Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Limits to genetic rescue by outcross in pedigree dogs
Windig, J.J. ; Doekes, H.P. - \ 2018
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 135 (2018)3. - ISSN 0931-2668 - p. 238 - 248.
conservation genetics - dogs - genetic defects

Outcrossing should reduce inbreeding levels and associated negative effects in highly inbred populations. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of different outcrossing schemes using computer simulations. The inbreeding rate estimated for a 25-year period of 2.1% per generation in a highly inbred dog breed reduced to 1.8% when a single litter was produced by an outcross without backcrosses. To reduce the inbreeding rate below 1%, more than eight of the 14 litters born yearly in the recipient breed had to be outcrossed. However, outcrossing in pedigree dogs is usually followed by backcrossing and generally involves one or a few litters. Backcrossing reduced the effect of outcrossing considerably. When two litters were produced by an outcross followed by one generation of backcross, the inbreeding rate was 2.0% per generation. Continuously outcrossing was more effective than a single or a few outcrosses. When each newborn litter during 25 years had a 5% chance of being produced by an outcross, the inbreeding rate reduced to −0.2%. To investigate the possibility that new alleles were introduced from the donor population into the recipient population, the fate of different type of alleles (varying from completely lethal to beneficial) before and after an outcross was investigated by first simulating 80 years of natural selection prior to the outcross and then different types of outcross. Because natural selection reduced the frequency of lethal alleles before outcrossing, the introduction of a lethal allele that was segregating in the donor breed but not in the recipient breed occurred rarely. Introduction of slightly detrimental alleles or neutral alleles occurred more frequently. In conclusion, outcrossing only had a limited short-term effect unless repeated continuously. Nevertheless, it may help to buy time in which the population structure can be changed so that the effective population size increases.

Energy-Efficient Ammonia Recovery in an Up-Scaled Hydrogen Gas Recycling Electrochemical System
Kuntke, Philipp ; Rodrigues, Mariana ; Sleutels, Tom ; Saakes, Michel ; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M. ; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2018
ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering 6 (2018)6. - ISSN 2168-0485 - p. 7638 - 7644.
Ammonia recovery - Electrochemical system - Hydrogen recycling - Up-scaling

Nutrient and energy recovery is becoming more important for a sustainable future. Recently, we developed a hydrogen gas recycling electrochemical system (HRES) which combines a cation exchange membrane (CEM) and a gas-permeable hydrophobic membrane for ammonia recovery. This allowed for energy-efficient ammonia recovery, since hydrogen gas produced at the cathode was oxidized at the anode. Here, we successfully up-scaled and optimized this HRES for ammonia recovery. The electrode surface area was increased to 0.04 m2 to treat up to 11.5 L/day (∼46 gN/day) of synthetic urine. The system was operated stably for 108 days at current densities of 20, 50, and 100 A/m2. Compared to our previous prototype, this new cell design reduced the anode overpotential and ionic losses, while the use of an additional membrane reduced the ion transport losses. Overall, this reduced the required energy input from 56.3 kJ/gN (15.6 kW h/kgN) at 50 A/m2 (prototype) to 23.4 kJ/gN (6.5 kW h/kgN) at 100 A/m2 (this work). At 100 A/m2, an average recovery of 58% and a TAN (total ammonia nitrogen) removal rate of 598 gN/(m2 day) were obtained across the CEM. The TAN recovery was limited by TAN transport from the feed to concentrate compartment.

