Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Pure epicatechin and inflammatory gene expression profiles in circulating immune cells in (pre) hypertensive adults; a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial
Esser, D. ; Dower, J.I. ; Matualatupauw, J.C. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kromhout, D. ; Hollman, P.C.H. ; Afman, L.A. - \ 2018
Homo sapiens - GSE84453 - PRJNA329219
Introduction: There is increasing evidence that consumption of cocoa products have a beneficial effect on cardio-metabolic health, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Cocoa contains a complex mixture of flavan-3-ols. Epicatechin, a major monomeric flavan-3-ol, is considered to contribute to the cardio-protective effects of cocoa. We investigated effects of pure epicatechin supplementation on whole genome gene expression profiles of circulating immune cells. Methods: In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial, 37 (pre)hypertensive (40-80y) subjects received two 4-week interventions; epicatechin (100mg/day) or placebo with a wash-out period of 4-week between both interventions. Whole genome gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined before and after both interventions. Results: After epicatechin supplementation 1180 genes were significantly regulated, of which 234 were also significantly regulated compared to placebo. Epicatechin supplementation up-regulated gene sets involved in transcription/translation and tubulin folding and down-regulated gene sets involved in inflammation. Only a few genes within these regulated gene sets were actually significantly changed upon epicatechin supplementation. Upstream regulators that were shown to be inhibited were classified as cytokine or inflammatory type molecules. Conclusion: Pure epicatechin supplementation modestly reduced gene expression related to inflammation signalling routes in circulating immune cells. These routes are known to play a role in cardiovascular health.
Pure flavonoid epicatechin and whole genome gene expression profiles in circulating immune cells in adults with elevated blood pressure: A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial
Esser, Diederik ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Matualatupauw, Juri C. ; Dower, James I. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Hollman, Peter C.H. ; Afman, Lydia A. - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)4. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 15 p.
Cocoa consumption has beneficial cardiometabolic effects, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Epicatechin, the cocoa major monomeric flavan-3-ol, is considered to contribute to these cardio-protective effects. We investigated effects of pure epicatechin supplementation on gene expression profiles of immune cells in humans. In a double blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial, 32 (pre)hypertensive subjects aged 30 to 80, received two 4-week interventions, i.e. epicatechin (100mg/day) or placebo with a 4-week wash-out between interventions. Gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined before and after both interventions. Epicatechin regulated 1180 genes, of which 234 differed from placebo. Epicatechin upregulated gene sets involved in transcription and tubulin folding and downregulated gene sets involved in inflammation, PPAR signalling and adipogenesis. Several negatively enriched genes within these gene sets were involved in insulin signalling. Most inhibited upstream regulators within the epicatechin intervention were cytokines or involved in inflammation. No upstream regulators were identified compared to placebo. Epicatechin, a cocoa flavan-3-ol, reduces gene expression involved in inflammation, PPAR-signalling and adipogenesis in immune cells. Effects were mild but our findings increase our understanding and provide new leads on how epicatechin rich products like cocoa may affect immune cells and exert cardiometabolic protective effects.
Dietary medium-chain saturated fatty acids induce gene expression of energy metabolism-related pathways in adipose tissue of abdominally obese subjects
Matualatupauw, J.C. ; Bohl, Mette ; Gregersen, Søren ; Hermansen, K. ; Afman, L.A. - \ 2017
International Journal of Obesity 41 (2017)9. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 1348 - 1354.
Background:Dietary medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) have been shown to reduce total body fat. Previously, we showed that MC-SFAs prevent body fat accumulation, despite weight gain. Here, we aim to explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of MC-SFAs on body fat gain.Methods:The DairyHealth study examined the long-Term effects of milk protein and milk fat with a low or high content of MC-SFA. In this 12 week, randomized, double-blind, diet intervention study, participants consumed 60 g milk protein (whey or casein) and 63 g milk fat (high MC-SFA or low MC-SFA) daily in a two by two factorial design. We used microarrays to measure whole genome gene expression changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue in a subpopulation of 12 participants, 6 in the low MC-SFA+casein group and 6 in the high MC-SFA+casein group. Gene expression of several genes that were found to be changed by MC-SFAs was confirmed in the full study population using qPCR.Results:High MC-SFA resulted in an upregulation of gene expression related to citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, and a downregulation of gene expression related to complement system and inflammation.Conclusions:We hypothesize that the beneficial effects of MC-SFAs on prevention of fat accumulation are mediated via increased gene expression related to energy metabolism in the adipose tissue. Decreases in inflammation-related gene expression may have beneficial effects in relation to cardiometabolic diseases.
Differences in transcriptional responses to acute and chronic dietary interventions with fatty acids
Matualatupauw, Juri C. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Sander Kersten, co-promotor(en): Lydia Afman; J. Bouwman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432078 - 172
fatty acids - gene expression - genotyping - phenotypes - nutritional intervention - transcriptomics - fish oils - apolipoprotein e - adipose tissue - microarrays - polymerase chain reaction - vetzuren - genexpressie - fenotypen - maatregel op voedingsgebied - transcriptomica - visoliën - apolipoproteïne e - vetweefsel - polymerase-kettingreactie

Various types of dietary fatty acids have different effects on human health. The aim of this thesis was to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of dietary fatty acids. To do this, we examined changes in whole genome gene expression profiles upon both acute as well as longer term dietary fatty acid interventions. Furthermore, from previous research, it is clear that large inter-individual differences in the response to dietary fatty acids exist. We used whole genome gene expression analyses to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying some of these inter-individual differences.

