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Major threats of pollution and climate change to global coastal ecosystems and enhanced management for sustainability
Lu, Y. ; Yuan, J. ; Lu, X. ; Su, Chao ; Zhang, Y. ; Wang, C. ; Cao, X. ; Li, Q. ; Su, Jilan ; Ittekkot, Venugopalan ; Garbutt, Richard Angus ; Bush, S.R. ; Fletcher, Stephen ; Wagey, Tonny ; Kachur, Anatolii ; Sweijd, Neville - \ 2018
Environmental Pollution 239 (2018). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 670 - 680.
coastal ecosystem - marine pollution - climate change - ecological impacts - coastal sustainability
Coastal zone is of great importance in the provision of various valuable ecosystem services. However, it is also sensitive and vulnerable to environmental changes due to high human populations and interactions between the land and ocean. Major threats of pollution from over enrichment of nutrients, increasing metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and climate change have led to severe ecological degradation in the coastal zone, while few studies have focused on the combined impacts of pollution and climate change on the coastal ecosystems at the global level. A global overview of nutrients, metals, POPs, and major environmental changes due to climate change and their impacts on coastal ecosystems was carried out in this study. Coasts of the Eastern Atlantic and Western Pacific were hotspots of concentrations of several pollutants, and mostly affected by warming climate. These hotspots shared the same features of large populations, heavy industry and (semi-) closed sea. Estimation of coastal ocean capital, integrated management of land-ocean interaction in the coastal zone, enhancement of integrated global observation system, and coastal ecosystem-based management can play effective roles in promoting sustainable management of coastal marine ecosystems. Enhanced management from the perspective of mitigating pollution and climate change was proposed.
Legacy effects of elevated ozone on soil biota and plant growth
Li, Q. ; Yang, Y. ; Bao, X. ; Liu, F. ; Liang, W. ; Zhu, J. ; Bezemer, T.M. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2015
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 91 (2015). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 50 - 57.
Many studies have examined how human-induced atmospheric changes will influence ecosystems. The long-term consequences of human induced climate changes on terrestrial ecosystems may be determined to a large extend by how the belowground compartment will respond to these changes. In a free-air ozone enrichment experiment running for 5 years, we reciprocally transplanted soil cores from ambient and elevated ozone rings to test whether exposure to elevated ozone results in persistent changes in the soil biota when the plant and soil are no longer exposed to elevated ozone, and how these legacy effects of elevated ozone influenced plant growth as compared to current effects of elevated ozone. After one growing season, the current ozone treatment enhanced plant growth, but in soil with a historical legacy of elevated ozone the plant biomass in that soil was reduced compared to the cores originated from ambient rings. Current exposure to ozone increased the phospholipid fatty acids of actinomycetes and protozoa, however, it decreased dissolved organic carbon, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes. Interestingly, numbers of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes were enhanced when soils with a legacy of elevated ozone were placed under elevated ozone conditions. We conclude that exposure to elevated [O3] results in a legacy effect in soil. This legacy effect most likely influenced plant growth and soil characteristics via responses of bacteria and fungi, and nematodes that feed upon these microbes. These soil legacies induced by changes in soil biotic community after long-term exposure of elevated ozone can alter the responses of ecosystems to current climatic changes.
Impacts of climate change on net primary productivity of grasslands in Inner Mongolia
Li, Q. ; Tuo Debao, ; Zhang, L. ; Wei, X. ; Wei, Y. ; Yang, N. ; Xu, Y. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Pan, X. - \ 2014
The Rangeland Journal 36 (2014)5. - ISSN 1036-9872 - p. 493 - 503.
below-ground biomass - classification-system - china - ecosystems - temperate - diversity - forests - region - model
Net primary productivity (NPP) of grasslands is a key variable for characterising carbon cycles in grassland ecosystems. The prediction of NPP in Inner Mongolia is important for adaptation to future climate change, food security and sustainable use of the grassland resources. The output from two models, potentially suitable for simulating NPP in response to climate change, was tested against observed aboveground forage mass of dry matter at eight sites in Inner Mongolia from 1995 to 2005. The Classification Indices-Based Model (CIBM) showed an acceptable agreement with field measurements. The impact of climate change on the NPP of grasslands was subsequently analysed by CIBM using future climate projections from a Global Circulation Model based on three greenhouse gas emission scenarios: A2 (medium-high emission), A1B (medium emission) and B2 (medium-low emission) differing in assumptions about patterns of global social and economic development. Generally, significant increases in NPP, compared with the baseline NPP of 3.6 tonnes ha–1 for 1961–90, were predicted. The magnitude of the increase in NPP depended on the emission scenario, as well as on the time frame and region considered. Overall the predicted NPP stimulation increased with the level of emissions assumed, being 4.8 tonnes ha–1 in the A2 scenario, 4.3 tonnes ha–1 in the B2 scenario and 4.5 tonnes ha–1 in the A1B scenario in the 2080s (2071–2100). The increase in NPP in response to climate change differed between regions and there was an interaction with emission scenario. For the A2 and the B2 emission scenarios, the western region of Inner Mongolia was predicted to exhibit the strongest NPP increases, but, under the A1B scenario for the 2050s, the south-eastern region exhibited the greatest increase in NPP. It is concluded that the productivity of grassland in Inner Mongolia is likely to increase in response to climate change but these predicted effects are sensitive to emission scenarios and differ regionally. This will provide opportunities but also challenges for herders and policy makers in adapting to this change.
Nitrogen Addition and Warming Independently Influence the Belowground Micro-Food Web in a Temperate Steppe
Li, Q. ; Bai, H. ; Liang, W. ; Xia, J. ; Wan, S. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
climate-change manipulations - species composition - community structure - plant-communities - organic-matter - northern china - soil nematodes - global change - elevated co2 - deposition
Climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are known to influence ecosystem structure and functioning. However, our understanding of the interactive effect of these global changes on ecosystem functioning is relatively limited, especially when it concerns the responses of soils and soil organisms. We conducted a field experiment to study the interactive effects of warming and N addition on soil food web. The experiment was established in 2006 in a temperate steppe in northern China. After three to four years (2009–2010), we found that N addition positively affected microbial biomass and negatively influenced trophic group and ecological indices of soil nematodes. However, the warming effects were less obvious, only fungal PLFA showed a decreasing trend under warming. Interestingly, the influence of N addition did not depend on warming. Structural equation modeling analysis suggested that the direct pathway between N addition and soil food web components were more important than the indirect connections through alterations in soil abiotic characters or plant growth. Nitrogen enrichment also affected the soil nematode community indirectly through changes in soil pH and PLFA. We conclude that experimental warming influenced soil food web components of the temperate steppe less than N addition, and there was little influence of warming on N addition effects under these experimental conditions.