Sociaal-economische gevolgen van een totaal verbod van pulsvisserij voor de Nederlandse visserijsector
Zaalmink, Wim ; Hoekstra, Geert ; Mol, Arie ; Strietman, Jan - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2018-044) - 35
Deze nota beschrijft de omvang van de pulsvisserij in Nederland, en de sociaal-economische gevolgen wanneer de Nederlandse pulskotters moeten omschakelen naar de boomkorvisserij. De pulsvloot is voor de Nederlandse visserij van groot belang. Als alle pulskotters omschakelen naar boomkor resulteert dat in een forse verlaging van het economisch rendement. Bij lagere schol- en tongprijzen en hogere brandstofprijzen, vergelijkbaar met die in de periode 2012-2014, zou het gemiddelde nettoresultaat nihil zijn. In deze situatie zal de helft van de kotters zelfs een negatief resultaat behalen. Deze afname van de financiële resultaten heeft de volgende effecten op de economie van de visserij: door de negatieve resultaten zal de continuïteit van bedrijven in het geding komen, door de lage deellonen zal het moeilijk zijn gekwalificeerde bemanning aan boord te krijgen, door de afname van het financiële resultaat zal er minder of geen ruimte meer zijn voor vervanging en vernieuwing
Innovation platforms in agricultural research development : Ex-ante Appraisal of the Purposes and Conditions Under Which Innovation Platforms can Contribute to Agricultural Development Outcomes
Schut, Marc ; Kamanda, Josey ; Gramzow, Andreas ; Dubois, Thomas ; Stoian, Dietmar ; Andersson, Jens A. ; Dror, Iddo ; Sartas, Murat ; Mur, Remco ; Kassam, Shinan ; Brouwer, Herman ; Devaux, André ; Velasco, Claudio ; Flor, Rica Joy ; Gummert, Martin ; Buizer, Djuna ; Mcdougall, Cynthia ; Davis, Kristin ; Tui, Sabine Homann-Kee ; Lundy, Mark - \ 2018
Experimental Agriculture (2018). - ISSN 0014-4797 - 22 p.
Innovation platforms are fast becoming part of the mantra of agricultural research for development projects and programmes. Their basic tenet is that stakeholders depend on one another to achieve agricultural development outcomes, and hence need a space where they can learn, negotiate and coordinate to overcome challenges and capture opportunities through a facilitated innovation process. Although much has been written on how to implement and facilitate innovation platforms efficiently, few studies support ex-ante appraisal of when and for what purpose innovation platforms provide an appropriate mechanism for achieving development outcomes, and what kinds of human and financial resource investments and enabling environments are required. Without these insights, innovation platforms run the risk of being promoted as a panacea for all problems in the agricultural sector. This study makes clear that not all constraints will require innovation platforms and, if there is a simpler and cheaper alternative, that should be considered first. Based on the review of critical design principles and plausible outcomes of innovation platforms, this study provides a decision support tool for research, development and funding agencies that can enhance more critical thinking about the purposes and conditions under which innovation platforms can contribute to achieving agricultural development outcomes.
Using a social learning configuration to increase Vietnamese smallholder farmers’ adaptive capacity to respond to climate change
Phuong, Le Thi Hong ; Wals, Arjen ; Sen, Le Thi Hoa ; Hoa, Nguyen Quoc ; Lu, Phan Van; Biesbroek, Robbert - \ 2018
Local Environment 23 (2018)8. - ISSN 1354-9839 - p. 879 - 897.
adaptive capacity - Social learning - social learning configuration - Vietnamese smallholder farmers

Social learning is crucial for local smallholder farmers in developing countries to improve their adaptive capacity and to adapt to the current and projected impacts of climate change. While it is widely acknowledged that social learning is a necessary condition for adaptation, few studies have systematically investigated under which conditions particular forms of social learning are most successful in improving adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable groups. This study aims to design, implement and evaluate a social learning configuration in a coastal community in Vietnam. We make use of various methods during four workshop-based interventions with local smallholder farmers: interviews with key farmers and commune leaders, farmer-to-farmer learning, participatory observations and focus group discussions. The methods for evaluation of social learning configuration include in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and structured survey interviews. Our findings show that the social learning configuration used in this study leads to an increased problem ownership, an enhanced knowledge-base with regard to climate change impacts and production adaptation options, improved ability to see connections and interdependencies and finally, strengthened relationships and social cohesion. The results suggest that increased social learning in the community leads to increase in adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers and improves both their economic and environmental sustainability. We discuss the key lessons for designing learning configurations that can successfully enhance adaptive capacity and smallholder farmers’ agency and responsiveness to the challenges posed by climate change impacts.

