Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

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Soil networks become more connected and take up more carbon as nature restoration progresses
Morriën, W.E. ; Hannula, S.E. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Helmsing, N.R. ; Zweers, Hans ; Hollander, M. de; Soto, Raquel Luján ; Bouffaud, Marie Lara ; Buée, M. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Duyts, Henk ; Geisen, Stefan ; Girlanda, Mariangela ; Griffiths, R.I. ; Jorgensen, H.B. ; Jensen, J. ; Plassart, P. ; Redecker, Dirk ; Schmelz, R.M. ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Thomson, Bruce C. ; Tisserant, Emilie ; Uroz, Stephane ; Winding, Anne ; Bailey, M.J. ; Bonkowski, M. ; Faber, J.H. ; Martin, F. ; Lemanceau, Philippe ; Boer, W. de; Veen, J.A. van; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2017
Nature Communications 8 (2017). - ISSN 2041-1723 - 10 p.
Soil organisms have an important role in aboveground community dynamics and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial ecosystems. However, most studies have considered soil biota as a black box or focussed on specific groups, whereas little is known about entire soil networks. Here we show that during the course of nature restoration on abandoned arable land a compositional shift in soil biota, preceded by tightening of the belowground networks, corresponds with enhanced efficiency of carbon uptake. In mid- and long-term abandoned field soil, carbon uptake by fungi increases without an increase in fungal biomass or shift in bacterial-to-fungal ratio. The implication of our findings is that during nature restoration the efficiency of nutrient cycling and carbon uptake can increase by a shift in fungal composition and/or fungal activity. Therefore, we propose that relationships between soil food web structure and carbon cycling in soils need to be reconsidered.
Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment
Engelkes, T. ; Meisner, A. ; Morrien, W.E. ; Kostenko, O. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Macel, M. - \ 2016
Oecologia 180 (2016)2. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 507 - 517.
Invasive exotic plant species often have fewer natural enemies and suffer less damage from herbivores in their new range than genetically or functionally related species that are native to that area. Although we might expect that having fewer enemies would promote the invasiveness of the introduced exotic plant species due to reduced enemy exposure, few studies have actually analyzed the ecological consequences of this situation in the field. Here, we examined how exposure to aboveground herbivores influences shifts in dominance among exotic and phylogenetically related native plant species in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional abundance, the presence of a congeneric native species, and their co-occurrence in the riparian ecosystem. All plant communities were covered by tents with insect mesh. Five tents were open on the leeward side to allow herbivory. The other five tents were completely closed in order to exclude insects and vertebrates. Herbivory reduced aboveground biomass by half and influenced which of the plant species dominated the establishing communities. Exposure to herbivory did not reduce the total biomass of natives more than that of exotics, so aboveground herbivory did not selectively enhance exotics during this early stage of plant community development. Effects of herbivores on plant biomass depended on plant species or genus but not on plant status (i.e., exotic vs native). Thus, aboveground herbivory did not promote the dominance of exotic plant species during early establishment of the phylogenetically balanced plant communities.
The soil food web drives plant community change during secondary succession
Morriën, W.E. ; Hannula, E. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2015
The soil food web drives plant community change during secondary succession
Morriën, W.E. ; Hannula, E. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2015
Soil biodiversity and nutrient cycling in an agricultural land abandonment chronosequence
Morriën, W.E. ; Hannula, E. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Hol, G. ; Veen, H. van; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2015
Soil biodiversity and nutrient cycling in a chronosequence of abandoned agricultural fields
Morriën, W.E. ; Hannula, E. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Veen, H. van; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2014
Land abandonment is considered an effective tool for restoring biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Thus far little attention is given to the role of soil biodiversity. Here, we present results of a soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning study from a chonosequence of ex-arable fields in The Netherlands (Veluwe LTO). These fields are typically managed by low-intensive grazing while undergoing a transition from an arable system into species-rich grassland. We present a method to investigate the soil biodiversity in the Veluwe chronosequence from the EcoFINDERS field sampling campaign in 2011. Abandoning agricultural fields triggers a change in the species composition and possibly the way species interact. We were able to reconstruct the full soil food web (from microorganisms to earthworms) at 10 fields that were taken out of production at different points in history. In total ~18000 species were found. The co-occurrence of species at different locations was compared by several network presentations. We also present the results of a mesocosm experiment where we have employed 13-C-CO2 pulse labeling and 15-N labeling to assess the short term fate, turnover and retention of recent plant-assimilated carbon and nitrogen in cores with field soil. Samples have been collected of aboveground and belowground plant tissues, soil bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembola, earthworms, and other soil fauna. Our aim was to investigate how the carbon and nitrogen is sequestered in the different components of the soil food web in relation to time since abandonment. We used the data from these cores on biomass and carbon-nitrogen contents of the feeding guilds within the soil food web to run an existing carbon/nitrogen flow model for grasslands. We discuss these results in relation to the soil biodiversity network analyses in order to predict the change in ecosystem processes during land abandonment and secondary succession.
