- Laboratory of Phytopathology (43)
- EPS-2 (42)
- Biochemistry (10)
- Laboratory of Plant Breeding (4)
- Plant Breeding (4)
- BIOS Applied Metabolic Systems (2)
- Chair Nutrition Metabolism and Genomics (2)
- HNE Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics (2)
- Laboratory of Plant Physiology (2)
- Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics (2)
- PRI BIOS Applied Metabolic Systems (2)
- VLAG (2)
- EPS (1)
- Horticultural Supply Chains (1)
- Host Microbe Interactomics (1)
- Host-Microbe Interactomics (1)
- PRI Biodiversity and Breeding (1)
- Colette A. Hove ten (1)
- A.M. Abd-El-Haliem (2)
- I. Albert (1)
- P. Baarlen van (2)
- Peter Baarlen van (1)
- A.R. Ballester (1)
- M. Batoux (2)
- G.C.M. Berg van den (3)
- G. Berg van den (1)
- G.C.M. Berg-Velthuis van den (4)
- G. Berg-Velthuis van den (2)
- P. Bittel (1)
- Mark Boekschoten (1)
- S. Boeren (3)
- J.A. Boeren (1)
- M.D. Bolton (8)
- M. Bolton (4)
- M.D. Bolton (1)
- O. Boras (1)
- O. Borrás-Hidalgo (3)
- J.C. Boshoven (1)
- R.M.E.H. Bours (1)
- H.J. Bouwmeester (1)
- A.G. Bovy (1)
- B.F. Brandwagt (4)
- B. Brandwagt (1)
- H.A. Burg van den (4)
- H. Burg van den (1)
- Sacco C. Vries de (1)
- D. Chinchilla (2)
- Z. Chu (1)
- Z.H. Chu (1)
- P.J.M. Clergeot (3)
- P.W. Crous (1)
- P. Dabos (1)
- D. Dahlbeck (1)
- M. Damme van (2)
- H.L. Dekker (1)
- N. Denancé (1)
- Y. Desaki (1)
- U. Ellendorff (6)
- Wilma Esse van (1)
- H.P. Esse van (33)
- P. Esse van (9)
- Peter Esse van (2)
- D.W. Etalo (1)
- L. Faino (2)
- E.F. Fradin (6)
- E. Fradin (3)
- S.H.E.J. Gabriëls (6)
- S. Gabriëls (3)
- D. Goffner (1)
- P.J. Groot de (1)
- Francesco Guzzonato (1)
- I.M. Hanssen (1)
- S.W. Hogewoning (1)
- R.A.L. Hoorn van der (4)
- R. Hoorn van der (1)
- R.A.L. Hoorn van der (1)
- A.C. Hörger (1)
- J.D.G. Jones (5)
- R. Jonge de (12)
- M.H.A.J. Joosten (10)
- M. Joosten (2)
- L. Jorda (2)
- M. Keykha Saber (2)
- M. Kiss-Papp (1)
- M. Kisspapp (1)
- J.W. Klooster van t (9)
- J. Klooster van t (2)
- M.J.D. Kock de (4)
- M. Kock de (1)
- A. Kombrink (4)
- C.G. Koster de (1)
- A.R. Krol van der (1)
- M. Kruijt (5)
- S. Lacombe (3)
- J. Li (2)
- B. Lievens (2)
- W.H. Lindhout (3)
- P. Lindhout (1)
- Chun-Ming Liu (1)
- C.M. Liu (1)
- K. Maruthachalam (1)
- A. Molina (2)
- V. Nekrasov (2)
- V. Nicaise (2)
- T. Nürnberger (1)
- A. Paeleman (1)
- N.O. Parra (1)
- N. Peeters (1)
- G. Rallapalli (1)
- S. Rehman (2)
- Lars Ridder (1)
- H.C.E. Rooney (2)
- A. Rougon (2)
- A. Rougon-Cardoso (1)
- M. Roux (2)
- H.J. Rövenich (1)
- A. Sanchez Vallet (1)
- P. Santhanam (4)
- B. Schwessinger (2)
- E. Sherwood (1)
- N. Shibuya (2)
- T. Shinya (1)
- R.J. Siezen (1)
- P. Smit (1)
- M. Smoker (1)
- Y. Song (1)
- B. Staskawicz (1)
- I. Stergiopoulos (8)
- I.J.E. Stulemeijer (8)
- I. Stulemeijer (3)
- K.V. Subbarao (1)
- W.I.L. Tameling (2)
- B.P.H.J. Thomma (32)
- B. Thomma (5)
- Bart Thomma (1)
- D. Tremousaygue (1)
- H. Tuominen (1)
- T. Usami (1)
- D.J. Valkenburg (1)
- J.J.M. Vervoort (8)
- Jacques Vervoort (1)
- R.C.H. Vos de (1)
- J.H. Vossen (6)
- J. Vossen (2)
- P. Wijten (1)
- P.J.G.M. Wit de (17)
- K.A. Yadeta (4)
- K. Yadeta (1)
- E. Yanes Paz (1)
- Z. Zhang (5)
- B. Zhang (1)
- C. Zipfel (3)
- Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (4)
- Plant Physiology (3)
- Molecular Plant Pathology (2)
- Gewasbescherming (1)
- Journal of Experimental Botany (1)
Transcriptional Analysis of serk1 and serk3 coreceptor mutants
