Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Economic optimization of selective dry cow treatment
Scherpenzeel, C.G.M. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Maas, L. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1530 - 1539.
antimicrobial reduction - dry cow treatment - economics - linear programming - mastitis
The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to identify a scenario with the lowest costs for mastitis associated with the dry period while restricting the percentage of cows to be dried off with dry cow antimicrobials. Costs of clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as antimicrobial use were quantified. Based on data from a large field trial, a linear programming model was built with the goal to minimize the costs associated with antimicrobial use at drying off. To enable calculations on minimizing costs of dry cow treatment on herd-level by drying-off decisions in an “average” herd, we created an example herd. Cows were projected on 3 different types of herds, based on bulk tank somatic cell count, and were categorized in groups based on parity and somatic cell count from the last test recording before drying-off. Economically optimal use of antimicrobials was determined while restricting the maximum percentage of cows dried off with antimicrobials from 100 to 0%. This restriction reveals the relationship between the maximum percentage of cows dried off with antibiotics and the economic consequences. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of variation in the most important input variables, with the effect of dry cow antimicrobials resulting in a lower or higher percentage of clinical and subclinical mastitis depending on being dried off with or without dry cow antimicrobials, respectively, and the milk price. From an economic perspective, blanket dry cow treatment seems not to be the optimal approach of dry cow therapy, although differences between approaches were small. With lower bulk tank somatic cell counts, more dry cow antimicrobials can be omitted without economic consequences. The economic impact of reducing the percentage of clinical mastitis was found to be much larger than reducing the bulk tank somatic cell count. The optimal percentage of cows to be dried off with antimicrobials depends on the udder health situation, expressed as the bulk tank somatic cell count and the incidence of clinical mastitis. For all evaluated types of herds, selective dry cow treatment was economically more beneficial than blanket dry cow treatment. Economic profits of selective dry cow treatment are greater if bulk tank somatic cell count and clinical mastitis incidence are lower. Economics is not an argument against reduction of dry cow antimicrobials by applying selective dry cow treatment.
Water distribution in an arid zone soil : Numerical analysis of data from a large weighing lysimeter
Dijkema, J. ; Koonce, J.E. ; Shillito, R.M. ; Ghezzehei, T.A. ; Berli, M. ; Ploeg, M.J. Van Der; Genuchten, M.T. Van - \ 2018
Vadose Zone Journal 17 (2018)1. - ISSN 1539-1663
Although desert soils cover approximately one third of the Earth’s land surface, surprisingly little is known about their physical properties and how those properties affect the ecology and hydrology of arid environments. The main goal of this study was to advance our understanding of desert soil hydrodynamics. For this purpose, we developed a process-based component within HYDRUS-1D to describe the moisture dynamics of an arid zone soil as a function of water fluxes through the soil surface. A modified van Genuchten model for the dry end of the soil water retention curve was developed to better capture the basic flow processes for very dry conditions. A scaling method was further used to account for variabilities in water retention because of changes in the bulk density vs. depth. The model was calibrated and validated using hourly soil moisture, temperature, and mass data from a 3-m-deep weighing lysimeter of the Scaling Environmental Processes in Heterogeneous Arid Soils facility at the Desert Research Institute (Las Vegas, NV). Measurements and simulations during a 1-yr period agreed better under precipitation (wetting) than under evaporation (drying) conditions. Evaporation was better simulated for wet than for dry soil surface conditions. This was probably caused by vapor-phase exchange processes with the atmosphere, which were unaccounted for and need to be further explored. Overall, the model provides a promising first step toward developing a more realistic numerical tool to quantify the moisture dynamics of arid ecosystems and their role in climate change, plant growth, erosion, and recharge patterns.
Sensitivity of tidal characteristics in double inlet systems to momentum dissipation on tidal flats : a perturbation analysis
Hepkema, Tjebbe M. ; Swart, Huib E. de; Zagaris, Antonios ; Duran–Matute, Matias - \ 2018
Ocean Dynamics (2018). - ISSN 1616-7341 - p. 1 - 17.
