Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Records 1 - 20 / 95

  • help
  • print

    Print search results

  • export

    Export search results

  • alert
    We will mail you new results for this query: metisnummer==1135120
Check title to add to marked list
Drought and soil fertility modify fertilization effects on aphid performance in wheat
Tamburini, Giovanni ; Gils, Stijn van; Kos, Martine ; Putten, Wim van der; Marini, Lorenzo - \ 2018
Basic and Applied Ecology 30 (2018). - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 23 - 31.
Agricultural intensification - Cereals - Climate change - Grain aphid - Nitrogen - Soil organic matter - Water availability

Agricultural intensification and climate change are expected to affect pest performance through excessive inputs of chemical fertilizers and increased probability of extreme drought events. Potential interactive effects of fertilization and water availability on aboveground pest performance may depend on soil fertility because of its effect on nutrient availability. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the effects of inorganic fertilization on the performance of the grain aphid (Sitobion avenae, F.), an important pest of wheat, under different conditions of soil fertility and water availability. We found soil fertility and water availability to influence the positive effects of inorganic fertilizers on aphid growth, i.e. fertilization promoted faster aphid development time and higher fecundity and biomass under low fertility and under well-watered conditions. Moreover, although increased soil fertility favored aphid growth under well-watered conditions, it simultaneously sustained plant development. The current practices promoting soil fertility do not have direct negative consequence on crop protection under conventional cropping systems.

Enhancing Soil Organic Matter as a Route to the Ecological Intensification of European Arable Systems
Garratt, M.P.D. ; Bommarco, R. ; Kleijn, D. ; Martin, E. ; Mortimer, S.R. ; Redlich, S. ; Senapathi, D. ; Steffan-Dewenter, I. ; Świtek, S. ; Takács, V. ; Gils, S. van; Putten, W.H. van der; Potts, S.G. - \ 2018
Ecosystems (2018). - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 1 - 12.
aphids - arable farming - ecological intensification - fertiliser, soil organic matter
Soil organic matter (SOM) is declining in most agricultural ecosystems, impacting multiple ecosystem services including erosion and flood prevention, climate and greenhouse gas regulation as well as other services that underpin crop production, such as nutrient cycling and pest control. Ecological intensification aims to enhance crop productivity by including regulating and supporting ecosystem service management into agricultural practices. We investigate the potential for increased SOM to support the ecological intensification of arable systems by reducing the need for nitrogen fertiliser application and pest control. Using a large-scale European field trial implemented across 84 fields in 5 countries, we tested whether increased SOM (using soil organic carbon as a proxy) helps recover yield in the absence of conventional nitrogen fertiliser and whether this also supports crops less favourable to key aphid pests. Greater SOM increased yield by 10%, but did not offset nitrogen fertiliser application entirely, which improved yield by 30%. Crop pest responses depended on species: Metopolophium dirhodum were more abundant in fertilised plots with high crop biomass, and although population growth rates of Sitobion avenae were enhanced by nitrogen fertiliser application in a cage trial, field populations were not affected. We conclude that under increased SOM and reduced fertiliser application, pest pressure can be reduced, while partially compensating for yield deficits linked to fertiliser reduction. If the benefits of reduced fertiliser application and increased SOM are considered in a wider environmental context, then a yield cost may become acceptable. Maintaining or increasing SOM is critical for achieving ecological intensification of European cereal production.
Onafhankelijk : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 12 (2017)4. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 5 - 5.
Eerstejaarsweekend : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 12 (2017)5. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 5 - 5.
Heimwee : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 12 (2017)6. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 5 - 5.
Combined effects of agrochemicals and ecosystem services on crop yield across Europe
Gagic, Vesna ; Kleijn, David ; Báldi, András ; Boros, Gergely ; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht ; Elek, Zoltán ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Groot, Arjen de; Hedlund, Katarina ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Martin, Emily A. ; Pevere, Ines ; Potts, Simon G. ; Redlich, Sarah ; Senapathi, Deepa ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf ; Świtek, Stanislaw ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Takács, Viktória ; Tryjanowski, Piotr ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Gils, Stijn van; Bommarco, Riccardo - \ 2017
Ecology Letters 20 (2017)11. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1427 - 1436.
Agricultural intensification - biological pest control - ecological intensification - fertilisers - insecticides - landscape complexity - soil organic carbon - yield loss

