The Wadden Sea Region: Towards a science for sustainable development
Kabat, P. ; Bazelmans, J. ; Dijk, J. van; Hermans, P. ; Oijen, T. van - \ 2012
Ocean & Coastal Management 68 (2012). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 4 - 17.
social-ecological systems - southern north-sea - tidal basin - level rise - ems estuary - netherlands - ecosystem - climate - management - transformations
The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. Major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic influences such as coastal protection, land claim from the sea and drainage of wetland for agriculture, exploitation of natural resources from hunting and fishing to the extraction of groundwater, gas and oil, industrialisation at port locations and tourism at the islands. A sustainable future can only be achieved if policy and management are backed by solid science. Many of the anticipated changes result from the upscaling of pressures on the Wadden Sea system. Economic globalization leads to upscaling of fisheries, tourism and industrial activities, and thus to changed pressures on space and nature. Climate change will lead to changes in hydrographic patterns, species distribution and possibly tourism; through sea-level rise it will put pressure on coastal protection and the extent of intertidal areas. Invasions of exotic species will transform the ecosystem. There are three major related challenges to management: 1. Nature conservation in a changing system requires a focus on preservation of the values and not the state of the system; 2. The adaptation of the management structure to the scale increase of the pressures, so that local and regional management becomes better nested in transregional and transnational governance structures; 3. Finally, the management approach needs to deal with increasing uncertainty in external forcing of the system, as well as with nonlinearities in system dynamics when it is pushed outside its normal range of operation. Based on these pressures and management challenges, we advocate an integrated social-ecological systems approach for the scientific study and the science-based management of the Wadden Sea Region. The essential characteristics of this approach are strong interdisciplinarity and a focus on aspects of scale and cumulative processes.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure does not modulate Toll-like receptor signaling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
Kleijn, S. de; Bouwens, M. ; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L. ; Cuppen, J.J.M. ; Ferwerda, G. ; Hermans, P. - \ 2011
Cytokine 54 (2011)1. - ISSN 1043-4666 - p. 43 - 50.
magnetic-fields - cytokine production - childhood leukemia - interferon-gamma - pooled analysis - stimulation - macrophages - induction - tlr4 - rats
The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on human health remain unclear. It has been reported that ELF-EMF may modulate the innate immune response to microorganisms in animal models and mammalian cell-lines. With the recently gained insight in innate immune signaling and the discovery of pattern recognition, we aim to study whether ELF-EMF modulates innate inflammatory signaling pathways. We used human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from blood from healthy volunteers, which we stimulated with specific TLR2 and TLR4 ligands, and with several microorganisms. The cells were subsequently exposed in Bdc = 3 lT to a highly controlled and standardized ELF-EMF signal (20–5000 Hz, Bac = 5 lT, 30 min) and cytokine production was measured at different time points after stimulation. No significant difference in immune response, as reflected by IL-1b, IL-6, TNFa, IL-8 and IL-10 production, could be detected after stimulation with LPS (TLR4 ligand), Pam3Cys (TLR2 ligand) or a panel of heat killed microorganisms: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Staphylococcus aureus (multiple TLR ligands). We therefore conclude that under our experimental conditions, ELF-EMF does not modulate the innate immune response of human primary cells after TLR stimulation in vitro.