Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005
Luyssaert, S. ; Abril, G. ; Andres, R. ; Bastviken, D. ; Bellassen, V. ; Bergamaschi, P. ; Bousquet, P. ; Chevallier, F. ; Ciais, P. ; Corazza, M. ; Dechow, R. ; Erb, K.H. ; Etiope, G. ; Fortems-Cheiney, A. ; Grassi, G. ; Hartmann, J. ; Jung, M. ; Lathiere, J. ; Lohila, A. ; Mayorga, E. ; Moosdorf, N. ; Njakou, D.S. ; Otto, J. ; Papale, D. ; Peters, W. ; Peylin, P. ; Raymond, P. ; Rodenbeck, C. ; Saarnio, S. ; Schulze, E.D. ; Szopa, S. ; Thompson, R. ; Verkerk, P.J. ; Vuichard, N. ; Wang, R. ; Wattenbach, M. ; Zaehle, S. - \ 2012
Biogeosciences 9 (2012)8. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 3357 - 3380.
north-atlantic oscillation - net ecosystem exchange - organic-carbon changes - atmospheric co2 - climate-change - nitrous-oxide - terrestrial biosphere - dioxide - fluxes - emissions
Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000-2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balances of Europe following a dual constraint approach in which (1) a land-based balance derived mainly from ecosystem carbon inventories and (2) a land-based balance derived from flux measurements are compared to (3) the atmospheric data-based balance derived from inversions constrained by measurements of atmospheric GHG (greenhouse gas) concentrations. Good agreement between the GHG balances based on fluxes (1294 +/- 545 Tg C in CO2-eq yr(-1)), inventories (1299 +/- 200 Tg C in CO2-eq yr(-1)) and inversions (1210 +/- 405 Tg C in CO2-eq yr(-1)) increases our confidence that the processes underlying the European GHG budget are well understood and reasonably sampled. However, the uncertainty remains large and largely lacks formal estimates. Given that European net land to atmosphere exchanges are determined by a few dominant fluxes, the uncertainty of these key components needs to be formally estimated before efforts could be made to reduce the overall uncertainty. The net land-to-atmosphere flux is a net source for CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O, because the anthropogenic emissions by far exceed the biogenic sink strength. The dual-constraint approach confirmed that the European biogenic sink removes as much as 205 +/- 72 Tg C yr(-1) from fossil fuel burning from the atmosphere. However, This C is being sequestered in both terrestrial and inland aquatic ecosystems. If the C-cost for ecosystem management is taken into account, the net uptake of ecosystems is estimated to decrease by 45% but still indicates substantial C-sequestration. However, when the balance is extended from CO2 towards the main GHGs, C-uptake by terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is offset by emissions of non-CO2 GHGs. As such, the European ecosystems are unlikely to contribute to mitigating the effects of climate change.
A model for simulating the timelines of field operations at a European scale for use in complex dynamic models
Hutchings, N.J. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Leip, A. ; Wattenbach, M. ; Bienkowski, J. ; Dalgaard, T. ; Dragosits, U. ; Drouet, J. ; Durand, P. ; Maury, O. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2012
Biogeosciences 9 (2012)11. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 4487 - 4496.
n2o emissions - nitrogen - climate - soils
Complex dynamic models of carbon and nitrogen are often used to investigate the consequences of climate change on agricultural production and greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. These models require high temporal resolution input data regarding the timing of field operations. This paper describes the Timelines model, which predicts the timelines of key field operations across Europe. The evaluation of the model suggests that while for some crops a reasonable agreement was obtained in the prediction of the times of field operations, there were some very large differences which need to be corrected. Systematic variations in the date of harvesting and in the timing of the first application of N fertiliser to winter crops need to be corrected and the prediction of soil workability and trafficability might enable the prediction of ploughing and applications of solid manure in preparation for spring crops. The data concerning the thermal time thresholds for sowing and harvesting underlying the model should be updated and extended to a wider range of crops.
Importance of crop varieties and management practices: evaluation of a process-based model for simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes at five European maize (Zea mays L.) sites
Li, L. ; Vuichard, N. ; Viovy, N. ; Ciais, P. ; Wang, T. ; Ceschia, E. ; Jans, W.W.P. ; Wattenbach, M. ; Beziat, P. ; Gruenwald, T. ; Lehuger, S. ; Bernhofer, C. - \ 2011
Biogeosciences 8 (2011)6. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1721 - 1736.
