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Location choice of academic entrepreneurs: Evidence from the US biotechnology industry
Kolympiris, C. ; Kalaitzandonakes, N. ; Miller, D. - \ 2015
Journal of Business Venturing 30 (2015)2. - ISSN 0883-9026 - p. 227 - 254.
foreign direct-investment - resource-based view - spin-out companies - united-states - spatial-distribution - university-research - product development - labor mobility - life sciences - agency costs
Where knowledge-based firms are located is important because entrepreneurship, firm creation and innovation are typically associated with regional economic development, wealth creation and increased employment. In this paper we examine where academic entrepreneurs locate their firms. We begin by developing a theoretical model that examines the location choice of the academic entrepreneur within the standard utility maximization theory. Academic entrepreneurs are assumed to maximize their utility by allocating their efforts between academic and entrepreneurial pursuits which, in turn, determine their future streams of income and end-period wealth. Optimal allocation turns out to be a function of both personal and external factors that condition the relevant payoffs and such factors can be empirically observed. We then use several candidate explanatory variables to examine those factors that may influence the firm location choice for 187 biopharmaceutical firms started by 275 academic entrepreneurs in the US. From our empirical analysis we find that location-specific factors such as proximity to certain knowledge assets and to the funding venture capital firms, affect the firm location choice of academic entrepreneurs. Nevertheless, entrepreneur-specific characteristics, such as their age, seem to dominate the choice of firm location.
Public Funds and Local Biotechnology Firm Creation
Kolympiris, C. ; Kalaitzandonakes, N. ; Miller, D. - \ 2014
Research Policy 43 (2014)1. - ISSN 0048-7333 - p. 121 - 137.
business location decisions - research-and-development - knowledge spillovers - academic research - university-research - united-states - spin-offs - start-ups - interorganizational collaboration - canadian biotechnology
A long stream of academic literature has established that public funding towards research and development matters for economic growth because it relates to increases in innovation, productivity and the like. The impact of public funding on the creation of new firms has received less attention in this literature despite theoretical constructs that support such association. In the present paper we study whether indeed there is a relationship between public research funds and local firm births in the context of the U.S. biotechnology industry. In doing so, we introduce a number of changes that strengthen the robustness of our findings when compared with existing literature. These changes include a direct measure of research expenditures and a considerably lengthier longitudinal dataset which allows us to capture a structural relationship and not a chance event. We empirically demonstrate that increases in the level of research funding from the National Institutes of Health towards biotechnology associate with increases in the number of biotechnology firm births at the Metropolitan Statistical Area level. Further, we reveal that public funds towards established firms associate with local firm births considerably more strongly when compared with funds towards universities and research institutes/hospitals. We conclude the paper with academic and policy implications of the present work that highlight the complexity of factors that underlie the creation of local firms in high technology industries.
Spatial Collocation and venture capital in the US biotechnology industry
Kolympiris, C. ; Kalaitzandonakes, N. ; Miller, D. - \ 2011
Research Policy 40 (2011)9. - ISSN 0048-7333 - p. 1188 - 1199.
research-and-development - geographic localization - knowledge spillovers - empirical-evidence - founding rates - innovation - networks - clusters - firms - entrepreneurship
Biotechnology firms operate in a high-risk and high-reward environment and are in a constant race to secure venture capital (VC) funds. Previous contributions to the literature show that the VC firms tend to invest locally in order to monitor their investments and to provide operating assistance to their target firms. Further, biotechnology is a knowledge-based industry that tends to exhibit spatial clusters, and the firms in such industries may collocate to benefit from gaining access to local markets for specialized inputs (e.g., skilled researchers) and from local knowledge spillovers and network externalities. If such gains exist, we expect that the collocated firms should exhibit positively correlated performance, including in their ability to attract venture capital funds. The purpose of this paper is to empirically measure the strength and spatial extent of the relationships among the amount of funds raised by proximate biotechnology firms. We model these relationships with a spatial autoregression (SAR) model, and we control for characteristics of the biotechnology firms and the VC firms that provide their funds as well as site-specific factors. Based on our fitted SAR model, we find that the amount of venture capital raised by a particular biotechnology firm is significantly influenced by the number of VC firms and the VC funding levels raised by biotechnology firms located within a 10-mile radius, but these relationships are not statistically significant beyond this range.
