Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The use of forest stand age information in an atmospheric CO2 inversion applied to North America
Deng, F. ; Chen, J.M. ; Pan, Y. ; Peters, W. ; Birdsey, R. ; McCullough, K. ; Xiao, J. - \ 2013
Biogeosciences 10 (2013)8. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 5335 - 5348.
terrestrial carbon metabolism - conterminous united-states - general-circulation model - ponderosa pine - interannual variability - disturbance history - satellite imagery - flux inversion - climate-change - transport
Atmospheric inversions have become an important tool in quantifying carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks and sources at a variety of spatiotemporal scales, but associated large uncertainties restrain the inversion research community from reaching agreement on many important subjects. We enhanced an atmospheric inversion of the CO2 flux for North America by introducing spatially explicit information on forest stand age for US and Canada as an additional constraint, since forest carbon dynamics are closely related to time since disturbance. To use stand age information in the inversion, we converted stand age into an age factor, and included the covariances between subcontinental regions in the inversion based on the similarity of the age factors. Our inversion results show that, considering age factors, regions with recently disturbed or old forests are often nudged towards carbon sources, while regions with middle-aged productive forests are shifted towards sinks. This conforms to stand age effects observed in flux networks. At the subcontinental level, our inverted carbon fluxes agree well with continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) upscaled from eddy covariance flux data based on MODIS data. Inverted fluxes with the age constraint exhibit stronger correlation to these upscaled NEE estimates than those inverted without the age constraint. While the carbon flux at the continental and subcontinental scales is predominantly determined by atmospheric CO2 observations, the age constraint is shown to have potential to improve the inversion of the carbon flux distribution among subcontinental regions, especially for regions lacking atmospheric CO2 observations
Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia
Severance, E.G. ; Dickerson, F.B. ; Halling, M. ; Krivogorsky, B. ; Haile, L. ; Yang, S. ; Stallings, C.R. ; Origoni, A.E. ; Bossis, I. ; Xiao, J. ; Dupont, D. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Yolken, R.H. - \ 2010
Schizophrenia Research 118 (2010)1-3. - ISSN 0920-9964 - p. 240 - 247.
cows milk - occupational-status - antibodies - food - association - hypothesis - proteins - humans - blood
Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and immunoblotting, we characterized IgG class antibody specificity to whole bovine casein and to the as, ß, and ¿ subunits in individuals with recent onset psychosis (n = 95), long-term schizophrenia (n = 103), and non-psychiatric controls (n = 65). In both patient groups, we found elevated IgG to casein proteins, particularly to whole casein and the as subunit (p = 0.0001). Odds ratios of casein seroprevalence for recent onset psychosis (age-, gender-, race-, smoking-adjusted) were significant for whole casein (8.13, p = 0.0001), and the as (7.89, p = 0.0001), ß (5.23, p = 0.001) and ¿ (5.70, p = 0.0001) subunits. Odds ratios for long-term schizophrenia were significant for whole casein (7.85, p = 0.0001), and the as (4.78, p = 0.003) and ¿ (4.92, p = 0.004) subunits. Within the recent onset group, odds ratios were particularly significant for a subgroup of people with psychotic disorders that included major depressive disorders (8.22–16.48, p = 0.0001). In a different recent onset subgroup (schizophrenia-spectrum disorders), PANSS scores for negative symptoms were correlated with casein antibody levels for the as and ¿ subunits (p = 0.001–0.01). Immunoblotting patterns also exhibited group specificity, with ¿ predominant in recent onset and as in schizophrenia (Fisher's Exact Test, p = 0.001). The elevated IgG and unique patterns of antibody specificity to bovine casein among diagnostic groups provide a rationale for clinical trials to evaluate efficacies of dietary modifications in individuals with neuropsychiatric diseases.
Strategic assessment of the magnitude and impacts of sand mining in Poyang Lake, China
Leeuw, J. de; Shankman, D. ; Wu, G. ; Boer, W.F. de; Burnham, J. ; He, Q. ; Yesou, H. ; Xiao, J. - \ 2010
Regional Environmental Change 10 (2010)2. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 95 - 102.
yangtze-river
Planning for the extraction of aggregates is typically dealt with at a case to case basis, without assessing environmental impacts strategically. In this study we assess the impact of sand mining in Poyang Lake, where dredging began in 2001 after sand mining in the Yangtze River had been banned. In April 2008 concern over the impact on the biodiversity led to a ban on sand mining in Poyang Lake until further plans could be developed. Planning will require consideration of both sand extraction in relation to available sediment resources and also environmental impacts within the context of future demand for sand in the lower Yangtze Valley. We used pairs of near-infrared (NIR) Aster satellite imagery to estimate the number of vessels leaving the lake. Based on this we calculated a rate of sand extraction of 236 million m3 year-1 in 2005–2006. This corresponds to 9% of the total Chinese demand for sand. It qualifies Poyang Lake as probably the largest sand mining operation in the world. It also indicates that sand extraction currently dominates the sediment balance of the lower Yangtze River. A positive relation between demand for sand and GDP, revealed by historic data from the USA, suggests that the current per capita demand for sand in China might increase in the near future from 2 to 4 m3 year-1. We review various environmental impacts and question whether it will be possible to preserve the rich biodiversity of the lake, while continuing at the same time satisfying the increasing Chinese demand for sand. Finally we review alternative options for sand mining, in order to relieve the pressure from the Poyang Lake ecosystem
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