Marsdiep–Vlie system - Momentum sink - Overtides - Perturbation analysis - Sediment transport
In a tidal channel with adjacent tidal flats, along–channel momentum is dissipated on the flats during rising tides. This leads to a sink of along–channel momentum. Using a perturbative method, it is shown that the momentum sink slightly reduces the M2 amplitude of both the sea surface elevation and current velocity and favours flood dominant tides. These changes in tidal characteristics (phase and amplitude of sea surface elevations and currents) are noticeable if widths of tidal flats are at least of the same order as the channel width, and amplitudes and gradients of along–channel velocity are large. The M2 amplitudes are reduced because stagnant water flows from the flats into the channel, thereby slowing down the current. The M4 amplitudes and phases change because the momentum sink acts as an advective term during the fall of the tide, such a term generates flood dominant currents. For a prototype embayment that resembles the Marsdiep–Vlie double–inlet system of the Western Wadden Sea, it is found that for both the sea surface elevation and current velocity, including the momentum sink, lead to a decrease of approximately 2% in M2 amplitudes and an increase of approximately 25% in M4 amplitudes. As a result, the net import of coarse sediment is increased by approximately 35%, while the transport of fine sediment is hardly influenced by the momentum sink. For the Marsdiep–Vlie system, the M2 sea surface amplitude obtained from the idealised model is similar to that computed with a realistic three–dimensional numerical model whilst the comparison with regard to M4 improves if momentum sink is accounted for.
Towards commercial aquaponics : a review of systems, designs, scales and nomenclature
Palm, Harry W. ; Knaus, Ulrich ; Appelbaum, Samuel ; Goddek, Simon ; Strauch, Sebastian M. ; Vermeulen, Tycho ; Haїssam Jijakli, M. ; Kotzen, Benz - \ 2018
Aquaculture International (2018). - ISSN 0967-6120 - p. 1 - 30.
Aquaponic farming - Aquaponic systems - Circular economy - Definition - Integrated aquaculture systems - Nomenclature - Scale of operation - System design
Aquaponics is rapidly developing as the need for sustainable food production increases and freshwater and phosphorous reserves shrink. Starting from small-scale operations, aquaponics is at the brink of commercialization, attracting investment. Arising from integrated freshwater aquaculture, a variety of methods and system designs has developed that focus either on fish or plant production. Public interest in aquaponics has increased dramatically in recent years, in line with the trend towards more integrated value chains, greater productivity and less harmful environmental impact compared to other production systems. New business models are opening up, with new customers and markets, and with this expansion comes the potential for confusion, misunderstanding and deception. New stakeholders require guidelines and detail concerning the different system designs and their potentials. We provide a definitive definition of aquaponics, where the majority (> 50%) of nutrients sustaining the optimal plant growth derives from waste originating from feeding aquatic organisms, classify the available integrated aquaculture and aquaponics (open, domestic, demonstration, commercial) systems and designs, distinguish four different scales of production (≤ 50, > 50–≤ 100 m2, > 100–≤ 500 m2, > 500 m2) and present a definite nomenclature for aquaponics and aquaponic farming allowing distinctions between the technologies that are in use. This enables authorities, customers, producers and all other stakeholders to distinguish between the various systems, to better understand their potentials and constraints and to set priorities for business and regulations in order to transition RAS or already integrated aquaculture into commercial aquaponic systems.
Loss of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) in mice with diet-induced obesity uncouples visceral obesity from glucose intolerance partly via the gut microbiota
Janssen, Aafke W.F. ; Katiraei, Saeed ; Bartosinska, Barbara ; Eberhard, Daniel ; Willems van Dijk, Ko ; Kersten, Sander - \ 2018
Diabetologia (2018). - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 1 - 12.