Reducing global GHG emissions by replicating successful sector examples : the ‘good practice policies’ scenario
Roelfsema, Mark ; Fekete, Hanna ; Höhne, Niklas ; Elzen, Michel den; Forsell, Nicklas ; Kuramochi, Takeshi ; Coninck, Heleen de; Vuuren, Detlef P. van - \ 2018
Climate Policy 18 (2018)9. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 1103 - 1113.
2°C limit - Enhancing ambition - integrated assessment modelling - sector indicators - successful policies
This article shows the potential impact on global GHG emissions in 2030, if all countries were to implement sectoral climate policies similar to successful examples already implemented elsewhere. This assessment was represented in the IMAGE and GLOBIOM/G4M models by replicating the impact of successful national policies at the sector level in all world regions. The first step was to select successful policies in nine policy areas. In the second step, the impact on the energy and land-use systems or GHG emissions was identified and translated into model parameters, assuming that it would be possible to translate the impacts of the policies to other countries. As a result, projected annual GHG emission levels would be about 50 GtCO2e by 2030 (2% above 2010 levels), compared to the 60 GtCO2e in the ‘current policies’ scenario. Most reductions are achieved in the electricity sector through expanding renewable energy, followed by the reduction of fluorinated gases, reducing venting and flaring in oil and gas production, and improving industry efficiency. Materializing the calculated mitigation potential might not be as straightforward given different country priorities, policy preferences and circumstances. Key policy insightsConsiderable emissions reductions globally would be possible, if a selection of successful policies were replicated and implemented in all countries worldwide.This would significantly reduce, but not close, the emissions gap with a 2°C pathway.From the selection of successful policies evaluated in this study, those implemented in the sector ‘electricity supply’ have the highest impact on global emissions compared to the ‘current policies’ scenario.Replicating the impact of these policies worldwide could lead to emission and energy trends in the renewable electricity, passenger transport, industry (including fluorinated gases) and buildings sector, that are close to those in a 2°C scenario.Using successful policies and translating these to policy impact per sector is a more reality-based alternative to most mitigation pathways, which need to make theoretical assumptions on policy cost-effectiveness.
Sorting protocol for packaging wastes
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Huremovic, D. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1826) - 26
This sorting protocol describes a method to analyse post-consumer packaging waste samples in a relatively large detail. This detailed description of these lightweight packaging (LWP) wastes is required to provide compositional data which is required input data in material flow analysis. The protocol starts with describing the general requirements needed to study LWP in detail. Subsequently the method is described. This methodology is relative complex and laborious for LWP that contains plastic packages and is composed of three steps: sorting to main material by visual recognition, sorting into main polymer type with NIR and finally sorting into packaging type
Risks for infection of strawberry plants with an aerosolized inoculum of Xanthomonas fragariae
Wolf, J.M. van der; Evenhuis, A. ; Kastelein, P. ; Krijger, M.C. ; Funke, V.Z. ; Berg, W. van den; Moene, A.F. - \ 2018
European Journal of Plant Pathology 152 (2018)3. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 711 - 722.
Air sampling - Angular leaf spot - Fragaria x ananasa - Infection thresholds - Particle counters - TaqMan assay

