- B.H.B. Benthem van (2)
- M.E.H. Bos (1)
- T. Bosch (1)
- I.V.F. Broek van den (2)
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- A. Dorado-Garcia (1)
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- E.A.M. Graat (2)
- H. Graveland (2)
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- D. Heederik (1)
- D.J.J. Heederik (1)
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- J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (5)
- M.F.Q. Kluytmans-van den Bergh (1)
- M. Meijerink (1)
- D.J. Mevius (1)
- M.N. Mulders (1)
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- M.M.L. Rijen van (1)
- E.W. Tiemersma (1)
- E.J.M. Verkade (1)
- K.M.H.W. Verstappen (1)
- K.M. Verstappen (1)
- A. Voss (1)
- J.A. WAGENAAR (1)
- J.A. Wagenaar (1)
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- P.J. Wolf van der (1)
- L. Züchner (1)
Health and health-related quality of life in pig farmers carrying livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Benthem, B.H.B. van; Verkade, E.J.M. ; Rijen, M.M.L. van; Kluytmans-van den Bergh, M.F.Q. ; Graveland, H. ; Bosch, T. ; Verstappen, K.M.H.W. ; WAGENAAR, J.A. ; Heederik, D. ; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W. - \ 2016
Epidemiology and Infection (2016). - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 1774 - 1783.
Infectious disease epidemiology - methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) - public health - zoonoses
There is limited knowledge about the effect of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) carriage on health-related quality of life (QoL). With this study, we explored whether LA-MRSA causes infections or affects health-related QoL in pig farmers. This prospective cohort study surveyed persons working on 49 farrowing pig farms in The Netherlands for 1 year (2010–2011). On six sampling moments, nasal swabs, environmental samples and questionnaires on activities and infections were collected. At the end of the study year, persons were asked about their QoL using the validated SF-36 and EQ-5D questionnaires. Of 120 persons, 44 (37%) were persistent MRSA carriers. MRSA carriage was not associated with infections, use of antimicrobials, healthcare contact and health-related QoL items in univariate or multivariate analysis, most likely due to the ‘healthy worker effect’. Despite high carriage rates, the impact of LA-MRSA carriage in this population of relatively healthy pig farmers on health and health-related QoL appears limited; more research is needed for confirmation.
Risk factors for persistence of livestock-associated MRSA and environmental exposure in veal calf farmers and their family members: an observational longitudinal study
Dorado-Garcia, A. ; Bos, M.E.H. ; Graveland, H. ; Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Verstappen, K.M. ; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Heederik, D.J.J. - \ 2013
BMJ Open 3 (2013)9. - ISSN 2044-6055
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - animals - carriage - origin - health - st398 - infections - emergence - france - calves
Objectives: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) emergence is a major public health concern. This study was aimed at assessing risk factors for persistently carrying MRSA in veal calf farmers and their family members. We also evaluate the dynamics of MRSA environmental load during the veal-calf production cycle. Design: Observational, longitudinal, repeated cross-sectional study. Setting: 52 veal calf farms in the Netherlands. Participants: From the end of 2010 to the end of 2011, a total of 211 farmers, family members and employees were included in the study. Primary outcome and secondary outcome measures: Nasal swabs were taken from participants on days 0, 4, 7 and week 12. A persistent MRSA carrier was defined as a person positive for MRSA on days 0, 4 and 7. Participants filled in an extensive questionnaire to identify potential risk factors and confounders. For estimation of MRSA prevalence in calves and environmental contamination, animal nasal swabs and Electrostatic Dust Collectors were taken on day 0 and week 12. Results: The presence of potential animal reservoirs (free-ranging farm cats and sheep) and the level of contact with veal calves was positively associated with persistent MRSA carriage. Interestingly, at the end of the study (week 12), there was a twofold rise in animal prevalence and a significantly higher MRSA environmental load in the stables was found on farms with MRSA carriers. Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis that environmental contamination with MRSA plays a role in the acquisition of MRSA in farmers and their household members and suggests that other animal species should also be targeted to implement effective control strategies.
High prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in slaughterhouse workers in contact with live pigs in The Netherlands
Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Broens, E.M. ; Voss, A. ; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Züchner, L. ; Benthem, B.H.B. van; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W. ; Mulders, M.N. ; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2010
Epidemiology and Infection 138 (2010)5. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 756 - 763.