Angiopoietin-like 4 - Antibiotics - Glucose tolerance - Gut microbiota - Insulin secretion - White adipose tissue
Aims/hypothesis: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is an important regulator of triacylglycerol metabolism, carrying out this role by inhibiting the enzymes lipoprotein lipase and pancreatic lipase. ANGPTL4 is a potential target for ameliorating cardiometabolic diseases. Although ANGPTL4 has been implicated in obesity, the study of the direct role of ANGPTL4 in diet-induced obesity and related metabolic dysfunction is hampered by the massive acute-phase response and development of lethal chylous ascites and peritonitis in Angptl4−/− mice fed a standard high-fat diet. The aim of this study was to better characterise the role of ANGPTL4 in glucose homeostasis and metabolic dysfunction during obesity. Methods: We chronically fed wild-type (WT) and Angptl4−/− mice a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, combined with fructose in drinking water, and studied metabolic function. The role of the gut microbiota was investigated by orally administering a mixture of antibiotics (ampicillin, neomycin, metronidazole). Glucose homeostasis was assessed via i.p. glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Results: Mice lacking ANGPTL4 displayed an increase in body weight gain, visceral adipose tissue mass, visceral adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity and visceral adipose tissue inflammation compared with WT mice. However, they also unexpectedly had markedly improved glucose tolerance, which was accompanied by elevated insulin levels. Loss of ANGPTL4 did not affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated pancreatic islets. Since the gut microbiota have been suggested to influence insulin secretion, and because ANGPTL4 has been proposed to link the gut microbiota to host metabolism, we hypothesised a potential role of the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota composition was significantly different between Angptl4−/− mice and WT mice. Interestingly, suppression of the gut microbiota using antibiotics largely abolished the differences in glucose tolerance and insulin levels between WT and Angptl4−/− mice. Conclusions/interpretation: Despite increasing visceral fat mass, inactivation of ANGPTL4 improves glucose tolerance, at least partly via a gut microbiota-dependent mechanism.
World water day : Brahmaputra Riparian countries should look beyond political interests to realise river's potential
Barua, Anamika ; Vij, Sumit - \ 2018
Economic and Political Weekly 53 (2018)12. - ISSN 0012-9976
Dietary Advanced Glycosylation End-Products (dAGEs) and Melanoidins Formed through the Maillard Reaction : Physiological Consequences of their Intake
Delgado-Andrade, Cristina ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2018
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1941-1413 - p. 271 - 291.
CML - Diabetes - Dietary AGEs - Food design - Inflammation - Insulin resistance - Maillard reaction - Melanoidins - Protein glycation
The main purpose of this review is to clarify whether the consumption of food rich in melanoidins and dietary advanced glycosylation end-products (dAGEs) is harmful or beneficial for human health. There are conflicting results on their harmful effects in the literature, partly due to a methodological issue in how dAGEs are determined in food. Melanoidins have positive functions particularly within the gastrointestinal tract, whereas the intake of dAGEs has controversial physiological consequences. Most of the in vivo intervention trials were done comparing boiled versus roasted diet (low and high dAGE, respectively). However, these studies can be biased by different lipid oxidation and by different calorie density of foods in the two conditions. The attraction that humans have to cooked foods is linked to the benefits they have had during mankind's evolution. The goal for food technologists is to design low-energy-dense products that can satisfy humans' attraction to rewarding cooked foods.
Afbraak van organische stof uit (bewerkte) rundermest na toediening aan een zandgrond
Boer, H.C. de; Timmerman, M. ; Verdoes, N. ; Schilder, H. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1095) - 24
Four essays on resource acquisition in the knowledge economy
Hoenen, Sebastian Joseph - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Christos Kolympiris. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438827 - 210
Natural Diversity in Heat Resistance of Bacteria and Bacterial Spores : Impact on Food Safety and Quality
Besten, Heidy M.W. Den; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J. ; Zwietering, Marcel H. - \ 2018
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1941-1413 - p. 383 - 410.