Soil microbial community structure of range-expanding plant species differs from co-occurring natives
Morriën, W.E. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2013
Journal of Ecology 101 (2013)5. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1093 - 1102.
gradient gel-electrophoresis - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - 16s ribosomal-rna - climate-change - litter decomposition - invasive plants - rhizosphere - diversity - ergosterol - feedback
1. Due to global warming and other changes in the environment, many native and exotic plant species show range expansion from lower to higher latitudes. In the new range, the (in)ability of range-expanding plants to establish associations with local soil microbes can have important consequences for plant abundance; however, very little information exists on rhizosphere communities of range-expanding plant species. Here, we examine the rhizosphere microbial community composition of range-expanding plant species in comparison with phylogenetically related species that are native in the invaded range. 2. We tested the hypothesis that range-expanding plants species would promote fewer shifts in rhizosphere communities than congeneric natives would. In order to test this, soil was collected from the invaded habitat and six range-expanding and nine congeneric natives were planted individually in pots to condition soil microbial communities. 3. After harvesting, individuals of the same species were planted in conditioned own and control soils to test the legacy effects of soil conditioning on biomass production. The control soils were mixtures of soils conditioned by all other plant species, except congenerics. After 10 weeks of plant growth, we determined the rhizosphere community composition of bacteria, fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Fusarium spp. 4. All groups of microbes were analysed qualitatively using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Ergosterol was determined as a quantitative measure of nonarbuscular mycorrhizal fungal biomass, and real-time PCR was applied to detect amounts of Fusarium spp. 5. Range-expanding plants had less fungal hyphal biomass and lower amounts of Fusarium spp. in the rhizosphere than congenerics. Bacterial community composition was influenced by a combination of soil conditioning and plant origin, whereas fungal communities, AMF and Fusarium spp. were less pronounced in their responses to the experimental treatments. 6. Synthesis. We conclude that the lack of legacy effects in range-expanding plant species compared with natives may be due to differences in bacterial rhizosphere community composition, or to different quantities of potential pathogenic fungi. If the range-expanding plant species were benefiting more from AMF, effects will not have been due to differences in community composition, but we cannot exclude other options, such as different effectiveness of AMF or other soil biota in the rhizosphere of range-expanding vs. native plant species. The greater accumulation of bacterial and fungal pathogens in the rhizosphere of natives in relation to range expanders might explain the successful establishment of range-expanding plants.
Effects of native and exotic range-expanding plant species on taxonomic and functional composition of nematodes in the soil food web
Morriën, W.E. ; Duyts, H. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2012
Oikos 121 (2012)2. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 181 - 190.
