- Chair Nutrition and Health over the Lifecourse (2)
- Global Nutrition (2)
- HNE Nutrition and Health over the Lifecourse (2)
- VLAG (2)
- PE&RC (1)
- L. Fernandez-Celemin (1)
- L. Frost-Andersen (2)
- M. Hermoso (2)
- B. Koletzko (2)
- D.B. Lank (1)
- M.M. Raats (2)
- J. Ruprich (2)
- R. Shepherd (1)
- A.M. Sonne (2)
- A. Timmer (1)
- L. Timotijevic (2)
- C. Xu (1)
- R.C. Ydenberg (1)
Large and irregular population fluctuations in migratory Pacific (Calidris alpina pacifica) and Atlantic (C. a. hudsonica) dunlins are driven by density-dependence and climatic factors
Xu, C. ; Barnett, J. ; Lank, D.B. ; Ydenberg, R.C. - \ 2015
Population Ecology 57 (2015)4. - ISSN 1438-3896 - p. 551 - 567.
Understanding the forces driving population dynamics is critical for species conservation and population management. For migratory birds, factors that regulate population abundance could come from effects experienced on breeding areas, wintering grounds, or during migration. We compiled survey data for Pacific and Atlantic subspecies of dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica and C. a. hudsonica) from range-wide Christmas bird counts (1975–2010), and investigated the influences on this population index of density-dependence, falcon numbers, a set of seasonal environmental conditions during breeding, migration and non-breeding periods, and large-scale meteorological measures. For both sub-species, numbers fluctuated irregularly, varying threefold over the survey period, with no long-term upward or downward trend. Based on Royama’s general model framework, the change in numbers between successive years for both sub-species was negatively affected by the total count in the previous year (i.e., negative density-dependence) and by the eastward component of storm movement during fall migration, with slower motion associated with higher population growth. The remaining environmental factors differed between the sub-species (snowmelt date on the Pacific, temperature on the Atlantic) or acted in opposite directions (soil moisture). The directional effects of each of these factors are consistent with the biology of dunlin, and together they explain 67.4 (72.9 %) of the variation in the rate of change of Pacific (Atlantic) dunlin annual counts. Falcon numbers were not predictive, despite a tenfold increase in abundance, suggesting compensatory mortality. This study highlights directions for future studies, and provides a model for the analysis of other migratory species.
The process of setting micronutrient recommendations: a cross-European comparison of nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies
Timotijevic, L. ; Barnett, J. ; Brown, K. ; Shepherd, R. ; Fernandez-Celemin, L. ; Domolki, L. ; Ruprich, J. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Sonne, A.M. ; Hermoso, M. ; Koletzko, B. ; Frost-Andersen, L. ; Timmer, A. ; Raats, M.M. - \ 2011
Public Health Nutrition 14 (2011)4. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 716 - 728.
folic-acid - health-policy - risk - science - perspectives - expertise - politics - context - trial
Objective - To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design - Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants in the field of micronutrient recommendations and a case study that focused on mandatory folic acid (FA) fortification. Setting - Questionnaire-based data were collected across thirty-five European countries. The FA fortification case study was conducted in the UK, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain, Czech Republic and Hungary. Results - Varied bodies are responsible for setting micronutrient recommendations, each with different statutory and legal models of operation. Transparency is highest where there are standing scientific advisory committees (SAC). Where the standing SAC is created, the range of expertise and the terms of reference for the SAC are determined by the government. Where there is no dedicated SAC, the impetus for the development of micronutrient recommendations and the associated policies comes from interested specialists in the area. This is typically linked with an ad hoc selection of a problem area to consider, lack of openness and transparency in the decisions and over-reliance on international recommendations. Conclusions - Even when there is consensus about the science behind micronutrient recommendations, there is a range of other influences that will affect decisions about the policy approaches to nutrition-related public health. This indicates the need to document the evidence that is drawn upon in the decisions about nutrition policy related to micronutrient intake
Institutional contexts in which micronutrient reference values are developed across Europe
Timotijevic, L. ; Raats, M.M. ; Barnett, J. ; Brown, K. ; Fernandez, L. ; Domolki, L. ; Ruprich, J. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Sonne, A.M. ; Hermoso, M. ; Koletzko, B. ; Frost-Andersen, L. - \ 2010
Progress has been made towards a coherent public health nutrition policy across Europe; however this remains a challenge mainly due to the variety of public health nutrition (PHN) policy traditions between countries and the diversity in scientific bases used to inform policy(1) This is particularly apparent in the misalignment of micronutrient reference values (MRV) across European countries and regions(2). MRV often inform food and nutrition policies which are becoming an increasingly more important part of public health policies due to the burden associated with nutrition-related diseases. Desk research and a questionnaire completed by key informants were used to collect data relating to the processes used to develop current MRV in thirty-one European countries, employing methods reported previously(2). Data were collected on the process of scientific decision-making, including information on the transparency and openness of the process. Considerable diversity was observed across Europe in the institutional context and nutrition policy imperatives driving the process of developing MRV. In those countries that have an established tradition of PHN policy the presence of advisory bodies is seen as key in developing MRV and advising government departments charged with applying science into policy and practice. This position is partly predicated by the institutional context (whether there is a dedicated department in charge of public health and how it is linked with other departments, the diversity of bodies and organisations involved in setting the agendas and making decisions in PHN, the broader governance context etc.), the PHN tradition and the historical context. Although the implication for nutrition policy is that there is a dedicated scientific institution or basis that acts as policy advisor and consequently facilitates development of dedicated national-level nutrition policies, it raises the issue of the extent to which scientific advisory committees are open, transparent and inclusive in the process. It appears that there is a considerable divide in terms of the openness and transparency of the process between the countries with an emerging democracy and those with established and increasingly participatory governance structures; also, in the complexity of the governance system in charge of developing MRV and hence the extent to which these levels are specifically tailored to national needs. In those countries with a more developed institutional architecture, scientific advisory bodies appear to be more than just a source of technical and scientific advice, instead acting as a link between evidence and policy. In particular, the remaining question is to what extent this model of informing national level of PHN policy can service the policy imperatives and the needs of wider society for the development of PHN policy that includes the framing of a wider section of society. In addition, the selection of the advisory panel members is not always clear and could lead to MRV that are eminence rather than evidence based.