Xanthomonas fragariae is the causative agent of angular leaf spot of strawberry, a quarantine organism in plant propagation material in the European Union. Field experiments were conducted to assess the risks for infection of strawberry plants through dispersal of an aerosolized inoculum. In practice, pathogen aerosols can be formed during mowing of an infected crop or by water splashing on symptomatic plants during overhead irrigation or rain. In our experiments, aerosols were generated by spraying suspensions of X. fragariae with a density of 108 cfu ml−1 or water under pressure vertically up into the air. In strawberry plants (cv Elsanta) placed at 1.3, 5 and 10 m distance downwind from the spray boom, infections were found, as evidenced with a combination of dilution–plating and molecular techniques, but more frequently in plants wetted prior to inoculation than in plants kept dry. A logarithmic decrease in infection incidence was found with the distance to the inoculum source. Symptomatic plants were found up to 5 m distance from the inoculum source. No infected plants were found in plants placed 4 m upwind or treated with water. In glasshouse studies, it was shown that under conditions favorable for disease development, spray-inoculation of strawberry plants with estimated densities of X. fragariae as low as 2000 cfu per plant were able to cause symptoms both in cv Elsanta and cv Sonata. Results indicate that there is a considerable risk on infections of strawberry plants exposed to aerosolized inoculum.

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability
Andrew, Carrie ; Heegaard, Einar ; Høiland, Klaus ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Kuijper, T.W.M. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Gange, Alan C. ; Egli, Simon ; Bässler, Claus ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Boddy, Lynne ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2018
climate - fungi - fruit bodies - distribution - NDVI - nutritional mode - path analysis - phenology
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by approximately 25 days, primarily with latitude. Altitude affected fruiting by up to 30 days, with spring delays and autumnal accelerations. Fruiting was as much explained by the effects of bioclimatic variability as by their large‐scale spatial patterns. Temperature drove fruiting of autumnal ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic, as well as spring saprotrophic groups, while primary production and precipitation were major drivers for spring‐fruiting ectomycorrhizal fungi. Species‐specific phenology predictors were not stable, instead deviating from the overall mean. There is significant likelihood that further climatic change, especially in temperature, will impact fungal phenology patterns at large spatial scales. The ecological implications are diverse, potentially affecting food webs (asynchrony), nutrient cycling and the timing of nutrient availability in ecosystems.
Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability
Andrew, Carrie ; Heegaard, Einar ; Høiland, Klaus ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Kuyper, Thomas W. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Gange, Alan C. ; Egli, Simon ; Bässler, Claus ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Boddy, Lynne ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2018
Ecology 99 (2018)6. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 1306 - 1315.
climate - distribution - Europe - fruit bodies - fungi - NDVI - nutritional mode - path analysis - phenology
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude, and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation, and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by approximately 25 d, primarily with latitude. Altitude affected fruiting by up to 30 d, with spring delays and autumnal accelerations. Fruiting was as much explained by the effects of bioclimatic variability as by their large-scale spatial patterns. Temperature drove fruiting of autumnal ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic groups as well as spring saprotrophic groups, while primary production and precipitation were major drivers for spring-fruiting ectomycorrhizal fungi. Species-specific phenology predictors were not stable, instead deviating from the overall mean. There is significant likelihood that further climatic change, especially in temperature, will impact fungal phenology patterns at large spatial scales. The ecological implications are diverse, potentially affecting food webs (asynchrony), nutrient cycling and the timing of nutrient availability in ecosystems.
Growth of wormlike micelles in nonionic surfactant solutions : Quantitative theory vs. experiment
Danov, Krassimir D. ; Kralchevsky, Peter A. ; Stoyanov, Simeon D. ; Cook, Joanne L. ; Stott, Ian P. ; Pelan, Eddie G. - \ 2018
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 256 (2018). - ISSN 0001-8686 - p. 1 - 22.
Micelle free energy - Micelle growth - Nonionic surfactants - Polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers - Wormlike micelles
Despite the considerable advances of molecular-thermodynamic theory of micelle growth, agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved only in isolated cases. A general theory that can provide self-consistent quantitative description of the growth of wormlike micelles in mixed surfactant solutions, including the experimentally observed high peaks in viscosity and aggregation number, is still missing. As a step toward the creation of such theory, here we consider the simplest system – nonionic wormlike surfactant micelles from polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, CiEj. Our goal is to construct a molecular-thermodynamic model that is in agreement with the available experimental data. For this goal, we systematized data for the micelle mean mass aggregation number, from which the micelle growth parameter was determined at various temperatures. None of the available models can give a quantitative description of these data. We constructed a new model, which is based on theoretical expressions for the interfacial-tension, headgroup-steric and chain-conformation components of micelle free energy, along with appropriate expressions for the parameters of the model, including their temperature and curvature dependencies. Special attention was paid to the surfactant chain-conformation free energy, for which a new more general formula was derived. As a result, relatively simple theoretical expressions are obtained. All parameters that enter these expressions are known, which facilitates the theoretical modeling of micelle growth for various nonionic surfactants in excellent agreement with the experiment. The constructed model can serve as a basis that can be further upgraded to obtain quantitative description of micelle growth in more complicated systems, including binary and ternary mixtures of nonionic, ionic and zwitterionic surfactants, which determines the viscosity and stability of various formulations in personal-care and house-hold detergency.
The effect of essential oils of tagetes minuta and tithonia diversifolia on on-host behaviour of the brown ear tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus
Wanzala, W. ; Hassanali, A. ; Mukabana, W.R. ; Takken, W. - \ 2018
Livestock Research for Rural Development 30 (2018)6. - ISSN 0121-3784
Cattle - Feeding site - Kenya - On-host orientation behavior