carbon-dioxide exchange - eddy covariance technique - net ecosystem exchange - rain-fed maize - primary productivity - agricultural soils - nitrogen balances - generic model - water-vapor - wheat
This paper is a modelling study of crop management impacts on carbon and water fluxes at a range of European sites. The model is a crop growth model (STICS) coupled with a process-based land surface model (ORCHIDEE). The data are online eddy-covariance observations of CO2 and H2O fluxes at five European maize cultivation sites. The results show that the ORCHIDEE-STICS model explains up to 75% of the observed daily net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) variance, and up to 79% of the latent heat flux (LE) variance at five sites. The model is better able to reproduce gross primary production (GPP) variations than terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) variations. We conclude that structural deficiencies in the model parameterizations of leaf area index (LAI) and TER are the main sources of error in simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes. A number of sensitivity tests, with variable crop variety, nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, and planting date, indicate that any of these management factors is able to change NEE by more than 15%, but that the response of NEE to management parameters is highly site-dependent. Changes in management parameters are found to impact not only the daily values of NEE and LE, but also the cumulative yearly values. In addition, LE is shown to be less sensitive to management parameters than NEE. Multi-site model evaluations, coupled with sensitivity analysis to management parameters, thus provide important information about model errors, which helps to improve the simulation of CO2 and H2O fluxes across European croplands.
A generic probability based algorithm to simutate the distribution of dominant crop types in time and space
Wattenbach, M. ; Schartner, T. ; Hillier, J. ; Hattermann, F. ; Vries, W. de; Reinds, G.J. ; Kros, J. - \ 2011
Predicting net ecosystem exchange in European croplands and its response to change in N inputs and climate change
Yeluripati, J.B. ; Kuhnert, M. ; Wattenbach, M. ; Hutchings, N. ; Leip, A. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Smith, P. - \ 2011
Simulating crop rotations, fertilization and field operations at a European scale for use in complex dynamic models
Hutchings, N. ; Wattenbach, M. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Leip, A. ; Bienkowski, J. ; Dalgaard, T. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2011
Importance of methane and nitrous oxide for Europe’s terrestrial greenhouse-gas balance
Schulze, E.D. ; Luyssaert, S. ; Ciais, P. ; Freibauer, A. ; Janssens, I.A. ; Soussana, J.F. ; Smith, P. ; Grace, J. ; Levin, I. ; Thiruchittampalam, B. ; Heimann, M. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Valentini, R. ; Bousquet, P. ; Peylin, P. ; Peters, W. ; Rödenbeck, C. ; Etiope, G. ; Vuichard, N. ; Wattenbach, M. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Poussi, Z. ; Nieschulze, J. ; Gash, J.H.C. - \ 2009
Nature Geoscience 2 (2009). - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 842 - 850.
atmospheric methane - carbon budget - emissions - co2 - ecosystems - fluxes - soils - sink
Climate change negotiations aim to reduce net greenhouse-gas emissions by encouraging direct reductions of emissions and crediting countries for their terrestrial greenhouse-gas sinks. Ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake has offset nearly 10% of Europe's fossil fuel emissions, but not all of this may be creditable under the rules of the Kyoto Protocol. Although this treaty recognizes the importance of methane and nitrous oxide emissions, scientific research has largely focused on carbon dioxide. Here we review recent estimates of European carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes between 2000 and 2005, using both top-down estimates based on atmospheric observations and bottom-up estimates derived from ground-based measurements. Both methods yield similar fluxes of greenhouse gases, suggesting that methane emissions from feedstock and nitrous oxide emissions from arable agriculture are fully compensated for by the carbon dioxide sink provided by forests and grasslands. As a result, the balance for all greenhouse gases across Europe's terrestrial biosphere is near neutral, despite carbon sequestration in forests and grasslands. The trend towards more intensive agriculture and logging is likely to make Europe's land surface a significant source of greenhouse gases. The development of land management policies which aim to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions should be a priority
Projected changes in mineral soil carbon of European croplands and grasslands, 1990-2080
Smith, J. ; Smith, P. ; Wattenbach, M. ; Zaehle, S. ; Hiederer, R. ; Jones, R.J.A. ; Montanarella, L. ; Rounsevell, M.D.A. ; Reginster, I. ; Ewert, F. - \ 2005
Global Change Biology 11 (2005)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2141 - 2152.