D-value - Pathogens - Spoilage organisms - Thermotolerance - Variability - z-value
Heat treatments are widely used in food processing often with the aim of reducing or eliminating spoilage microorganisms and pathogens in food products. The efficacy of applying heat to control microorganisms is challenged by the natural diversity of microorganisms with respect to their heat robustness. This review gives an overview of the variations in heat resistances of various species and strains, describes modeling approaches to quantify heat robustness, and addresses the relevance and impact of the natural diversity of microorganisms when assessing heat inactivation. This comparison of heat resistances of microorganisms facilitates the evaluation of which (groups of) organisms might be troublesome in a production process in which heat treatment is critical to reducing the microbial contaminants, and also allows fine-tuning of the process parameters. Various sources of microbiological variability are discussed and compared for a range of species, including spore-forming and non-spore-forming pathogens and spoilage organisms. This benchmarking of variability factors gives crucial information about the most important factors that should be included in risk assessments to realistically predict heat inactivation of bacteria and spores as part of the measures for controlling shelf life and safety of food products.
A Pressure Test to Make 10 Molecules in 90 Days : External Evaluation of Methods to Engineer Biology
Casini, Arturo ; Chang, Fang Yuan ; Eluere, Raissa ; King, Andrew M. ; Young, Eric M. ; Dudley, Quentin M. ; Karim, Ashty ; Pratt, Katelin ; Bristol, Cassandra ; Forget, Anthony ; Ghodasara, Amar ; Warden-Rothman, Robert ; Gan, Rui ; Cristofaro, Alexander ; Borujeni, Amin Espah ; Ryu, Min Hyung ; Li, Jian ; Kwon, Yong Chan ; Wang, He ; Tatsis, Evangelos ; Rodriguez-Lopez, Carlos ; O'Connor, Sarah ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Fischbach, Michael A. ; Jewett, Michael C. ; Voigt, Christopher ; Gordon, D.B. - \ 2018
Journal of the American Chemical Society 140 (2018)12. - ISSN 0002-7863 - p. 4302 - 4316.
Centralized facilities for genetic engineering, or "biofoundries", offer the potential to design organisms to address emerging needs in medicine, agriculture, industry, and defense. The field has seen rapid advances in technology, but it is difficult to gauge current capabilities or identify gaps across projects. To this end, our foundry was assessed via a timed "pressure test", in which 3 months were given to build organisms to produce 10 molecules unknown to us in advance. By applying a diversity of new approaches, we produced the desired molecule or a closely related one for six out of 10 targets during the performance period and made advances toward production of the others as well. Specifically, we increased the titers of 1-hexadecanol, pyrrolnitrin, and pacidamycin D, found novel routes to the enediyne warhead underlying powerful antimicrobials, established a cell-free system for monoterpene production, produced an intermediate toward vincristine biosynthesis, and encoded 7802 individually retrievable pathways to 540 bisindoles in a DNA pool. Pathways to tetrahydrofuran and barbamide were designed and constructed, but toxicity or analytical tools inhibited further progress. In sum, we constructed 1.2 Mb DNA, built 215 strains spanning five species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Streptomyces albidoflavus, Streptomyces coelicolor, and Streptomyces albovinaceus), established two cell-free systems, and performed 690 assays developed in-house for the molecules.