On-host behaviour of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was studied in the field in Bungoma County in Kenya to evaluate the putative repellent effects of essential oils of Tagetes minuta and Tithonia diversifolia at its predilection feeding site. Oils of both plants caused a disruption of orientation, movement and attachment behaviour of ticks. More ticks dropped off in the treatments with the two essential oils than with the control. Treating the ear pinna with the essential oil of T. minuta caused the highest percentage of ticks to drop off the host body. No tick reached the ear pinna treated with the essential oil of T. minuta and up to 30% of ticks (from the forehead release site) reached the ear base. When the ear pinna was treated with the essential oil of T. diversifolia, one tick reached the ear pinna and up to 40% of ticks (from the dewlap release site) reached the ear base. The results show that T. minuta repels ticks more strongly than T. diversifolia. However, both essential oils offer possibilities for exploitation of potentially effective and environmentally acceptable tools for on-host tick control.

Forest-rainfall cascades buffer against drought across the Amazon
Staal, Arie ; Tuinenburg, Obbe A. ; Bosmans, Joyce H.C. ; Holmgren, Milena ; Nes, Egbert H. van; Scheffer, Marten ; Zemp, Delphine Clara ; Dekker, Stefan C. - \ 2018
Nature Climate Change 8 (2018)6. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 539 - 543.

Tree transpiration in the Amazon may enhance rainfall for downwind forests. Until now it has been unclear how this cascading effect plays out across the basin. Here, we calculate local forest transpiration and the subsequent trajectories of transpired water through the atmosphere in high spatial and temporal detail. We estimate that one-third of Amazon rainfall originates within its own basin, of which two-thirds has been transpired. Forests in the southern half of the basin contribute most to the stability of other forests in this way, whereas forests in the south-western Amazon are particularly dependent on transpired-water subsidies. These forest-rainfall cascades buffer the effects of drought and reveal a mechanism by which deforestation can compromise the resilience of the Amazon forest system in the face of future climatic extremes.