Esse, Wilma van; Hove, Colette A. ten; Guzzonato, Francesco ; Esse, Peter van; Boekschoten, Mark ; Ridder, Lars ; Vervoort, Jacques ; Vries, Sacco C. de - \ 2016
Plant Physiology 172 (2016)4. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 2516 - 2529.
Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) are ligand-binding coreceptors that are able to combine with different ligandperceiving receptors such as BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE2. Phenotypical analysis of serk single mutants is not straightforward because multiple pathways can be affected, while redundancy is observed for a single phenotype. For example, serk1serk3 double mutant roots are insensitive toward brassinosteroids but have a phenotype different from bri1 mutant roots. To decipher these effects, 4-d-old Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots were studied using microarray analysis. A total of 698 genes, involved in multiple biological processes, were found to be differentially regulated in serk1-3serk3-2 double mutants. About half of these are related to brassinosteroid signaling. The remainder appear to be unlinked to brassinosteroids and related to primary and secondary metabolism. In addition, methionine-derived glucosinolate biosynthesis genes are up-regulated, which was verified by metabolite profiling. The results also show that the gene expression pattern in serk3-2 mutant roots is similar to that of the serk1-3serk3-2 double mutant roots. This confirms the existence of partial redundancy between SERK3 and SERK1 as well as the promoting or repressive activity of a single coreceptor in multiple simultaneously active pathways.
PIRIN2 stabilizes cysteine protease XCP2 and increases susceptibility to the vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis
Zhang, B. ; Tremousaygue, D. ; Denancé, N. ; Esse, H.P. van; Hörger, A.C. ; Dabos, P. ; Goffner, D. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. ; Hoorn, R.A.L. van der; Tuominen, H. - \ 2014
The Plant Journal 79 (2014)6. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 1009 - 1019.
programmed cell-death - nf-kappa-b - disease resistance - phytophthora-infestans - gene-expression - plants - xylem - thaliana - effector - defense
PIRIN (PRN) is a member of the functionally diverse cupin protein superfamily. There are four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PRN family, but the roles of these proteins are largely unknown. Here we describe a function of the Arabidopsis PIRIN2 (PRN2) that is related to susceptibility to the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Two prn2 mutant alleles displayed decreased disease development and bacterial growth in response to R. solanacearum infection. We elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism by analyzing PRN2 interactions with the papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) XCP2, RD21A, and RD21B, all of which bound to PRN2 in yeast two-hybrid assays and in Arabidopsis protoplast co-immunoprecipitation assays. We show that XCP2 is stabilized by PRN2 through inhibition of its autolysis on the basis of PLCP activity profiling assays and enzymatic assays with recombinant protein. The stabilization of XCP2 by PRN2 was also confirmed in planta. Like prn2 mutants, an xcp2 single knockout mutant and xcp2 prn2 double knockout mutant displayed decreased susceptibility to R. solanacearum, suggesting that stabilization of XCP2 by PRN2 underlies susceptibility to R. solanacearum in Arabidopsis.
