in the medium and one with a range of plant growth rate-related supply rates. In both experiments, increased Zn supply induced increased plant Zn uptake rate throughout crop development, when expressed as daily Zn uptake (¿g day¿1) or as daily Zn uptake per gram of plant dry matter (¿g g¿1). Zinc mass concentration (ZnMC) in all plant organs increased with an increase in Zn supply but to various degrees. At higher uptake levels, the ZnMC in stems increased most, while the ZnMC in hulled grains (brown rice) increased least. The increase in leaf ZnMC was generally small, but at toxic levels in the medium, leaf ZnMC increased significantly. It appears that regulation of grain Zn loading differs from regulation of Zn loading to other organs. A milling test on seeds of Baxiludao and Handao502 showed that when ZnMC in brown rice increased from 13 to 45 mg kg¿1, ZnMC in polished rice grains (endosperm) also increased from 9 to 37 mg kg¿1 but remained three to five times lower than that in the bran. Irrespective of the ZnMC in the brown rice, around 75% of total grain Zn was present in the endosperm. In both cultivars, there was a major difference in ZnMC between bran and endosperm (120 and 37 mg kg¿1, respectively), suggesting a barrier for Zn transport between the two tissues. There seems to be a second barrier between stem and rachis, as their ZnMCs also differed greatly (300 and 100 mg kg¿1, respectively) in both cultivars at higher plant ZnMC. It is concluded that there is too little scope from a human nutrition perspective to enhance ZnMC in rice endosperm by simply increasing the Zn supply to rice plants because Zn allocation to the endosperm is limited, while observed genotypic differences indicate scope for improvement through breeding.
Indices to screen for grain yield and grain-zinc mass concentrations in aerobic rice at different soil-Zn levels
Jiang, W. ; Struik, P.C. ; Zhao, M. ; Keulen, H. van; Fan, T.Q. ; Stomph, T.J. - \ 2008
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)2. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 181 - 197.
oryza sativa - gewasopbrengst - zink - chemische samenstelling - mineraalgehalte - chemische bodemeigenschappen - korrels (granen) - sporenelementen - bioconcentratie - crop yield - zinc - chemical composition - mineral content - soil chemical properties - kernels - trace elements - bioconcentration - calcareous soil - field crops - in-field - efficiency - deficiency - wheat - genotypes - plants - tolerance - cultivars
Zinc is an important micronutrient for both crop growth and human nutrition. In rice production, yields are often reduced and Zn mass concentrations in the grains are often low when Zn is in short supply to the crop. This may result in malnutrition of people dependent on a rice-based diet. Plant breeding to enhance low-Zn tolerance might result in higher yields and nutritional quality but requires effective selection criteria embedded in physiological insight into the Zn husbandry of the crop and applicable in field evaluation of advanced breeding material or in screening of existing varieties. Using existing and newly developed low-Zn tolerance indices, this study presents the results of screening experiments carried out in high- and low-Zn soils. Sixteen accessions of aerobic rice were grown under greenhouse conditions to conceptualize the indices and 14 under field conditions to validate the indices. As the differences in soil-Zn levels in these experiments did not result in differences in grain yield, literature data were used from experiments where the soil-Zn level did have an effect on grain yield, to further check the validity of the indices. Several indices were applied to evaluate the genotypic low-Zn tolerance performance in attaining (relatively) high grain yield, high grain-Zn mass concentration, or both. The results indicate that the grain-Zn mass concentration efficiency index is different from the grain yield efficiency index and that the low-Zn tolerance indices identified superior genotypes best. Amongst the indices tested, the low-Zn tolerance index for grain yield and the low-Zn tolerance index for grain-Zn mass concentration were closely correlated with grain yield and grain-Zn mass concentration, respectively. Therefore, the low-Zn tolerance index for grain yield was effective in screening for high stability and high potential of grain yield, and the low-Zn tolerance index for grain-Zn mass concentration was effective for grain-Zn mass concentration under low and high soil-Zn conditions. Genotypic differences in yield and grain-Zn mass concentration were shown to be unrelated and therefore deserve separate attention in breeding programmes. Combining the low-Zn tolerance index for grain yield and the low-Zn tolerance index for grain-Zn mass concentration in a single low-Zn tolerance index was considered but did not appear to be superior to using the two indices separately.