parasitic nematodes - climate-change - ammophila-arenaria - ecosystem function - natural enemies - diversity - communities - biodiversity - grasslands - tolerance
Due to climate warming, many plant species shift ranges towards higher latitudes. Plants can disperse faster than most soil biota, however, little is known about how range-expanding plants in the new range will establish interactions with the resident soil food web. In this paper we examine how the soil nematode community from the new range responds to range-expanding plant species compared to related natives. We focused on nematodes, because they are important components in various trophic levels of the soil food web, some feeding on plant roots, others on microbes or on invertebrates. We expected that range expanding plant species have fewer root-feeding nematodes, as predicted by enemy release hypothesis. We therefore expected that range expanders affect the taxonomic and functional composition of the nematode community, but that these effects would diminish with increasing trophic position of nematodes in the soil food web. We exposed six range expanders (including three intercontinental exotics) and nine related native plant species to soil from the invaded range and show that range expanders on average had fewer root-feeding nematodes per unit root biomass than related natives. The range expanders showed resistance against rather than tolerance for root-feeding nematodes from the new range. On the other hand, the overall taxonomic and functional nematode community composition was influenced by plant species rather than by plant origin. The plant identity effects declined with trophic position of nematodes in the soil food web, as plant feeders were influenced more than other feeding guilds. We conclude that range-expanding plant species can have fewer root-feeding nematodes per unit root biomass than related natives, but that the taxonomic and functional nematode community composition is determined more by plant identity than by plant origin. Plant species identity effects decreased with trophic position of nematodes in the soil food web.
Additive effects of aboveground polyphagous herbivores and soil feedback in native and range-expanding exotic plants
Morrien, W.E. ; Engelkes, T. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2011
Ecology 92 (2011)6. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 1344 - 1352.
enemy release hypothesis - ground insect herbivory - species coexistence - community - diversity - competition - succession - nematodes - pathogens - dynamics
Plant biomass and plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground natural enemies. However, little is known about how the aboveground and belowground enemy effects may add up. We exposed 15 plant species to aboveground polyphagous insect herbivores and feedback effects from the soil community alone, as well as in combination. We envisaged three possibilities: additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects of the aboveground and belowground enemies on plant biomass. In our analysis, we included native and phylogenetically related range-expanding exotic plant species, because exotic plants on average are less sensitive to aboveground herbivores and soil feedback than related natives. Thus, we examined if lower sensitivity of exotic plant species to enemies also alters aboveground-belowground interactions. In a greenhouse experiment, we exposed six exotic and nine native plant species to feedback from their own soil communities, aboveground herbivory by polyphagous insects, or a combination of soil feedback and aboveground insects and compared shoot and root biomass to control plants without aboveground and belowground enemies. We observed that for both native and range-expanding exotic plant species effects of insect herbivory aboveground and soil feedback added up linearly, instead of enforcing or counteracting each other. However, there was no correlation between the strength of aboveground herbivory and soil feedback. We conclude that effects of polyphagous aboveground herbivorous insects and soil feedback add up both in the case of native and related range-expanding exotic plant species, but that aboveground herbivory effects may not necessarily predict the strengths of soil feedback effects
Climate change induced range-expanding plants : aboveground and belowground interactions
Morriën, W.E. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859376 - 144
planten - geïntroduceerde soorten - klimaatverandering - bodemfauna - vrijlevende nematoden - bodembacteriën - rizosfeer - plaagresistentie - ziekteresistentie - herbivoren - interacties - plants - introduced species - climatic change - soil fauna - free living nematodes - soil bacteria - rhizosphere - pest resistance - disease resistance - herbivores - interactions

Burning of fossil fuels has raised the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide, which contributes to global climate warming. As a result the mean earth surface temperature has increased faster in the past decades than in the previous thousands of years before. This rapid climate warming together with habitat fragmentation and other land use changes puts a major pressure on many plants and animals. They should either adapt to the warmer climate conditions or disperse in order to keep up with their optimal climatic conditions. Range expansion brings new interactions within the ecosystem in the new range. This can lead to potential benefits, for example range shifting species that do not encounter natural enemies in the new range might become invasive. Although invasive species are a well-studied phenomenon, there is relatively little known about the general mechanisms of biological invasions under climate change. In this thesis I focus on plant species that expand range due to current climate warming. I examined how these range-expanding plants interact with aboveground herbivorous insects and - mostly - how they establish belowground interactions with components of the soil food web. I examined how these interactions in the new range may play a role in the successful establishment of climate change induced range-expanding plants in plant communities of the new range. The focus of my study was on riverine (riparian) areas along the great rivers in the Netherlands, which are well connected with southern Europe by the Rhine and Rhine-Danube canal.