long-term experiments - agricultural land-use - organic-carbon - climate-change - terrestrial carbon - future scenarios - regional-scale - co2 emissions - model - sequestration
We present the most comprehensive pan-European assessment of future changes in cropland and grassland soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to date, using a dedicated process-based SOC model and state-of-the-art databases of soil, climate change, land-use change and technology change. Soil carbon change was calculated using the Rothamsted carbon model on a European 10 × 10' grid using climate data from four global climate models implementing four Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios (SRES). Changes in net primary production (NPP) were calculated by the Lund¿Potsdam¿Jena model. Land-use change scenarios, interpreted from the narratives of the IPCC SRES story lines, were used to project changes in cropland and grassland areas. Projections for 1990¿2080 are presented for mineral soil only. Climate effects (soil temperature and moisture) will tend to speed decomposition and cause soil carbon stocks to decrease, whereas increases in carbon input because of increasing NPP will slow the loss. Technological improvement may further increase carbon inputs to the soil. Changes in cropland and grassland areas will further affect the total soil carbon stock of European croplands and grasslands. While climate change will be a key driver of change in soil carbon over the 21st Century, changes in technology and land-use change are estimated to have very significant effects. When incorporating all factors, cropland and grassland soils show a small increase in soil carbon on a per area basis under future climate (1¿7 t C ha1 for cropland and 3¿6 t C ha1 for grassland), but when the greatly decreasing area of cropland and grassland are accounted for, total European cropland stocks decline in all scenarios, and grassland stocks decline in all but one scenario. Different trends are seen in different regions. For Europe (the EU25 plus Norway and Switzerland), the cropland SOC stock decreases from 11 Pg in 1990 by 4¿6 Pg (39¿54%) by 2080, and the grassland SOC stock increases from 6 Pg in 1990 to 1.5 Pg (25%) under the B1 scenario, but decreases to 1¿3 Pg (20¿44%) under the other scenarios. Uncertainty associated with the land-use and technology scenarios remains unquantified, but worst-case quantified uncertainties are 22.5% for croplands and 16% for grasslands, equivalent to potential errors of 2.5 and 1 Pg SOC, respectively. This is equivalent to 42¿63% of the predicted SOC stock change for croplands and 33¿100% of the predicted SOC stock change for grasslands. Implications for accounting for SOC changes under the Kyoto Protocol are discussed.
Advanced terrestrial ecosystem analysis and modelling (ATEAM)
Schröter, D. ; Acosta-Michlik, L. ; Arnell, A.W. ; Araújo, M.B. ; Badeck, F. ; Bakker, Martha ; Bondeau, A. ; Brugmann, H. ; Carter, T. ; Vega de la-Leinert, A.C. ; Erhard, M. ; Espineira, G.Z. ; Ewert, F. ; Fritsch, U. ; Friedlingstein, P. ; Glendining, M. ; Gracia, C.A. ; Hickler, T. ; House, J. ; Hulme, M. ; Kankaanpää, S. ; Klein, R.J.T. ; Krukenberg, B. ; Lavorel, S. ; Leemans, R. ; Lindner, M. ; Liski, J. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Meyer, J. ; Mitchell, T. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Morales, P. ; Moreno, J.M. ; Reginster, I. ; Reidsma, P. ; Rounsevell, M. ; Pla, E. ; Pluimers, J.C. ; Prentice, I.C. ; Pussinen, A. ; Sánchez, A. ; Sabaté, S. ; Sitch, S. ; Smith, B. ; Smith, P. ; Sykes, M.T. ; Thonicke, K. ; Thuiller, W. ; Tuck, G. ; Werf, G. van der; Vayreda, J. ; Wattenbach, M. ; Wilson, D.W. ; Woodward, F.I. ; Zaehle, S. ; Zierl, B. ; Zudin, S. ; Cramer, W. - \ 2004
Potsdam : Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)
ATEAM (advanced Terrestrial Ecosystem Analysis and Modelling) final project report, EC project EVK2-2000-00075
Schröter, D. ; Acosta-Michlik, L. ; Arnell, A.W. ; Araujo, M.B. ; Badeck, F. ; Bakker, M. ; Bondeau, A. ; Bugmann, H. ; Carter, T. ; Vega-Leinert, A.C. de la; Erhard, M. ; Espineira, G.Z. ; Ewert, F. ; Friedlingstein, P. ; Fritsch, U. ; Glendining, M. ; Gracia, C.A. ; Hickler, T. ; House, J. ; Hulme, M. ; Klein, R.J.T. ; Krukenberg, B. ; Lavorel, S. ; Leemans, R. ; Lindner, M. ; Liski, J. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Meyer, J. ; Mitchell, T. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Morales, P. ; Moreno, J.M. ; Reginster, I. ; Reidsma, P. ; Rounsevell, M. ; Pluimers, J.C. ; Prentice, I.C. ; Pussinen, A. ; Sanchez, A. ; Sabaté, S. ; Sitch, S. ; Smith, B. ; Smith, J. ; Smith, P. ; Sykes, M.T. ; Thonicke, K. ; Thuiller, W. ; Tuck, G. ; Werf, W. van der; Vayreda, J. ; Wattenbach, M. ; Wilson, D.W. ; Woodward, F.I. ; Zaehle, S. ; Zierl, B. ; Zudin, S. ; Cramer, W. - \ 2004
Postdam : Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) - 139 p.
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