Physiology and modelling of zinc allocation in aerobic rice
Jiang, W. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik; Herman van Keulen, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph; M. Zhao. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049029 - 118
oryza sativa - rijst - zink - voedingsstoffenopname (planten) - stofverplaatsing - voedingsstoffentransport - plantenfysiologie - simulatiemodellen - rice - zinc - nutrient uptake - translocation - nutrient transport - plant physiology - simulation models
Keywords: Zinc, rice, Oryza sativa, grain, Zn mass concentration, biofortification
Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans is widespread in many regions of the world, especially in the developing world. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world’s population, is potentially an important source of Zn for people whose diet consists mainly of cereal grain. Therefore, this thesis aimed at exploring the allocation of Zn in rice plants, as a basis for establishing the potential for enhancing their grain Zn mass concentration (ZnMC).
Two solution culture experiments, covering wide ranges in Zn supply levels, showed that increased Zn supply resulted in increased plant Zn uptake throughout crop development and in higher ZnMC in all plant organs, but to varying degrees. With higher plant Zn uptake, ZnMC increased most in stems, and least in grains. Two apparent barriers for Zn transport were identified, one between stem and rachis and one between bran and endosperm, since their ZnMCs strongly differed at high plant ZnMC.
Using radioactive 65Zn applied to root or leaf after flowering, we found that when rice plants were grown under sufficient or surplus Zn supply, most of the Zn accumulated in the grains originated from uptake by roots after flowering, rather than from Zn remobilised from leaves.
On the basis of the results of the above studies on Zn (re-)allocation in rice plants, and derived relations between Zn mass fractions in different organs, we developed a descriptive simulation model to increase quantitative understanding of the relevant processes involved in grain zinc accumulation. Results from an independent field experiment were used for model validation. Results showed that the model allowed reproduction of recognizable patterns of ZnMC for a wide range of absolute values, and simulated grain ZnMC was in satisfactory agreement with observed values, with a mean normalized gross error of 8–11%. Further testing under different conditions is necessary to build confidence in its general applicability.
To assess genotypic variation in grain ZnMC, we proposed two new indices: low-Zn tolerance index for grain yield (TIY) and grain Zn mass concentration (TIZnMC). We found TIY and TIZnMC effective in identifying genotypes that perform well in terms of yield and grain ZnMC, respectively, under both Zn-limited and Zn-sufficient conditions.
It is concluded that there is limited scope for enhancing ZnMC in rice endosperm by simply increasing the Zn supply to rice plants, not enough to attain values necessary from a human nutritional point of view, because zinc allocation to the endosperm is limited, while observed genotypic differences indicate scope for improvement through breeding.
|Biofortification in a food chain approach for rice in China
Slingerland, M.A. ; Zhang, F.S. ; Stomph, T.J. ; Gao, X.P. ; Liang, J.F. ; Jiang, W. - \ 2007
In: In Biochemistry of trace elements: environmental protection, remediation and human health, Beijing, China, 15 - 19 July, 2007. - Beijing, China : Tsinghua University Press - p. 293 - 294.
Uptake and distribution of root-applied or foliar-applied 65Zn after flowering in aerobic rice
Jiang, W. ; Struik, P.C. ; Lingna, J. ; Keulen, H. van; Ming, Z. ; Stomph, T.J. - \ 2007
Annals of Applied Biology 150 (2007)3. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 383 - 391.