Ve1-mediated resistance against Verticillium does not involve a hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis
Zhang, Z. ; Esse, H.P. van; Damme, M. van; Fradin, E.F. ; Liu, Chun-Ming ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2013
Molecular Plant Pathology 14 (2013)7. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 719 - 727.
ethylene-inducing xylanase - receptor-like proteins - gated ion-channel - disease resistance - rhynchosporium-secalis - functional-analysis - defense responses - gene family - tomato ve1 - cell-death
The recognition of pathogen effectors by plant immune receptors leads to the activation of immune responses that often include a hypersensitive response (HR): rapid and localized host cell death surrounding the site of attempted pathogen ingress. We have demonstrated previously that the recognition of the Verticillium dahliae effector protein Ave1 by the tomato immune receptor Ve1 triggers an HR in tomato and tobacco. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that tomato Ve1 provides Verticillium resistance in Arabidopsis upon Ave1 recognition. In this study, we investigated whether the co-expression of Ve1 and Ave1 in Arabidopsis results in an HR, which could facilitate a forward genetics screen. Surprisingly, we found that the co-expression of Ve1 and Ave1 does not induce an HR in Arabidopsis. These results suggest that an HR may occur as a consequence of Ve1/Ave1-induced immune signalling in tomato and tobacco, but is not absolutely required for Verticillium resistance.
System-Wide Hypersensitive Response-Associated Transcriptome and Metabolome Reprogramming in Tomato
Etalo, D.W. ; Stulemeijer, I.J.E. ; Esse, H.P. van; Vos, R.C.H. de; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Joosten, M.H.A.J. - \ 2013
Plant Physiology 162 (2013)3. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1599 - 1617.
programmed cell-death - pathogen pseudomonas-syringae - campestris pv. vesicatoria - glutathione s-transferases - amino-acid catabolism - leaf rust resistance - higher-plant cells - mass-spectrometry - cladosporium-fulvum - functional-analysis
The hypersensitive response (HR) is considered to be the hallmark of the resistance response of plants to pathogens. To study HR-associated transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we used plants that express both a resistance gene to Cladosporium fulvum and the matching avirulence gene of this pathogen. In these plants, massive reprogramming occurred, and we found that the HR and associated processes are highly energy demanding. Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, hydrolysis of sugars, and lipid catabolism are used as alternative sources of amino acids, energy, and carbon skeletons, respectively. We observed strong accumulation of secondary metabolites, such as hydroxycinnamic acid amides. Coregulated expression of WRKY transcription factors and genes known to be involved in the HR, in addition to a strong enrichment of the W-box WRKY-binding motif in the promoter sequences of the coregulated genes, point to WRKYs as the most prominent orchestrators of the HR. Our study has revealed several novel HR-related genes, and reverse genetics tools will allow us to understand the role of each individual component in the HR.
|Comparative pathogenomics of Verticillium dahliae
Thomma, B.P.H.J. ; Berg, G.C.M. van den; Boshoven, J.C. ; Damme, M. van; Esse, H.P. van; Faino, L. ; Jonge, R. de; Keykha Saber, M. ; Kombrink, A. ; Yanes Paz, E. ; Rövenich, H.J. ; Sanchez Vallet, A. ; Santhanam, P. ; Song, Y. ; Valkenburg, D.J. ; Zhang, Z. - \ 2013
In: Book of Abstracts 11th International Verticillium Symposium, Göttingen, Germany, 5-8 May 2013. - - p. 38 - 38.
The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of Verticillium, while race 2 strains are not recognized. Until recently, the Verticillium effector that is detected by Ve1 remained unknown. By high-throughput population genome sequencing, the gene that encodes the Ave1 effector (for Avirulence on Ve1 tomato) was identified. Interestingly, Ave1 homologs were also found in the fungal pathogens Cercospora beticola, Colletotrichum higginsianum and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, some of which are recognized by Ve1. Based on the differential recognition of the Ave1 homologs, the epitope of the Ave1 protein has been identified. The identification of Ave1 facilitates functional analysis of the Ve1 immune receptor. Strictly asexual microorganisms, such as V. dahliae, are often considered as evolutionary dead ends as it remains unknown how they can generate the genetic variation that is required for coevolution with their hosts. Based on comparative population genomics we show that extensive chromosomal rearrangements establish highly dynamic ‘plastic’ genomic regions that act as a source for genetic variation to mediate aggressiveness and that are enriched for in planta-expressed effector genes. We propose that V. dahliae evolves by prompting chromosomal rearrangements, enabling rapid development of novel effector genes.