Many modifiable and non-modifiable factors can be the cause of these inter-individual differences. In chapter 2, we reviewed all studies that examined differences in the transcriptional response to dietary interventions based on the presence of one of these factors. These include gender, age, BMI, body composition, blood lipid levels and gut microbial composition. We conclude that transcriptome analyses are well-suited for studying the underlying mechanisms behind these differences in the response to diet. Nevertheless, the number of studies that use this approach remains limited.

Another factor that may modify the response to a dietary intervention is genetics, e.g. the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) variant. People who carry the APOE4 allele have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Fish-oil supplementation may help in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, though inter-individual differences in the response to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on gene expression profiles have been observed. In chapter 3, we aimed to assess the impact of APOE4 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) whole genome gene expression at baseline and following a 6-month fish-oil intervention. We observed increased gene expression of IFN signaling and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways in APOE4 carriers, which might explain part of the association between APOE4 and CVD. Furthermore, fish-oil supplementation may be beneficial by decreasing interferon signalling-related gene expression in APOE4 carriers.

Another long-term dietary intervention with fatty acids was studied in chapter 4. We examined the effect of a 12-week high medium-chain saturated fatty acid diet on subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression profiles. We observed increased expression of genes involved in oxidative energy metabolism and decreased inflammation-related gene expression due to the high medium-chain saturated fatty acid intake. Considering the role of the adipose tissue in sustaining the low-grade inflammation that is associated with obesity, these findings may be indicative of a more anti-inflammatory phenotype of the adipose tissue. We concluded that medium-chain saturated fatty acids may potentially have beneficial effects on adipose tissue functioning.

Besides studying the effects of long-term interventions with fatty acids on whole genome gene expression, we also examined the effects of acute high-fat challenges. In chapter 5, we determined the additional value of determining whole genome gene expression changes in response to a high-fat challenge compared to assessment at fasting only. In addition, we aimed to identify whether a 4 week high-fat high-calorie diet can induce a shift in gene expression profiles in healthy subjects towards a metabolic syndrome-like gene expression profile. We found that fasting whole blood whole genome gene expression profiles are highly responsive to a 4-week high-fat high-calorie diet, with changes in in the direction of a metabolic syndrome-like gene expression profile. High-fat challenge responses in healthy subjects show only minimal changes in gene expression upon the dietary intervention and a marginal shift in the direction of the metabolic syndrome. We concluded that fasting gene expression profiles are more responsive compared to high-fat challenge responses to a 4-week high-fat high-calorie diet.

Besides chapter 5, several other studies have also examined changes in whole genome gene expression in blood cells induced by high-fat challenges. In chapter 6, we combined microarray data from four high-fat challenge studies varying in study population, challenge composition and research laboratory. By performing this meta-analysis, we showed a general PBMC whole genome gene expression response to a high-fat challenge. We concluded that a meta-analysis provides added value for the discovery of consistently differentially expressed genes and pathways compared to selecting only those genes and pathways that are identified in all separate studies.

In conclusion, in this thesis we showed differences in the whole genome gene expression response to fish-oil supplementation in PBMCs of APOE4 carriers vs non-carriers. Furthermore, the effects on whole genome gene expression of the two long-term dietary interventions, i.e. the fish-oil supplementation in PBMCs of APOE4 carriers and the high medium-chain saturated fatty acid diet in adipose tissue, may be beneficial by downregulation of gene expression related to inflammation. We also showed that whole genome gene expression responses to high-fat challenges are affected by a 4-week high-fat high-calorie diet, though changes in fasting gene expression profiles are much more pronounced. Finally, we showed the value of meta-analysis of microarray data in high-fat challenge studies for identifying the general response to a high-fat challenge.

Apolipoprotein E genotype status affects habitual human blood mononuclear cell gene expression and its response to fish oil intervention
Matualatupauw, J.C. ; Radonjic, M. ; Rest, O. van de; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Müller, M.R. ; Afman, L.A. - \ 2016
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 60 (2016)7. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 1649 - 1660.
Scope
People who carry the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) single nucleotide polymorphism have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fish-oil supplementation may help in the prevention of CVD, though interindividual differences in the response to n-3 PUFAs have been observed. We aimed to assess the impact of APOE genotype on peripheral blood mononuclear cell whole genome gene expression at baseline and following a fish-oil intervention.

Methods and results
Participants received 6 months of fish-oil supplementation containing 1800 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid per day. APOE genotype and peripheral blood mononuclear cell whole genome gene expression before and after supplementation were measured. We characterized the differences in gene expression profiles in carriers of APOE4 (N = 8) compared to noncarriers (N = 15). At baseline, 1320 genes were differentially expressed and the fish-oil supplementation differentially regulated 866 genes between APOE4 carriers and noncarriers. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that carriers had a higher gene expression of cholesterol biosynthesis and IFN signaling pathways. Fish-oil supplementation reduced expression of IFN-related genes in carriers only.

Conclusion
The increased expression of IFN signaling and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways might explain part of the association between APOE4 and CVD. Fish-oil supplementation may particularly benefit APOE4 carriers by decreasing expression of IFN-related genes.
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