Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plants: recommendations from a 1st SETAC Europe workshop
Arts, G.H.P. ; Dollinger, M. ; Kohlschmid, Eva ; Maltby, Lorraine ; Ochoa-Acuna, H. ; Poulsen, V. - \ 2017
Brussels : SETAC - 55 p.
Ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and management of nontarget terrestrial plants: updated summary and recommendations from SETAC Europe workshop
Arts, G.H.P. ; Maltby, L. ; Dollinger, M. ; Kohlschmid, E. ; Mayer, C. ; Meregalli, G. ; Ochoa-Acuna, H. ; Poulsen, V. ; Streissl, F. - \ 2017
An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plants: recommendations from a SETAC Europe workshop
Maltby, L. ; Arts, G.H.P. ; Dollinger, M. ; Kohlschmid, Eva ; Ochoa-Acuna, H. ; Poulsen, V. - \ 2015
In: SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting Abstract Book. - SETAC - p. 478 - 479.
The registration of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) in the EU is under Regulation 1107/2009, which recommends a tiered approach to assessing the risk to non-target terrestrial plants (NTTPs). However, little information is provided on how to perform and implement higher tier studies or how to use them to refine the risk assessments. Therefore a stakeholder workshop was organized to consolidate current knowledge and expertise to aid the further development of testing and assessment procedures for NTTPs. The agreed recommendations of the workshop relate to the three main themes, i.e. specific protection goals, risk assessment and mitigation. The participants of the workshop adopted the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approach of using an ecosystem services framework for identifying specific protection goals. First, delivery and protection of ecosystem services were discussed for in-crop, in-field ànd off-crop, and off-field areas. Second, lower and higher tier risk assessment methods, including modelling approaches, were evaluated. Third, options for risk mitigation of spray drift and run-off were discussed and evaluated. NTTPs provide a wide range of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services and may occur in-crop, off-crop/in-field and off-field. The workshop participants agreed that the type and relative importance of ecosystem services provided by NTTPs differ between different areas both in field and off field. A number of higher-tier options were identified and the benefits from these options addressed. A number of concerns were raised around these options and actions taken in order to reduce uncertainty. For the initial tiers, concern was especially raised around uncertainty related to test species (are standard test species protective for wild species?) and endpoints (are current regulatory endpoints protective of reproductive endpoints ?). At the level of field- or other multispecies-studies, participants concluded that these studies pose a challenge due to limited experience with this type of study and the absence of guidelines (what to measure and how ?). Related to exposure, the main question was what is the relative importance of different exposure pathways to non-target terrestrial plants ? These questions were translated into specific actions including collating and reviewing data and literature. The workshop report is foreseen for the first months of 2015 and will include the outcome of the specific actions.
An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plants: recommendations from a SETAC Europe workshop
Maltby, L. ; Arts, G.H.P. ; Dollinger, M. ; Kohlschmid, Eva ; Ochoa-Acuna, H. ; Poulsen, V. - \ 2015
An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plants: recommendations from two SETAC Europe workshops
Arts, G.H.P. ; Maltby, L. ; Dollinger, M. ; Kohlschmid, E. ; Mayer, C. - \ 2015
An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plant: recommendations from a SETAC Europe workshop
Arts, G.H.P. ; Dollinger, M. ; Kohlschmid, E. ; Maltby, L. ; Ochoa-Acuna, H. ; Poulsen, V. - \ 2015
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22 (2015)3. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 2350 - 2355.
protection
The registration of plant protection products (PPPs) in the EU is under Regulation 1107/2009, which recommends a tiered approach to assessing the risk to non-target terrestrial plants (NTTPs). However, little information is provided on how to perform and implement higher tier studies or how to use them to refine the risk assessments. Therefore, a stakeholder workshop was organized to consolidate current knowledge and expertise to aid the further development of testing and assessment procedures for NTTPs. This brief communication highlights the agreed recommendations of the workshop, which relate to the three main themes, i.e. specific protection goals, risk assessment and mitigation. The participants of the workshop adopted the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approach of using an ecosystem services framework for identifying specific protection goals. First, delivery and protection of ecosystem services were discussed for in-crop, in-field and off-crop, and off-field areas. Second, lower and higher tier risk assessment methods, including modelling approaches, were evaluated. Third, options for risk mitigation of spray drift and run-off were discussed and evaluated. Several important knowledge gaps were identified, and specific data collation and literature-based tasks were actioned to begin to address them. A full workshop report is planned for the fall of 2014.
Aquatic macrophyte risk Assessment: current status anbd future challenges
Arts, G.H.P. ; Davies, J. ; Dollinger, M. ; Giddings, J. ; Hanson, M. ; Knauer, K. ; Hommen, U. ; Loutseti, S. - \ 2011
In: Innovative approaches for the management of environmental risks from plant protection products, Montpellier, France, 26 - 28 October, 2011. - Montpellier, France : Euraqua-PEER - p. 10 - 10.
Aquatic macrophytes fulfill critical functions in ecosystems, contributing to structure and function. Aside from the floating, non-sediment rooting duckweed species (Lemna spp.), other aquatic macrophytes are not routinely considered in standard risk assessments for chemicals in Europe yet. In the pesticide regulation (1107/2009/EC) Lemna spp. are the Tier 1 test species. However, they differ from rooted and submerged macrophytes, most markedly in their short generation time and free-floating growth form. The concern, that risk assessments based on endpoints derived from tests with Lemna may not be protective for other macrophyte species, was a driving reason for the workshop “Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides” (AMRAP) in 2008. The participants concluded that the risk assessment based on data obtained from Lemna studies may not be sufficiently protective in certain cases. Additional triggers for further testing were defined including the specific mode of action of pesticides and the possible exposure of macrophytes via sediment. Therefore, an additional Tier 1 test with a rooted dicotyledonous macrophyte, Myriophyllum spp., was proposed. Test protocols for Myriophyllum sp. are currently being ring-tested in order to become a standardized OECD test. If concern over the safety of a pesticide is still present after Tier 1 testing and risk evaluation, higher-tier assessments may be performed through e.g. the generation of further macrophyte species data for use in species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), or by conducting multi-species tests or microcosm and mesocosm studies. Species Sensitivity Distribution analyses on 14 compounds performed by a working group with Aquatic Macrophyte Ecoxicology Group (or AMEG, which emerged out of the AMRAP workshop) found that effects on L. gibba and the four algal species required for US pesticide registration are in most cases protective for rooted and submerged macrophyte species. Exceptions can generally be predicted based on the mode of action of the chemical. In European pesticide regulation (1107/2009/EC) Myriophyllum spp. and Glyceria maxima have recently been proposed as additional test species. Other regulatory frameworks include the Water Framework Directive (WFD) which aims to achieve a ‘good’ ecological and chemical status for all surface waters in the EU. Attainment of this status requires that chemical concentrations meet Environmental Quality Standards based on ecotoxicological data. The integration of climate change and how it can modify our understanding of ecosystems and effects in the field for risk evaluation poses additional challenges for aquatic macrophyte risk assessment. For example, modeling tools are needed to predict the effects of changing water temperature on plant growth and development and changing hydrological regimens might change exposure. While the potential effects and manner in which climate change might be manifest in freshwater ecosystems are still being discussed and quantified, the integration of these aspects into risk assessments is missing. Working on these concepts and translating patterns into robust aquatic macrophyte risk assessments is one of the challenging topics for future research.
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