In the first experiment we examined exotic plant exposure to aboveground and belowground enemies. We used plants that originated from Eurasia (intra-continental range expanders) and plants that originated from other continents (inter-continental range expanders). We compared these exotic plants with phylogenetically related natives. We grew the plants with and without non-coevolved polyphagous (generalist) herbivores, a locust Schistocerca gregaria and an aphid Myzus persicae. We also exposed all plants to a general soil community from the invaded range and compared their plant-soil feedback responses. Then I tested how individual plants responded to aboveground and belowground plant enemies and I compared this to their combined effects. I also tested whether the strength of aboveground control by generalist shoot-feeding insects was indicative of the strength of belowground control by plant-soil feedback.

In the next study I examined how the soil nematode community from the new range responds to exotic plant species compared to related native plants species. As a follow up, I determined the rhizosphere community composition of bacteria, fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and fusaria. All groups of microbes were analyzed qualitatively and the non-mycorrhizal fungal biomass and fusaria were also analyzed quantitatively. I tested the hypothesis that range-expanding plant species have a different rhizosphere microbial community composition than natives.

Finally, I compared the early establishment of range-expanding exotics and phylogenetically related plant species that are native in the invaded habitats. In a greenhouse I grew five range-expanding plant species and five related natives in sterilized and non-sterile inoculated soils from the new range, both alone and with a background community of plant species present in the invaded habitat. In the field, I grew the same plants species in artificially created sparse and dense plant communities. I tested whether range-expanding exotic plant species establish better under competition with native vegetation than phylogenetically related natives, because exotics may benefit from less negative interactions with the soil community compared to natives.

Soil biodiversity and nutrient cycling in a chronosequence of abandoned agricultural fields
Morriën, W.E. ; Hannula, E. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Veen, H. van; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2010
Land abandonment is considered an effective tool for restoring biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Thus far little attention is given to the role of soil biodiversity. Here, we present results of a soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning study from a chonosequence of ex-arable fields in The Netherlands (Veluwe LTO). These fields are typically managed by low-intensive grazing while undergoing a transition from an arable system into species-rich grassland. We present a method to investigate the soil biodiversity in the Veluwe chronosequence from the EcoFINDERS field sampling campaign in 2011. Abandoning agricultural fields triggers a change in the species composition and possibly the way species interact. We were able to reconstruct the full soil food web (from microorganisms to earthworms) at 10 fields that were taken out of production at different points in history. In total ~18000 species were found. The co-occurrence of species at different locations was compared by several network presentations. We also present the results of a mesocosm experiment where we have employed 13-C-CO2 pulse labeling and 15-N labeling to assess the short term fate, turnover and retention of recent plant-assimilated carbon and nitrogen in cores with field soil. Samples have been collected of aboveground and belowground plant tissues, soil bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembola, earthworms, and other soil fauna. Our aim was to investigate how the carbon and nitrogen is sequestered in the different components of the soil food web in relation to time since abandonment. We used the data from these cores on biomass and carbon-nitrogen contents of the feeding guilds within the soil food web to run an existing carbon/nitrogen flow model for grasslands. We discuss these results in relation to the soil biodiversity network analyses in order to predict the change in ecosystem processes during land abandonment and secondary succession.
Climate change induced range-expanding plants experience less aboveground and belowground enemy impact
Morriën, W.E. ; Engelkes, T. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2010
In: Biological invasions in a changing world - from science to management, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-17 September 2010. - Copenhagen : Department of Agriculture & Ecology, University of Copenhagen - ISBN 9788799397600 - p. 15 - 15.
Climate change induced range expanding plants experience less belowground enemy impact
Morriën, W.E. ; Engelkes, T. ; Duyts, H. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2010
In: Plant Population Biology: Crossing Borders, Nijmegen 13-15 May 2010, Netherlands. - Nijmegen : - p. 64 - 64.