Simultaneously enhancing ecosystem services provided by biodiversity below and above ground is recommended to reduce dependence on chemical pesticides and mineral fertilisers in agriculture. However, consequences for crop yield have been poorly evaluated. Above ground, increased landscape complexity is assumed to enhance biological pest control, whereas below ground, soil organic carbon is a proxy for several yield-supporting services. In a field experiment replicated in 114 fields across Europe, we found that fertilisation had the strongest positive effect on yield, but hindered simultaneous harnessing of below- and above-ground ecosystem services. We furthermore show that enhancing natural enemies and pest control through increasing landscape complexity can prove disappointing in fields with low soil services or in intensively cropped regions. Thus, understanding ecological interdependences between land use, ecosystem services and yield is necessary to promote more environmentally friendly farming by identifying situations where ecosystem services are maximised and agrochemical inputs can be reduced.

Pretstudie : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 6 - 6.
It depends: : effects of soil organic matter in aboveground-belowground interactions in agro-ecosystems
Gils, Stijn Herman van - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten; David Kleijn. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436526 - 176
soil organic matter - agroecosystems - aphidoidea - fertilizers - wheat - rape - crop yield - ecosystem services - nutrient availability - pest control - organic farming - organisch bodemmateriaal - agro-ecosystemen - kunstmeststoffen - tarwe - koolzaad - gewasopbrengst - ecosysteemdiensten - voedingsstoffenbeschikbaarheid - plagenbestrijding - biologische landbouw

Over the last decades agricultural production increased drastically due to the use of external inputs. However, the use of external inputs has high environmental costs and may negatively influence ecosystem processes such as pollination and pest control that underpin agricultural production. Soil organic matter has been proposed as a potential alternative to external inputs as it relates to multiple yield promoting ecosystem processes. The aim of my thesis is to assess whether and how soil organic matter content alters the effect of some ecosystem processes and external inputs on crop yield. I examined whether soil organic matter alters biomass of wheat and oilseed rape under fertilizer supply. Other biotic and abiotic factors that operate at different spatial and temporal scales are also included in some of these experiments. I found that under controlled conditions soil organic matter may reduce the positive effect of mineral fertilizer supply on crop biomass. The reduction changed with the presence or absence of a pathogenic root fungus, but not with drought stress. Moreover, soil organic matter enhances performance of aphids under controlled greenhouse conditions, but the enhancement was less than fertilizer supply. None of these controlled experiments, however, showed that soil organic matter can be an alternative to mineral fertilizer supply. Under field conditions soil organic matter did not strongly affect plant nutrient availability or performances of aphid and its natural enemies. The relation between soil organic matter and plant biomass in a greenhouse experiment did not change with organic management or the duration of it, neither did it change with pollinator visitation rate, an ecosystem process that is managed on the landscape scale. These results suggest that soil organic matter may relate to ecosystem services that influence crop yield, whereas these relations might not be significant under field conditions. Collectively, all these results suggest that the relation between soil organic matter content and ecosystem processes that benefit crop yield is highly context dependent. I propose future research may focus on (1) the quality of soil organic matter rather than the content per se and (2) the relation between soil organic matter content and crop yield under realistic conditions in a longer term.

Data from: Soil pathogen-aphid interactions under differences in soil organic matter and mineral fertilizer
Gils, S.H. van; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Biere, Arjen ; Agtmaal, M. van; Tyc, Olaf ; Kos, M. ; Kleijn, D. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2017
Rhizoctonia solani - Sitobion avenae - Triticum aestivum
There is increasing evidence showing that microbes can influence plant-insect interactions. In addition, various studies have shown that aboveground pathogens can alter the interactions between plants and insects. However, little is known about the role of soil-borne pathogens in plant-insect interactions. It is also not known how environmental conditions, that steer the performance of soil-borne pathogens, might influence these microbe-plant-insect interactions. Here, we studied effects of the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani on aphids (Sitobion avenae) using wheat (Triticum aestivum) as a host. In a greenhouse experiment, we tested how different levels of soil organic matter (SOM) and fertilizer addition influence the interactions between plants and aphids. To examine the influence of the existing soil microbiome on the pathogen effects, we used both unsterilized field soil and sterilized field soil. In unsterilized soil with low SOM content, R. solani addition had a negative effect on aphid biomass, whereas it enhanced aphid biomass in soil with high SOM content. In sterilized soil, however, aphid biomass was enhanced by R. solani addition and by high SOM content. Plant biomass was enhanced by fertilizer addition, but only when SOM content was low, or in the absence of R. solani. We conclude that belowground pathogens influence aphid performance and that the effect of soil pathogens on aphids can be more positive in the absence of a soil microbiome. This implies that experiments studying the effect of pathogens under sterile conditions might not represent realistic interactions. Moreover, pathogen-plant-aphid interactions can be more positive for aphids under high SOM conditions. We recommend that soil conditions should be taken into account in the study of microbe-plant-insect interactions.
Spijt : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 12 (2017)2. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 5 - 5.
Soil pathogen-aphid interactions under differences in soil organic matter and mineral fertilizer
Gils, Stijn van; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Biere, Arjen ; Agtmaal, Maaike van; Tyc, Olaf ; Kos, Martine ; Kleijn, David ; Putten, Wim H. van der - \ 2017
PLoS One 12 (2017)8. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 14 p.