Artificial light at night shifts daily activity patterns but not the internal clock in the great tit (Parus major)
Spoelstra, Kamiel ; Verhagen, Irene ; Meijer, Davy ; Visser, Marcel E. - \ 2018
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 285 (2018)1875. - ISSN 0962-8452
Artificial light at night - Circadian period - Circadian phase - Entrainment - Light pollution
Artificial light at night has shown a dramatic increase over the last decades and continues to increase. Light at night can have strong effects on the behaviour and physiology of species, which includes changes in the daily timing of activity; a clear example is the advance in dawn song onset in songbirds by low levels of light at night. Although such effects are often referred to as changes in circadian timing, i.e. changes to the internal clock, two alternative mechanisms are possible. First, light at night can change the timing of clock controlled activity, without any change to the clock itself; e.g. by a change in the phase relation between the circadian clock and expression of activity. Second, changes in daily activity can be a direct response to light (‘masking’), without any involvement of the circadian system. Here, we studied whether the advance in onset of activity by dim light at night in great tits (Parus major) is indeed attributable to a phase shift of the internal clock.We entrained birds to a normal light/dark (LD) cycle with bright light during daytime and darkness at night, and to a comparable (LDim) schedule with dim light at night. The dim light at night strongly advanced the onset of activity of the birds. After at least six days in LD or LDim,we kept birds in constant darkness (DD) by leaving off all lights so birds would revert to their endogenous, circadian system controlled timing of activity.We found that the timing of onset in DD was not dependent on whether the birds were kept at LD or LDim before the measurement. Thus, the advance of activity under light at night is caused by a direct effect of light rather than a phase shift of the internal clock. This demonstrates that birds are capable of changing their daily activity to low levels of light at night directly, without the need to alter their internal clock.
Insect community composition and functional roles along a tropical agricultural production gradient
Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson ; Svensson, Ola ; Den Brink, Paul J. van; Gunnarsson, Jonas ; Tedengren, Michael - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2018). - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 1 - 13.
Banana production - Costa Rica - Ecosystem services - Functional roles - Insect diversity - Management practices
High intensity agricultural production systems are problematic not only for human health and the surrounding environment, but can threaten the provision of ecosystem services on which farm productivity depends. This research investigates the effects of management practices in Costa Rica on on-farm insect diversity, using three different types of banana farm management systems: high-input conventional system, low-input conventional system, and organic system. Insect sampling was done using pitfall and yellow bowl traps, left for a 24-h period at two locations inside the banana farm, at the edge of the farm, and in adjacent forest. All 39,091 individual insects were classified to family level and then morphospecies. Insect species community composition and diversity were compared using multivariate statistics with ordination analysis and Monte Carlo permutation testing, and revealed that each of the management systems were significantly different from each other for both trap types. Insect diversity decreased as management intensity increased. Reduced insect diversity resulted in fewer functional groups and fewer insect families assuming different functions essential to ecosystem health. Organic farms had similar species composition on the farm compared to adjacent forest sites, whereas species composition increasingly differed between farm and forest sites as management intensity increased. We conclude that while organic production has minimal impact on insect biodiversity, even small reductions in management intensity can have a significantly positive impact on on-farm insect biodiversity and functional roles supported.
Effect of vegan fecal microbiota transplantation on carnitine- and choline-derived trimethylamine-N-oxide production and vascular inflammation in patients with metabolic syndrome
Smits, Loek P. ; Kootte, Ruud S. ; Levin, Evgeni ; Prodan, Andrei ; Fuentes, Susana ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Wang, Zeneng ; Levison, Bruce S. ; Cleophas, Maartje C.P. ; Kemper, E.M. ; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M. ; Groen, Albert K. ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Stroes, Erik S.G. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Hazen, Stanley L. ; Nieuwdorp, Max - \ 2018
Journal of the American Heart Association 7 (2018)7. - ISSN 2047-9980
Atherosclerosis - Cardiovascular disease - Cardiovascular imaging - Inflammation - Metabolism
Background--Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly absent TMAO production on carnitine challenge. Methods and Results--We performed a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study in which 20 male metabolic syndrome patients were randomized to single lean vegan-donor or autologous fecal microbiota transplantation. At baseline and 2 weeks thereafter, we determined the ability to produce TMAO from d6-choline and d3-carnitine (eg, labeled and unlabeled TMAO in plasma and 24-hour urine after oral ingestion of 250 mg of both isotope-labeled precursor nutrients), and fecal samples were collected for analysis of microbiota composition. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans of the abdominal aorta, as well as ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production assays, were performed. At baseline, fecal microbiota composition differed significantly between vegans and metabolic syndrome patients. With vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation, intestinal microbiota composition in metabolic syndrome patients, as monitored by global fecal microbial community structure, changed toward a vegan profile in some of the patients; however, no functional effects from vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation were seen on TMAO production, abdominal aortic 18Ffluorodeoxyglucose uptake, or ex vivo cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions--Single lean vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome patients resulted in detectable changes in intestinal microbiota composition but failed to elicit changes in TMAO production capacity or parameters related to vascular inflammation.
