Follicular dynamics around the recruitment of the first follicular wave in the cow
Hendriksen, P.J.M. ; Gadella, B.M. ; Vos, P. ; Mullaart, E. ; Kruip, T.A.M. ; Dieleman, S.J. - \ 2003
Biology of Reproduction 69 (2003)6. - ISSN 0006-3363 - p. 2036 - 2044.
bovine ovarian-follicles - growth-factor system - side-chain cleavage - estrous-cycle - luteinizing-hormone - dominant follicle - developmental competence - aromatase-activity - antral follicles - granulosa-cells
The present study aimed to test the generally accepted view that a follicular wave starts with follicles newly recruited from the population smaller than 3 mm, which later compete for dominance. According to this view, subordinate follicles are expected to be too atretic to join the next follicular wave. Ten cows were ovariectomized shortly prior to the LH surge, thus around the start of the first follicular wave of the cycle. Per cow, on average, 14.4 follicles of ¿3 mm were dissected. Follicular health was determined on the basis of four parameters: 1) judgment of the degree of atresia by stereomicroscope, 2) incidence of apoptotic nuclei among the granulosa cells, 3) estradiol and progesterone concentrations, and 4) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) binding proteins (IGFBPs)-2, -4, and -5 concentrations in the follicular fluid. In addition to the preovulatory follicle, 3.1 other follicles, mainly sized 3¿4.5 mm, were found to be healthy based on the proportion of apoptotic nuclei, and concentrations of estradiol/progesterone, and IGFBPs. The ability of these follicles to respond with growth on the preovulatory and periovulatory FSH surges was supported by a comparison to the follicular population of four cows 31¿68 h after the LH surge. The present results point to an alteration of the view on the follicular wave. The larger follicles during the first days of the follicular wave are, in general, derived from follicles that also joined the previous wave. A portion of these growing follicles are estradiol active and compete for dominance. Other growing follicles lack estradiol production and are probably derived from rather atretic follicles. The first newly recruited follicles do not reach the size of 3 mm before 31 h after the preovulatory FSH surge. At that time, the larger follicles are already competing for dominance.
A Triple-Stain Flow Cytometric Method to Assess Plasma- and Acrosome-Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Bovine Sperm Immediately after Thawing in Presence of Egg-Yolk Particles
Nagy, S. ; Jansen, J. ; Topper, E.K. ; Gadella, B.M. - \ 2003
Biology of Reproduction 68 (2003). - ISSN 0006-3363 - p. 1828 - 1835.
mitochondrial-function - fluorometric assessments - propidium iodide - viability - spermatozoa - sybr-14 - jc-1
Simultaneously evaluating postthaw viability and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa by flow cytometry would provide a valuable testing tool in both research and routine work. In the present study, a new triple-stain combination was developed for the simultaneous evaluation of viability and acrosome integrity of bovine sperm processed in egg yolk-based extender by flow cytometer. SYBR-14 and propidium iodide (PI) enabled the discrimination of sperm cells from egg yolk and debris particles, which was instrumental for the flow cytometric analyses of frozen-thawed bovine sperm, because it implied that washing steps to remove egg yolk were no longer required. In addition, phycoerythrin-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PE-PNA) was used to discriminate acrosome-damaged/reacted sperm cells from acrosome-intact cells. Repeatability was calculated using two processed ejaculates of 10 bulls. Three straws per batch were analyzed in duplicate measurements. Method-agreement analysis between the SYBR-14/PE-PNA/PI and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated PNA was performed, with FITC-PNA/PI staining being carried out on 14 frozen-thawed semen samples immediately after thawing and after a 3-h incubation at 37¿°C. The British Standards Institution repeatability index of the SYBR-14/PE-PNA/PI combination was 2.6&Eth;On average, the FITC-PNA/PI method showed a 6.3 verestimation of the live and acrosome-intact sperm cell subpopulation. In conclusion, the new triple-stain combination is highly repeatable and easy to use in routine application, and it provides a more precise estimate for the rate of sperm cells with intact head membrane and acrosome compared to the generally used and validated FITC-PNA/PI staining