Study on the Implications of Asynchronous GMO Approvals for EU Imports of Animal Feed Products
Nowicki, P.L. ; Aramyan, L.H. ; Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Dvortsin, L. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Perez Dominguez, I. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Kalaitzandonakes, N. ; Kaufman, J. ; Miller, D. ; Franke, L. ; Meerbeek, B. - \ 2010
Den Haag : LEI, part of Wageningen UR
dierhouderij - veehouderij - diervoedering - voersamenstelling - plantenvermeerdering - rassenkeuze (gewassen) - genetische modificatie - voederkwaliteit - europese unie - animal husbandry - livestock farming - animal feeding - feed formulation - propagation - choice of varieties - genetic engineering - forage quality - european union
The aim of this study is to understand the implications of asynchronous approvals for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that are imported to the European Union for use within animal feed products, specifically with regard to the EU livestock sector, as well as upon the upstream and downstream economic industries related to it. Asynchronous approval refers to the situation in which there is a delay in the moment when a genetically modified (GM) event – modifying a specific trait of a plant or animal – is allowed to be used in one country in comparison to another country. In the perspective of this study, the asynchronous GMO approvals concern the use of GM varieties of plants that are approved in the countries which supply them to the EU, in one form or another of feed material, before these are approved by the EU.
Considerations for future education in integrative landscape research
Tress, G. ; Tress, B. ; Fry, G. ; Opdam, P.F.M. ; Ahern, J.F. ; Antrop, M. ; Hartig, T. ; Hobbs, R. ; Miller, D. ; Silbernagel, J.M. ; Winder, N. - \ 2006
In: From Landscape Research to Landscape Planning : Aspects of Integration, Education and Application / Tress, B., Tress, G., Fry, G., Opdam, P.F.M., Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Springer (Wageningen UR Frontis Series 12) - ISBN 1402039786 - p. 423 - 432.
This chapter discusses challenges for PhD students involved in integrative landscape research. These challenges include terminology, epistemology, expectations, stakeholder involvement, organizational barriers, communicating and publishing, as well as career development. The chapter presents recommendations for future integrative landscape research involving PhD students and prospects for future education. The recommendations are based on our experiences in research and teaching in general, and on our exchanges with the students in the PhD master class in particular. The recommendations also reflect on the conclusions that can be drawn from the PhD students¿ contributions in this book.
The usefulness of in vitro models to predict the bioavailability of iron and zinc: A consensus statement from the HarvestPlus expert consultation
Fairweather-Tait, S. ; Lynch, S. ; Hotz, C. ; Hurrell, R. ; Abrahamse, L. ; Beebe, S. ; Bering, S. ; Bukhave, K. ; Glahn, R. ; Hambidge, M. ; Hunt, J. ; Lonnerdal, B. ; Miller, D. ; Mohktar, N. ; Nestel, P. ; Reddy, M. ; Sandberg, A.S. ; Sharp, P. ; Teucher, B. ; Trinidad, T.P. - \ 2005
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 75 (2005)6. - ISSN 0300-9831 - p. 371 - 374.
A combination of dietary and host-related factors determines iron and zinc absorption, and several in vitro methods have been developed as preliminary screening tools for assessing bioavailability. An expert committee has reviewed evidence for their usefulness and reached a consensus. Dialyzability (with and without simulated digestion) gives some useful information but cannot predict the correct magnitude of response and may sometimes predict the wrong direction of response. Caco-2 cell systems (with and without simulated digestion) have been developed for iron availability, but the magnitude of different effects does not always agree with results obtained in human volunteers, and the data for zinc are too limited to draw conclusions about the validity of the method. Caco-2 methodologies vary significantly between laboratories and require experienced technicians and good quality cell culture facilities to obtain reproducible results. Algorithms can provide semi-quantitative information enabling diets to be classified as high, moderate, or low bioavailability. While in vitro methods can be used to generate ideas and develop hypotheses, they cannot be used alone for important decisions concerning food fortification policy, selection of varieties for plant breeding programs, or for new product development in the food industry. Ultimately human studies are required for such determinations.