Fusarium metavorans sp. Nov. : The frequent opportunist â € FSSC6'
Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M.S. ; Ahmed, Sarah A. ; Diepeningen, Anne D. Van; Drogari-Apiranthitou, Miranda ; Verweij, Paul E. ; Meis, Jacques F. ; Hoog, G.S. De - \ 2018
Medical mycology 56 (2018). - ISSN 1369-3786 - p. S144 - S152.
fusariosis - Fusarium metavorans - molecular phylogenetics - morphology - RPB2 - taxonomy - TEF1
The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is the most common group of fusaria associated with superficial and life-threatening infections in humans. Here we formally introduce Fusarium metavorans sp. Nov., widely known as FSSC6 (Fusarium solani species complex lineage 6), one of the most frequent agents of human opportunistic infections. The species is described with multilocus molecular data including sequences of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), portions of the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (TEF1), and the partial RNA polymerase II gene (rPB2). A phylogenetic approach was used to evaluate species delimitation. Topologies of the trees were concordant. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the FSSC consists of three major clades encompassing a large number of phylogenetic species; Fusarium metavorans corresponds to phylogenetic species 6 within FSSC clade 3. The species has a global distribution and a wide ecological amplitude, also including strains from soil and agents of opportunistic plant disease; it was also isolated from the gut of the wood-boring cerambycid beetle Anoplophora glabripennis.
Rationale for dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD
Verlaet, Annelies A.J. ; Maasakkers, Carlijn M. ; Hermans, Nina ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)4. - ISSN 2072-6643
ADHD - Antioxidant - Immunity - Oxidative stress - Pycnogenol®
Increasing understanding arises regarding disadvantages of stimulant medication in children with ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). This review presents scientific findings supporting dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD and describes substantial alterations in the immune system, epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and oxidative stress regulation in ADHD. As a result, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress could develop, which can lead to ADHD symptoms, for example by chronic T-cell-mediated neuroinflammation, as well as by neuronal oxidative damage and loss of normal cerebral functions. Therefore, modulation of immune system activity and oxidant-antioxidant balance using nutritional approaches might have potential in ADHD treatment. The use of natural antioxidants against oxidative conditions is an emerging field in the management of neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary polyphenols, for example, have antioxidant capacities as well as immunoregulatory effects and, therefore, appear appropriate in ADHD therapy. This review can stimulate the development and investigation of dietary antioxidant treatment in ADHD, which is highly desired.
Dietary intake of magnesium or calcium and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in colorectal cancer patients
Wesselink, Evertine ; Winkels, Renate M. ; Baar, Harm Van; Geijsen, Anne J.M.R. ; Zutphen, Moniek Van; Halteren, Henk K. Van; Hansson, Bibi M.E. ; Radema, Sandra A. ; Wilt, Johannes H.W. De; Kampman, Ellen ; Kok, Dieuwertje E.G. - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)4. - ISSN 2072-6643
Calcium - Chemotherapy - Colorectal cancer - Magnesium - Neuropathy - Oxaliplatin
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and severe side-effect in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This study assessed the association between habitual dietary intake of magnesium or calcium and prevalence and severity of chronic CIPN in CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. For this prospective cohort study, 196 CRC patients were considered. Magnesium and calcium intake was determined using a food frequency questionnaire at diagnosis, during and after chemotherapy. Chronic CIPN was assessed 12 months after diagnosis using the quality of life questionnaire CIPN20. Prevalence ratios were calculated to assess the association between magnesium or calcium intake and the prevalence of CIPN. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between magnesium or calcium intake and severity of CIPN. CIPN was reported by 160 (82%) patients. Magnesium intake during chemotherapy was statistically significantly associated with lower prevalence of CIPN (prevalence ratio (PR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32, 0.92). Furthermore, higher dietary intake of magnesium during (β-1.08, 95% CI -1.95, -0.22) and after chemotherapy (β-0.93, 95% CI -1.81, -0.06) was associated with less severe CIPN. No associations were found for calcium intake and the prevalence and severity of CIPN. To conclude, we observed an association between higher dietary magnesium intake and lower prevalence and severity of CIPN in CRC patients.