Additive effects of aboveground generalist herbivores and soil feedback in native and climate-change induced range expanders
Morriën, W.E. ; Engelkes, T. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2010
Ecological fits, mis-fits and lotteries involving insect herbivores on the invase plant, Bunias orientalis
Harvey, J.A. ; Biere, A. ; Fortuna, T.F.M. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Engelkes, T. ; Morriën, W.E. ; Gols, R. ; Verhoeven, K.J.F. ; Vogel, H. ; Macel, M. ; Heidel-Fischer, H.M. ; Schramm, K. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2010
Biological Invasions 12 (2010)9. - ISSN 1387-3547 - p. 3045 - 3059.
enemy release hypothesis - pieris-rapae - specialist herbivore - host-specificity - evolution - deterrents - community - larvae - associations - coevolution
Exotic plants bring with them traits that evolved elsewhere into their new ranges. These traits may make them unattractive or even toxic to native herbivores, or vice versa. Here, interactions between two species of specialist (Pieris rapae and P. brassicae) and two species of generalist (Spodoptera exigua and Mamestra brassicae) insect herbivores were examined on two native crucifer species in the Netherlands, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, and an exotic, Bunias orientalis. Bu. orientalis originates in eastern Europe and western Asia but is now an invasive pest in many countries in central Europe. P. rapae, P. brassicae and S. exigua performed very poorly on Bu. orientalis, with close to 100% of larvae failing to pupate, whereas survival was much higher on the native plants. In choice experiments, the pierid butterflies preferred to oviposit on the native plants. Alternatively, M. brassicae developed very poorly on the native plants but thrived on Bu. orientalis. Further assays with a German Bu. orientalis population also showed that several specialist and generalist herbivores performed very poorly on this plant, with the exception of Spodoptera littoralis and M. brassicae. Bu. orientalis produced higher levels of secondary plant compounds (glucosinolates) than B. nigra but not S. arvensis but these do not appear to be important factors for herbivore development. Our results suggest that Bu. orientalis is a potential demographic ‘trap’ for some herbivores, such as pierid butterflies. However, through the effects of an evolutionary ‘lottery’, M. brassicae has found its way through the plant’s chemical ‘minefield’.
Climate change and invasion by intracontinental range-expanding exotic plants: the role of biotic interactions
Morriën, W.E. ; Engelkes, T. ; Macel, M. ; Meisner, A. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2010
Annals of Botany 105 (2010)6. - ISSN 0305-7364 - p. 843 - 848.
enemy release hypothesis - nonnative plants - natural enemies - herbivores - evolution - responses - litter - decomposition - communities - mutualisms
Background and Aims In this Botanical Briefing we describe how the interactions between plants and their biotic environment can change during range-expansion within a continent and how this may influence plant invasiveness. Scope We address how mechanisms explaining intercontinental plant invasions by exotics (such as release from enemies) may also apply to climate-warming-induced range-expanding exotics within the same continent. We focus on above-ground and below-ground interactions of plants, enemies and symbionts, on plant defences, and on nutrient cycling. Conclusions Range-expansion by plants may result in above-ground and below-ground enemy release. This enemy release can be due to the higher dispersal capacity of plants than of natural enemies. Moreover, lower-latitudinal plants can have higher defence levels than plants from temperate regions, making them better defended against herbivory. In a world that contains fewer enemies, exotic plants will experience less selection pressure to maintain high levels of defensive secondary metabolites. Range-expanders potentially affect ecosystem processes, such as nutrient cycling. These features are quite comparable with what is known of intercontinental invasive exotic plants. However, intracontinental range-expanding plants will have ongoing gene-flow between the newly established populations and the populations in the native range. This is a major difference from intercontinental invasive exotic plants, which become more severely disconnected from their source populations.
Klimaatgeïnduceerde areaaluitbreidende planten ondervinden minder ondergrondse en bovengrondse effecten van natuurlijke vijanden
Morriën, W.E. ; Engelkes, T. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2010
Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)4. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 192 - 192.
Het meisje met de cleidoscopische ogen
Morriën, W.E. - \ 2009
Entomologische Berichten 69 (2009)4. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 155 - 156.
Climate change induced range shifts promotes release from soil-borne enemies
Morriën, W.E. ; Engelkes, T. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2009
Climate change induced range expanding plants experience less belowground enemy impact
Morriën, W.E. ; Engelkes, T. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2009
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