developing wheat grains - zinc uptake - zn - plants - accumulation - manganese - iron - cu - phytoremediation - nutrition
We investigated the uptake and distribution of zinc (Zn) either applied to the roots or to the leaves in rice during grain development. Plants of two aerobic rice cultivars were grown in a nutrient solution with either sufficient Zn or surplus Zn. Root treatment with 1 week`s supply of both 65Zn and unlabelled Zn was started at flowering or 15 days after flowering (DAF). Foliar treatment with 65Zn applied to the flag leaf or to senescent leaves was carried out at flowering. When 65Zn was applied to roots, plants continued to take up Zn after flowering, even beyond 15 DAF, irrespective of cultivar and Zn nutritional status of the plants. During the 1 week of supply of both 65Zn and unlabelled Zn, which either started at flowering or 15 DAF, the absorbed 65Zn was mainly distributed to roots, stem and grains. Little 65Zn was allocated to the leaves. Following a week of 65Zn supply directly after flowering, under sufficient Zn or surplus Zn, the proportions of total 65Zn uptake allocated to the grains continued to change during grain filling (9¿33%). This Zn mainly came from the roots but under sufficient Zn supply also from the stem. With 65Zn applied to leaves (either the flag leaf or the lowest senescent leaf), both cultivars showed similar Zn distribution within the plants. About 45¿50% of the 65Zn absorbed was transported out of the 65Zn-treated leaf. From that Zn, more than 90% was translocated to other vegetative organs; little was partitioned to the panicle parts and even less to the grains. These results suggest that in rice plants grown under sufficient or surplus Zn supply, most of the Zn accumulated in the grains originates from uptake by roots after flowering and not from Zn remobilisation from leaves
Improving zinc availability in rice grains: the role of the soil-plant system in the food chain
Gao, X. ; Zou, C. ; Zhang, F. ; Jiang, W. ; Chen, K. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Hoffland, E. - \ 2006
Retrieval of soil moisture and vegetation water content using SSM/I data over a corn and soybean region
Jiang, W. ; Jackson, T.J. ; Bindlish, R. ; Hsu, A.Y. ; Su, Z. - \ 2005
Journal of Hydrometeorology 6 (2005)6. - ISSN 1525-755X - p. 854 - 863.
southern great-plains - sensor microwave imager - hydrology experiment - amsr-e - index - radiometers - emission - freeze/thaw - algorithm - salinity
The potential for soil moisture and vegetation water content retrieval using Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature over a corn and soybean field region was analyzed and assessed using datasets from the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). Soil moisture retrieval was performed using a dual-polarization 19.4-GHz data algorithm that requires the specification of two vegetation parameters¿single scattering albedo and vegetation water content. Single scattering albedo was estimated using published values. A method for estimating the vegetation water content from the microwave polarization index using SSM/I 37.0-GHz data was developed for the region using extensive datasets developed as part of SMEX02. Analyses indicated that the sensitivity of the brightness temperature to soil moisture decreased as vegetation water content increased. However, there was evidence that SSM/I brightness temperatures changed in response to soil moisture increases resulting from rainfall during the later stages of crop growth. This was partly attributed to the lower soil and vegetation thermal temperatures that typically followed a rainfall. Comparisons between experimentally measured volumetric soil moisture and SSM/I-retrieved soil moisture indicated that soil moisture retrieval was feasible using SSM/I data, but the accuracy highly depended upon the levels of vegetation and atmospheric precipitable water; the standard error of estimate over the 3-week study period was 5.49%. The potential for using this approach on a larger scale was demonstrated by mapping the state of Iowa. Results of this investigation provide new insights on how one might operationally correct for vegetation effects using high-frequency microwave observations
Remote sensing parameterization of land surface heat fluxes over arid and semi-arid areas
Ma, Y.M. ; Wang, J.M. ; Huang, R.H. ; Wei, G. ; Menenti, M. ; Su, Z. ; Hu, Z.Y. ; Gao, F. ; Jiang, W. - \ 2003
Advances in atmospheric sciences 20 (2003)4. - ISSN 0256-1530 - p. 530 - 539.
heterogeneous landscape - oasis - heife - index - desert - field - ndvi
Dealing with the regional land surfaces heat fluxes over inhomogeneous land surfaces in arid and semi-arid areas is an important but not an easy issue. In this study, one parameterization method based on satellite remote sensing and field observations is proposed and tested for deriving the regional land surface heat fluxes over inhomogeneous landscapes. As a case study, the method is applied to the Dunhuang experimental area and the HEIFE (Heihe River Field Experiment, 1988¿1994) area. The Dunhuang area is selected as a basic experimental area for the Chinese National Key Programme for Developing Basic Sciences: Research on the Formation Mechanism and Prediction Theory of Severe Climate Disaster in China (G1998040900, 1999¿2003). The four scenes of Landsat TM data used in this study are 3 June 2000, 22 August 2000, and 29 January 2001 for the Dunhuang area and 9 July 1991 for the HEIFE area. The regional distributions of land surface variables, vegetation variables, and heat fluxes over inhomogeneous landscapes in arid and semi-arid areas are obtained in this study.