Impact of climate change on flood frequency and intensity in the kabul river basin
Iqbal, Muhammad Shahid ; Dahri, Zakir Hussain ; Querner, Erik P. ; Khan, Asif ; Hofstra, Nynke - \ 2018
Climate-change - Floods - GCMs - HEC-SSP - Kabul basin - SWAT model
Devastating floods adversely affect human life and infrastructure. Various regions of the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas receive intense monsoon rainfall, which, together with snow and glacier melt, produce intense floods. The Kabul river basin originates from the Hindukush Mountains and is frequently hit by such floods. We analyses flood frequency and intensity in Kabul basin for a contemporary period (1981-2015) and two future periods (i.e., 2031-2050 and 2081-2100) using the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios based on four bias-corrected downscaled climate models (INM-CM4, IPSL-CM5A, EC-EARTH, and MIROC5). Future floods are modelled with the SWAT hydrological model. The model results suggest an increasing trend due to an increasing precipitation and higher temperatures (based on all climate models except INM-CM4), which accelerates snow and glacier-melt. All of the scenario results show that the current flow with a 1 in 50 year return period is likely to occur more frequently (i.e., 1 in every 9-10 years and 2-3 years, respectively) during the near and far future periods. Such increases in intensity and frequency are likely to adversely affect downstream population and infrastructures. This, therefore, urges for appropriate early precautionary mitigation measures. This study can assist water managers and policy makers in their preparation to adequately plan for and manage flood protection. Its findings are also relevant for other basins in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas region.
Durum wheat and septoria tritici blotch: genes and prospects for breeding
Aouini, Lamia - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Gert Kema; Richard Visser. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438360 - 281
Quantification of Tetradesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae) cell size and lipid content heterogeneity at single-cell level
Caprio, Fabrizio Di; Pagnanelli, Francesca ; Wijffels, Rene H. ; Veen, Douwe Van der - \ 2018
Journal of Phycology 54 (2018)2. - ISSN 0022-3646 - p. 187 - 197.
biodiesel - BODIPY - cell-to-cell heterogeneity - flow cytometry - nitrogen starvation - single-cell analysis - Tetradesmus obliquus
Much of our current knowledge of microbial growth is obtained from studies at a population level. Driven by the realization that processes that operate within a population might influence a population's behavior, we sought to better understand Tetradesmus obliquus (formerly Scenedesmus obliquus) physiology at the cellular level. In this work, an accurate pretreatment method to quantitatively obtain single cells of T. obliquus, a coenobia-forming alga, is described. These single cells were examined by flow cytometry for triacylglycerol (TAG), chlorophyll, and protein content, and their cell sizes were recorded by coulter counter. We quantified heterogeneity of size and TAG content at single-cell level for a population of T. obliquus during a controlled standard batch cultivation. Unexpectedly, variability of TAG content per cell within the population increased throughout the batch run, up to 400 times in the final stage of the batch run, with values ranging from 0.25 to 99 pg · cell−1. Two subpopulations, classified as having low or high TAG content per cell, were identified. Cell size also increased during batch growth with average values from 36 to 70 μm3 · cell−1; yet cell size variability increased only up to 16 times. Cell size and cellular TAG content were not correlated at the single-cell level. Our data show clearly that TAG production is affected by cell-to-cell variation, which suggests that its control and better understanding of the underlying processes may improve the productivity of T. obliquus for industrial processes such as biodiesel production.
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