Optimized agroinfiltration and virus-induced gene silencing to study Ve1-mediated Verticillium resistance in tobacco
Zhang, Z. ; Fradin, E. ; Jonge, R. de; Esse, P. van; Smit, P. ; Liu, C.M. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2013
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 26 (2013)2. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 182 - 190.
receptor-like proteins - transient expression system - mediated plant transformation - functional-analysis - disease resistance - albo-atrum - hypersensitive response - nicotiana-benthamiana - arabidopsis-thaliana - binary vectors
Recognition of pathogen effectors by plant immune receptors often leads to the activation of a hypersensitive response (HR), which is a rapid and localized cell death of plant tissue surrounding the site at which recognition occurs. Due to its particular amenability to transient assays for functional genetics, tobacco is a model for immune signaling in the Solanaceae plant family. Here, we show that coexpression of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) immune receptor Ve1 and the corresponding Verticillium effector protein Ave1 leads to HR only in particular tobacco species. Whereas HR is obtained in Nicotiana tabacum, no such response is obtained in N. benthamiana. Furthermore, our analysis revealed an endogenous Ve1 ortholog in Nicotiana glutinosa, as expression of Ave1 in absence of Ve1 induced a HR, and N. glutinosa was found to be resistant against race 1 Verticillium dahliae. We furthermore report the establishment of virus-induced gene silencing in N. tabacum for functional analysis of Ve1 signaling. Collectively, our data show that N. tabacum can be used as a model plant to study Ve1-mediated immune signaling.
Evidence for functional diversification within a fungal NEP1-like protein family
Santhanam, P. ; Esse, H.P. van; Albert, I. ; Faino, L. ; Nürnberger, T. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2013
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 26 (2013)3. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 278 - 286.
carotovora subsp carotovora - plant-pathogen interactions - necrosis-inducing activity - chitin-triggered immunity - verticillium-dahliae - mycosphaerella-graminicola - molecular characterization - arabidopsis-thaliana - fusarium-oxysporum - npp1 domain
In this study, we functionally analyzed the gene family encoding necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLPs) of the vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae. We show that the composition of the NLP gene family varies little among V. dahliae isolates. The cytotoxic activity of NLP family members of a tomato pathogenic V. dahliae strain was determined, demonstrating that only two of the seven NLPs induced plant cell death. The genes encoding these cytotoxic NLPs were found to be induced in V. dahliae upon colonization of tomato. Interestingly, targeted deletion of either of the two genes in V. dahliae significantly compromised virulence on tomato as well as on Arabidopsis plants, whereas deletion of only one of the two genes affected virulence on N. benthamiana. This could be attributed to differential induction of the two NLP genes in V. dahliae upon N. benthamiana colonization, revealing that the in planta induction of NLP genes varies between plant hosts. Intriguingly, one of the NLP genes appears to also affect vegetative growth and conidiospore production, as the corresponding deletion strain produced significantly less conidiospores and developed extensive aerial mycelium. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the expanded V. dahliae NLP family shows functional diversification, not only revealing differential cytotoxicity between family members, but also that the cytotoxic NLPs play a role in vegetative growth and asexual reproduction in addition to their contribution to virulence.
Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing
Jonge, R. de; Esse, H.P. van; Maruthachalam, K. ; Bolton, M.D. ; Santhanam, P. ; Keykha Saber, M. ; Zhang, Z. ; Usami, T. ; Lievens, B. ; Subbarao, K.V. ; Thomma, B. - \ 2012
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (2012)13. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 5110 - 5115.
horizontal gene-transfer - xanthomonas-axonopodis - plant-pathogens - albo-atrum - resistance - evolution - host - arabidopsis - mechanisms - physiology
Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, but the corresponding Verticillium effector remained unknown thus far. By high-throughput population genome sequencing, a single 50-Kb sequence stretch was identified that only occurs in race 1 strains, and subsequent transcriptome sequencing of Verticillium-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants revealed only a single highly expressed ORF in this region, designated Ave1 (for Avirulence on Ve1 tomato). Functional analyses confirmed that Ave1 activates Ve1-mediated resistance and demonstrated that Ave1 markedly contributes to fungal virulence, not only on tomato but also on Arabidopsis. Interestingly, Ave1 is homologous to a widespread family of plant natriuretic peptides. Besides plants, homologous proteins were only found in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis and the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum higginsianum, Cercospora beticola, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The distribution of Ave1 homologs, coincident with the presence of Ave1 within a flexible genomic region, strongly suggests that Verticillium acquired Ave1 from plants through horizontal gene transfer. Remarkably, by transient expression we show that also the Ave1 homologs from F. oxysporum and C. beticola can activate Ve1-mediated resistance. In line with this observation, Ve1 was found to mediate resistance toward F. oxysporum in tomato, showing that this immune receptor is involved in resistance against multiple fungal pathogens
Identification of HR-inducing cDNAs from plant pathogens via a Gateway-compatible binary Potato Virus X-expression vector
Esse, H.P. van - \ 2012
In: Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols / Bolton, M.D., Thomma, B.P.H.J., New York, USA : Humana Press, c/o Springer Science+Business Media (Methods in Molecular Biology 835) - ISBN 9781617795008 - p. 97 - 105.
