- H.R. Harhangi (1)
- J.A. Harvey (1)
- C.A. Hordijk (1)
- J.J. Jansen (1)
- V. Kalia (1)
- V. Mathur (4)
- C.E. Raaijmakers (1)
- A.S. Reddy (4)
- T.O.G. Tytgat (2)
- L.E.M. Vet (4)
- R. Wagenaar (1)
An ecogenomic analysis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in Brassica juncea
Mathur, V. ; Tytgat, T.O.G. ; Hordijk, C.A. ; Harhangi, H.R. ; Jansen, J.J. ; Reddy, A.S. ; Harvey, J.A. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Dam, N.M. van - \ 2013
Molecular Ecology 22 (2013)24. - ISSN 0962-1083 - p. 6179 - 6196.
parasitoids cotesia-glomerata - brussels-sprouts plants - green leaf volatiles - arabidopsis-thaliana - glucosinolate hydrolysis - secondary metabolism - nicotiana-attenuata - insect herbivores - natural enemies - jasmonic acid
Upon herbivore feeding, plants emit complex bouquets of induced volatiles that may repel insect herbivores as well as attract parasitoids or predators. Due to differences in the temporal dynamics of individual components, the composition of the herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blend changes with time. Consequently, the response of insects associated with plants is not constant either. Using Brassica juncea as the model plant and generalist Spodoptera spp. larvae as the inducing herbivore, we investigated herbivore and parasitoid preference as well as the molecular mechanisms behind the temporal dynamics in HIPV emissions at 24, 48 and 72 h after damage. In choice tests, Spodoptera litura moth preferred undamaged plants, whereas its parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris favoured plants induced for 48 h. In contrast, the specialist Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid C. vestalis preferred plants induced for 72 h. These preferences matched the dynamic changes in HIPV blends over time. Gene expression analysis suggested that the induced response after Spodoptera feeding is mainly controlled by the jasmonic acid pathway in both damaged and systemic leaves. Several genes involved in sulphide and green leaf volatile synthesis were clearly up-regulated. This study thus shows that HIPV blends vary considerably over a short period of time, and these changes are actively regulated at the gene expression level. Moreover, temporal changes in HIPVs elicit differential preferences of herbivores and their natural enemies. We argue that the temporal dynamics of HIPVs may play a key role in shaping the response of insects associated with plants.
Dealing with double trouble: consequences of single and double herbivory in Brassica juncea
Mathur, V. ; Tytgat, T.O.G. ; Graaf, R.M. de; Kalia, V. ; Reddy, A.S. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Dam, N.M. van - \ 2013
Chemoecology 23 (2013)2. - ISSN 0937-7409 - p. 71 - 82.
induced plant-responses - milkweed asclepias-syriaca - plutella-xylostella - specialist herbivores - induced resistance - diamondback moth - wild radish - nicotiana-attenuata - insect resistance - black mustard
In their natural environment, plants are often attacked simultaneously by many insect species. The specificity of induced plant responses that is reported after single herbivore attacks may be compromised under double herbivory and this may influence later arriving herbivores. The present study focuses on the dynamics of induced plant responses induced by single and double herbivory, and their effects on successive herbivores. Morphological (leaf length, area and trichome density) and chemical changes (leaf alkenyl and indole glucosinolates) in Brassica juncea were evaluated 4, 10, 14 and 20 days after damage by the specialist Plutella xylostella alone, or together with the generalist Spodoptera litura. To assess the biological effect of the plant's responses, the preference and performance of both herbivores on previously induced plants were measured. We found that alkenyl glucosinolates were induced 20 days after damage by P. xylostella alone, whereas their levels were elevated as early as 4 days after double herbivory. Trichome density was increased in both treatments, but was higher after double herbivory. Interestingly, there was an overall decrease in indole glucosinolates and an increase in leaf size due to damage by P. xylostella, which was not observed during double damage. S. litura preferred and performed better on undamaged plants, whereas P. xylostella preferred damaged plants and performed better on plants damaged 14 and 10 days after single and double herbivory, respectively. Our results suggest that temporal studies involving single versus multiple attacker situations are necessary to comprehend the role of induced plant responses in plant-herbivore interactions.
A novel indirect defence in Brassicaceae: structure and function of extrafloral nectaries in Brassica juncea.
Mathur, V. ; Wagenaar, R. ; Caissard, J.C. ; Reddy, A.S. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Cortesero, A.M. ; Dam, N.M. van - \ 2013
Plant, Cell & Environment 36 (2013)3. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 528 - 541.
ant-plant mutualism - carbohydrate production - napus brassicaceae - macaranga-tanarius - floral nectaries - herbivores - secretion - host - induction - responses
While nectaries are commonly found in flowers, some plants also form extrafloral nectaries on stems or leaves. For the first time in the family Brassicaceae, here we report extrafloral nectaries in Brassica juncea. The extrafloral nectar (EFN) was secreted from previously amorphic sites on stems, flowering stalks and leaf axils from the onset of flowering until silique formation. Transverse sections at the point of nectar secretion revealed a pocket-like structure whose opening was surrounded by modified stomatal guard cells. The EFN droplets were viscous and up to 50% of the total weight was sugars, 97% of which was sucrose in the five varieties of B. juncea examined. Threonine, glutamine, arginine and glutamate were the most abundant amino acids. EFN droplets also contained glucosinolates, mainly gluconapin and sinigrin. Nectar secretion was increased when the plants were damaged by chewing above- and belowground herbivores and sap-sucking aphids. Parasitoids of each herbivore species were tested for their preference, of which three parasitoids preferred EFN and sucrose solutions over water. Moreover, the survival and fecundity of parasitoids were positively affected by feeding on EFN. We conclude that EFN production in B. juncea may contribute to the indirect defence of this plant species.
Temporal dynamics of herbivore-induced responses in Brassica juncea and their effect on generalist and specialist herbivores
Mathur, V. ; Ganta, S. ; Raaijmakers, C.E. ; Reddy, A.S. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Dam, N.M. van - \ 2011
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 139 (2011)3. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 215 - 225.
plant defense syndromes - black mustard - oilseed rape - wild radish - glucosinolate - volatiles - induction - insect - performance - population
Herbivore feeding may induce an array of responses in plants, and each response may have its own temporal dynamics. Precise timing of these plant responses is vital for them to have optimal effect on the herbivores feeding on the plant. This study measured the temporal dynamics of various systemically induced responses occurring in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (Brassicaceae) leaves after insect herbivory in India and The Netherlands. Morphological (trichomes, leaf size) and chemical (glucosinolates, amino acids, sugars) responses were analysed. The effects of systemic responses were assessed using a specialist [Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)] and a generalist [Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] herbivore. We tested the hypotheses that morphological responses were slower than chemical responses and that generalist herbivores would be more affected by induced responses than specialists. Glucosinolates and trichomes were found to increase systemically as quickly as 4 and 7 days after herbivore damage, respectively. Amino acids, sugars, and leaf size remained unaffected during this period. The generalist S. litura showed a significant feeding preference for undamaged leaves, whereas the specialist herbivore P. xylostella preferred leaves that were damaged 9 days before. Performance bioassays on generalist S. litura revealed that larvae gained half the weight on leaves from damaged plants as compared to larvae feeding on leaves from undamaged plants. These studies show that although morphological responses are somewhat slower than chemical responses, they also contribute to induced plant resistance in a relatively short time span. We argue that before considering induced responses as resistance factors, their effect should be assessed at various points in time with both generalist and specialist herbivores.