There is increasing evidence showing that microbes can influence plant-insect interactions. In addition, various studies have shown that aboveground pathogens can alter the interactions between plants and insects. However, little is known about the role of soil-borne pathogens in plant-insect interactions. It is also not known how environmental conditions, that steer the performance of soil-borne pathogens, might influence these microbe-plant-insect interactions. Here, we studied effects of the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani on aphids (Sitobion avenae) using wheat (Triticum aestivum) as a host. In a greenhouse experiment, we tested how different levels of soil organic matter (SOM) and fertilizer addition influence the interactions between plants and aphids. To examine the influence of the existing soil microbiome on the pathogen effects, we used both unsterilized field soil and sterilized field soil. In unsterilized soil with low SOM content, R. solani addition had a negative effect on aphid biomass, whereas it enhanced aphid biomass in soil with high SOM content. In sterilized soil, however, aphid biomass was enhanced by R. solani addition and by high SOM content. Plant biomass was enhanced by fertilizer addition, but only when SOM content was low, or in the absence of R. solani. We conclude that belowground pathogens influence aphid performance and that the effect of soil pathogens on aphids can be more positive in the absence of a soil microbiome. This implies that experiments studying the effect of pathogens under sterile conditions might not represent realistic interactions. Moreover, pathogen-plant-aphid interactions can be more positive for aphids under high SOM conditions. We recommend that soil conditions should be taken into account in the study of microbe-plant-insect interactions.

Modder : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 11 (2017)21. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 5 - 5.
Rust : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 20 (2017)11. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 5 - 5.
Mineraalwater : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 11 (2017)18. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 5 - 5.
Afgewezen : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 19 (2017)11. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 5 - 5.
Een beetje gif, daar knapt een mens van op
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Vork 4 (2017)1. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 22 - 27.
Planten verdedigen zichzelf tegen belagers onder andere door gifstoffen aan te maken. In de landbouw zijn veel van deze stoffen overbodig omdat planten er toch al onder vrijwel optimale omstandigheden groeien. En dat is een probleem, want afweerstoffen kunnen juist gezond voor ons zijn. Vork-redacteur Stijn van Gils sprak met drie onderzoekers die proberen het gezonde gif weer terug in ons dieet te krijgen.
Zoeken naar betekenis in twee waarheden : samenhang tussen bodem- en voedselkwaliteit tijdens symposium niet opgehelderd
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Ekoland (2017)4. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 32 - 33.
bodembeheer - bodemkwaliteit - voedselkwaliteit - voeding en gezondheid - voedselproductie - biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - bemesting - soil management - soil quality - food quality - nutrition and health - food production - organic farming - dairy farming - fertilizer application
In de landbouw bestaan er twee waarheden: die van de wetenschap en die van de praktijk. Tijdens het symposium Sustainable soil management & healthy food bleken die twee waarheden vooralsnog onverenigbaar. “Niet om te beledigen, maar de praktijk loopt toch een beetje voor op de wetenschap”, vindt melkveehouder Kees van Gaalen.
Feitenvrije propaganda: Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR (2017). - ISSN 1874-3625
Vrouwenonderonsje : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 11 (2017)16. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 5 - 5.
Tjiftjaf : Column
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 11 (2017)15. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 5 - 5.
Check title to add to marked list
<< previous | next >>

Show 20 50 100 records per page

 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.