Identification of pathogen effectors that elicit a hypersensitive response (HR) in resistant plant hosts is essential to study disease resistance. In this method, it is described how to generate a cDNA library, how to transfer the library into a binary PVX-expression vector, and finally how to set up a high-throughput screen for HR-inducing cDNAs from plant pathogens.
|Functional analysis of the secretome of the vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae
Esse, H.P. van - \ 2011
In: Book of Abstracts of the EPS PhD Autumn School 'Host-Microbe Interactomics', Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1-3 November 2011. - Wageningen, the Netherlands : - p. 27 - 28.
PO-09 Functional analysis of the secretome of the vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae H. Peter van Esse Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands. Plant diseases cause severe crop losses worldwide with devastating effects on food and feed production. Vascular fungal pathogens are particularly notorious because they lack curative treatments and survive for decades in soil via persistent resting structures. The increased need to reduce the use of harmful pesticides and to develop novel control strategies requires in-depth understanding of the biology of vascular pathogens and the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity and survival. The soil-borne vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae causes wilt disease on more than 200 plant species, including economically important crops and the model plant Arabidopsis. The proteins secreted by pathogens (secretomes) generally determine the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. Bioinformatic analyses of the recently released V. dahliae genome sequence predict over 780 secreted proteins. When excluding the cell wall-degrading enzymes, 460 secretome genes are identified encoding potential effectors that may potentially govern disease establishment. To identify proteins that modulate host immunity, a screen was developed in which secretome cDNAs would be constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis and analyzed for effects on plant defense (by screening for altered susceptibility towards various pathogens). This way, in an initial pilot screen with 45 single exon candidates, two effectors have been identified that affect host immunity. These two V. dahliae effectors will be subjected to further genetic and biochemical analyses to reveal their mode of action.
Differential tomato transcriptomic responses induced by Pepino mosaic virus Isolates with differential aggressiveness
Hanssen, I.M. ; Esse, H.P. van; Ballester, A.R. ; Hogewoning, S.W. ; Parra, N.O. ; Paeleman, A. ; Lievens, B. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2011
Plant Physiology 156 (2011)1. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 301 - 318.
gene-expression - chlorophyll fluorescence - molecular-biology - salicylic-acid - plant defense - genomic rna - arabidopsis - infection - protein - sequence
Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a highly infectious potexvirus and a major disease of greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops worldwide. Damage and economic losses caused by PepMV vary greatly and can be attributed to differential symptomatology caused by different PepMV isolates. Here, we used a custom-designed Affymetrix tomato GeneChip array with probe sets to interrogate over 22,000 tomato transcripts to study transcriptional changes in response to inoculation of tomato seedlings with a mild and an aggressive PepMV isolate that share 99.4% nucleotide sequence identity. The two isolates induced a different transcriptomic response, despite accumulating to similar viral titers. PepMV inoculation resulted in repression of photosynthesis. In addition, defense responses were stronger upon inoculation with the aggressive isolate, in both cases mediated by salicylic acid signaling rather than by jasmonate signaling. Our results furthermore show that PepMV differentially regulates the RNA silencing pathway, suggesting a role for a PepMV-encoded silencing suppressor. Finally, perturbation of pigment biosynthesis, as shown by differential regulation of the flavonoid and lycopene biosynthesis pathways, was monitored. Metabolite analyses on mature fruits of PepMV-infected tomato plants, which showed typical fruit marbling, revealed a decrease in carotenoids, likely responsible for the marbled phenotype, and an increase in alkaloids and phenylpropanoids that are associated with pathogen defense in the yellow sectors of the fruit.
|Identification of Verticillium virulence factors using proteomics
Yadeta, K.A. ; Esse, P. van; Wijten, P. ; Jonge, R. de; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2011
In: Book of Abstracts 26th Fungal Genetics Conference, Asilomar, Pacific Grove, California, USA, 15-20 March 2011. - - p. 242 - 242.
The soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae is one of the most notorious plant pathogens that causes vascular wilt diseases on over 200 dicotelydenous plant species. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the mechanisms that enable this fungus to infect such a wide array of host plants. It is generally accepted that the in planta secreted pathogen proteins (secretome) contains effectors that determine pathogenicity. To identify V. dahliae pathogenicity determinants, we performed proteomic analyses on V. dahliae grown in vitro in the presence and absence of tomato xylem fluid. In total 404 proteins were detected in Verticillium cultures without xylem fluid whereas the number of proteins detected in the presence of xylem fluid was increased to 489. We also analyzed the secretome of V. dahliae grown solely on tomato xylem fluid and identified 392 proteins. The V. dahliae genome is predicted to encode 780 secretome proteins. Only about 37 % of the proteins detected in the MS analyses contain a signal peptide for secretion. These proteins potentially determine the outcome of Verticillium- host interaction and are candidates for functional analysis
|Fungal LysM effectors perturb chitin-triggered host immunity
Jonge, R. de; Kombrink, A. ; Esse, P. van; Shibuya, N. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2011
In: Book of Abstracts 26th Fungal Genetics Conference, Asilomar, Pacific Grove, California, USA, 15-20 March 2011. - - p. 49 - 49.
Cladosporium fulvum is a biotrophic fungal pathogen that causes leaf mould of tomato. The in planta abundantly secreted C. fulvum effector Ecp6 (for extracellular protein 6) acts as a potent virulence factor. The Ecp6 protein contains three lysin motifs (LysMs), protein domains that were also identified in plant cell surface receptors that activate host immunity upon perception of chitin oligosaccharide PAMPs, breakdown products of fungal cell walls that are released during plant invasion. Affinity precipitation assays showed that Ecp6 is a chitin-binding protein and three binding sites per molecule were detected. We found that Ecp6 does not protect fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases. Rather, Ecp6 appears to prevent the activation of chitin-triggered immunity through scavenging of chitin oligosaccharide PAMPs. Interestingly, homologues of Ecp6 were identified in many fungal species. These effectors are collectively referred to as LysM effectors. A number of LysM effectors from other fungal plant pathogens have been produced. Similar to Ecp6, most of these bind chitin and are able to suppress chitin-triggered immunity. However, in contrast to Ecp6, some LysM effectors protect fungal cell walls against chitinases, while others appear to have different substrates than chitin
|The role of LysM effectors in fungal pathogenicity
Jonge, R. de; Kombrink, A. ; Esse, H.P. van; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2010
In: Book of Abstracts of the 9th International Mycological Congress, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 1-6 August 2010. - - p. C4.12 - C4.12.
Conserved fungal LysM effector Ecp6 prevents chitin-triggered immunity in plants
Jonge, R. de; Esse, H.P. van; Kombrink, A. ; Shinya, T. ; Desaki, Y. ; Bours, R.M.E.H. ; Krol, A.R. van der; Shibuya, N. ; Joosten, M.H.A.J. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2010
Science 329 (2010). - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 953 - 955.
receptor-like kinase - cladosporium-fulvum - virulence factor - binding - defense - tomato - cells - avr4 - recognition - arabidopsis
Multicellular organisms activate immunity upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Chitin is the major component of fungal cell walls, and chitin oligosaccharides act as PAMPs in plant and mammalian cells. Microbial pathogens deliver effector proteins to suppress PAMP-triggered host immunity and to establish infection. Here, we show that the LysM domain–containing effector protein Ecp6 of the fungal plant pathogen Cladosporium fulvum mediates virulence through perturbation of chitin-triggered host immunity. During infection, Ecp6 sequesters chitin oligosaccharides that are released from the cell walls of invading hyphae to prevent elicitation of host immunity. This may represent a common strategy of host immune suppression by fungal pathogens, because LysM effectors are widely conserved in the fungal kingdom
Interfamily transfer of a plant pattern-recognition receptor confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance
Lacombe, S. ; Rougon-Cardoso, A. ; Sherwood, E. ; Peeters, N. ; Dahlbeck, D. ; Esse, H.P. van; Smoker, M. ; Rallapalli, G. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. ; Staskawicz, B. ; Jones, J.D.G. ; Zipfel, C. - \ 2010
Nature Biotechnology 28 (2010)4. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 365 - 369.