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - methicillin-resistant - humans - involvement - infections - origin - cc398 - st398 - pork - meat
Livestock-associated MRSA has been found in various animals, livestock farmers and retail meat. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of nasal MRSA carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers. Three large pig slaughterhouses in The Netherlands were studied in 2008 using human and environmental samples. The overall prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in employees of pig slaughterhouses was 5·6% (14/249) (95% CI 3·4–9·2) and working with live pigs was the single most important factor for being MRSA positive (OR 38·2, P
Project 8: prevalentieschatting en risicofactorenanalyse MRSA bij varkens
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Jong, M.C.M. de; Meijerink, M. ; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Oosterom, R.A.A. van; Wolf, P. de - \ 2009
In: Veegerelateerde MRSA: epidemiologie in dierlijke productieketens, transmissie naar de mens en karakterisatie van de kloon / Wagenaar, J.A., van de Giessen, A.W., Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) (RIVM-rapport 330224001) - p. 49 - 68.
varkenshouderij - varkens - infectieziekten - staphylococcus aureus - volksgezondheid - ziekteprevalentie - ziektedistributie - zoönosen - pig farming - pigs - infectious diseases - public health - disease prevalence - disease distribution - zoonoses
Rapport over het voorkomen van MRSA op varkenshouderijen. Geconcludeerd wordt dat MRSA op veel zeugenbedrijven voorkomt en dat de prevalentie stijgt. Grote bedrijven hebben hebben een verhoogd risico. Het risico wordt daarnaast ook nog bepaald door een aantal factoren. Voor wat betreft de besmetting van MRSA door mensen wordt geconcludeerd dat mensen die intensief contact met MRSA-positieve varkens hebben een sterk verhoogd risico hebben om zelf MRSA-positief te zijn.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in people living and working in pig farms
Broek, I.V.F. van den; Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Haenen, A. ; Broens, E.M. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Broek, M.J.M. van den; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W. ; Giessen, A.W. van de; Tiemersma, E.W. - \ 2009
Epidemiology and Infection 137 (2009)5. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 700 - 708.
intensive-care-unit - netherlands - humans - colonization - prevalence - strains - st398 - mrsa
We compared the prevalence of human and animal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at pig farms in The Netherlands, and related this to individual and farm-level characteristics. More than half of the farms investigated (28/50) had MRSA in pigs or stable dust and about one third (15/50) of person(s) were identified as MRSA carriers. Human carriage was found only on farms with MRSA-positive pigs or dust. MRSA strains in human samples were the same spa-type as found in pigs and all were not typable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NT-MRSA). Multivariate analyses showed that risk factors for human MRSA carriage were: working in pig stables (OR 40, 95% CI 8¿209) and the presence of sows and finishing pigs (OR 9, 95% CI 3¿30). Veterinary sample collectors sampling the pigs showed transient MRSA carriage only during the day of the farm visit. Working in pig stables with MRSA-positive pigs poses a high risk for acquiring MRSA, increasingly so when contact with live pigs is more intensive or long lasting
Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review
Broens, E.M. ; Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Graat, E.A.M. ; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W. - \ 2008
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 3 (2008). - ISSN 1749-8848 - 12 p.
International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals worldwide and a vast majority of them were caused by five major epidemic clones. After 1990, other clones have emerged in the community, leading to infections in relatively young and healthy individuals. The origin of these clones is largely unknown, and extensive diversity among isolates exists. Companion animals have been indicated as a reservoir. However, most studies suggest that they are initially infected by humans and subsequently animals re-colonize humans. More recently, a new zoonotic reservoir in food production animals was found. This involves a specific clone, MRSA ST398, which spreads extensively in animals and is also found in retail meat. It poses a potential threat to public health, as people in contact with food production animals are at much higher risk of colonization. The most probable transmission route seems to be by (in)direct contact, as dust in stables was found positive for MRSA ST398. The role of MRSA ST398 as a food pathogen needs more research. To prevent colonization in humans, it is important to investigate transmission routes and transmission dynamics between animals, between animals and humans and between humans. Collaboration of human and veterinary epidemiologists and microbiologists is needed to identify the implications of this strain for public health and to develop cost-effective control strategies.