pseudomonas-syringae - innate immunity - disease resistance - transgenic plants - arabidopsis - perception - tomato - gene - effectors - defense
Plant diseases cause massive losses in agriculture. Increasing the natural defenses of plants may reduce the impact of phytopathogens on agricultural productivity. Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) detect microbes by recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)1, 2, 3. Although the overall importance of PAMP-triggered immunity for plant defense is established2, 3, it has not been used to confer disease resistance in crops. We report that activity of a PRR is retained after its transfer between two plant families. Expression of EFR (ref. 4), a PRR from the cruciferous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, confers responsiveness to bacterial elongation factor Tu in the solanaceous plants Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), making them more resistant to a range of phytopathogenic bacteria from different genera. Our results in controlled laboratory conditions suggest that heterologous expression of PAMP recognition systems could be used to engineer broad-spectrum disease resistance to important bacterial pathogens, potentially enabling more durable and sustainable resistance in the field
Control of the pattern-recognition receptor EFR by an ER protein complex in plant immunity
Nekrasov, V. ; Li, J. ; Batoux, M. ; Roux, M. ; Chu, Z.H. ; Lacombe, S. ; Rougon, A. ; Bittel, P. ; Kiss-Papp, M. ; Chinchilla, D. ; Esse, H.P. van; Jorda, L. ; Schwessinger, B. ; Nicaise, V. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. ; Molina, A. ; Jones, J.D.G. ; Zipfel, C. - \ 2009
The EMBO Journal 28 (2009)21. - ISSN 0261-4189 - p. 3428 - 3438.
agrobacterium-mediated transformation - defective brassinosteroid receptor - endoplasmic-reticulum - innate immunity - quality-control - pseudomonas-syringae - arabidopsis-thaliana - disease resistance - secretory pathway - flagellin perception
In plant innate immunity, the surface-exposed leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases EFR and FLS2 mediate recognition of the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns EF-Tu and flagellin, respectively. We identified the Arabidopsis stromal-derived factor-2 (SDF2) as being required for EFR function, and to a lesser extent FLS2 function. SDF2 resides in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein complex with the Hsp40 ERdj3B and the Hsp70 BiP, which are components of the ER-quality control (ER-QC). Loss of SDF2 results in ER retention and degradation of EFR. The differential requirement for ER-QC components by EFR and FLS2 could be linked to N-glycosylation mediated by STT3a, a catalytic subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex involved in co-translational N-glycosylation. Our results show that the plasma membrane EFR requires the ER complex SDF2-ERdj3B-BiP for its proper accumulation, and provide a demonstration of a physiological requirement for ER-QC in transmembrane receptor function in plants. They also provide an unexpected differential requirement for ER-QC and N-glycosylation components by two closely related receptors
The Cladosporium fulvum effector proteins Avr4E and Avr9 are genuine virulence factors
Yadeta, K.A. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. ; Esse, H.P. van - \ 2009
In: ISMPMI International Congress abstracts, Quebec City, Canada, 19-23 July 2009. - - p. 148 - 149.
Control of pattern-recognition receptors by an ER protein complex in plant immunity
Nekrasov, V. ; Li, J. ; Roux, M. ; Batoux, M. ; Lacombe, S. ; Rougon, A. ; Chu, Z. ; Kisspapp, M. ; Chinchilla, D. ; Esse, H.P. van; Jorda, L. ; Schwessinger, B. ; Nicaise, V. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. ; Molina, A. ; Jones, J.D.G. ; Zipfel, C. - \ 2009
In: ISMPMI International Congress abstracts, Quebec City, Canada, 19-23 July 2009. - - p. 112 - 112.
Virulence and avirulence of the extracellular pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Verticillium dahliae on Arabidopsis and tomato
Fradin, E.F. ; Esse, P. van; Jonge, R. de; Ellendorff, U. ; Yadeta, K.A. ; Zhang, Z. ; Santhanam, P. ; Rehman, S. ; Berg, G.C.M. van den; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2009
In: ISMPMI International Congress abstracts, Quebec City, Canada, 19-23 July 2009. - - p. 15 - 15.