Column: Wist u dat...
Vries, J.W. de - \ 2018
Bloemenkrant
Protein-protein interactions among the structural proteins of chilo iridescent virus
Ozsahin, Emine ; Oers, Monique M. van; Nalcacioglu, Remziye ; Demirbag, Zihni - \ 2018
Journal of General Virology 99 (2018)6. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 851 - 859.
Chilo iridescent virus - Protein-protein interaction - Structural proteins - Yeast-two-hybrid

Chilo iridescent virus (CIV), officially named invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV6), is a nucleocytoplasmic virus with a ~212-kb linear dsDNA genome that encodes 215 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Proteomic analysis has revealed that the CIV virion consists of 54 virally encoded proteins. In this study, we identified the interactions between the structural proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. We cloned 47 structural genes into both bait and prey vectors, and then analysed the interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AH109. A total of 159 protein-protein interactions were detected between the CIV structural proteins. Only ORF 179R showed a self-association. Four structural proteins that have homologues in iridoviruses (118L, 142R, 274L and 295L) showed indirect interactions with each other. Seven proteins (138R, 142R, 361L, 378R, 395R, 415R and 453R) interacted with the major capsid protein 274L. The putative membrane protein 118L, a homologue of the frog virus 3/Ranagrylio virus 53R protein, showed direct interactions with nine other proteins (117L, 229L, 307L, 355R, 366R, 374R, 378R, 415R and 422L). The interaction between 118L and 415R was confirmed by a GST pull-down assay. These data indicate that 415R is a potential matrix protein connecting the envelope protein 118L with the major capsid protein 274L.

Correction to: Genome and transcriptome of the natural isopropanol producer Clostridium beijerinckii DSM6423
Gérando, Hadrien Máté de; Wasels, François ; Bisson, Angélique ; Clement, Benjamin ; Bidard, Frédérique ; Jourdier, Etienne ; López-Contreras, Ana María ; Ferreira, Nicolas Lopes - \ 2018
BMC Genomics 19 (2018). - ISSN 1471-2164
Following the publication of this article [1], the authors noticed that Figs. 2, 3 and 4 were in the incorrect order and thus had incorrect captions.
De wereld heeft ons nodig
Vries, J.W. de - \ 2018
Bloemenkrant
International comparison of active citizenship by using Twitter data, the case of England and the Netherlands
Sánchez, Cristina Rosales - \ 2018
First Monday 23 (2018)6. - ISSN 1396-0466
Can social media become the new data source for certain social indicators? What does social media offer in comparison with classical sources for official statistics? This research analyzes the potential of Twitter data to obtain indicators of active citizenship. We use a methodology developed for a case study in Spain and test its replicability by applying it to England and the Netherlands. Twitter data offers an advantage to assess change in active citizenship over time and at high spatial resolution, while survey data - traditional sources for official statistics - are more authoritative and robust. Collecting and analyzing Twitter data is also faster than traditional survey processes. However, we found that Twitter usage specificities in each country ease or hinder the process, affecting the time to secure an indicator. Whilst future research will focus on other social indicators and sources of data, this research is an important step in developing an evidence-based understanding of the strengths and weakness of social media to inform policies.
Climate reddening increases the chance of critical transitions
Bolt, Bregje van der; Nes, Egbert H. van; Bathiany, Sebastian ; Vollebregt, Marlies E. ; Scheffer, Marten - \ 2018
Nature Climate Change 8 (2018)6. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 478 - 484.
Climate change research often focuses on trends in the mean and variance. However, analyses of palaeoclimatic and contemporary dynamics reveal that climate memory - as measured for instance by temporal autocorrelation - may also change substantially over time. Here, we show that elevated temporal autocorrelation in climatic variables should be expected to increase the chance of critical transitions in climate-sensitive systems with tipping points. We demonstrate that this prediction is consistent with evidence from forests, coral reefs, poverty traps, violent conflict and ice sheet instability. In each example, the duration of anomalous dry or warm events elevates chances of invoking a critical transition. Understanding the effects of climate variability thus requires research not only on variance, but also on climate memory.
Interfacial stabilization using complexes of plant proteins and polysaccharides
Li, Xiufeng ; Vries, Renko de - \ 2018
Current Opinion in Food Science 21 (2018). - ISSN 2214-7993 - p. 51 - 56.

In view of their favourable sustainability profile, plant proteins are gaining interest as replacement ingredients for applications that are traditionally dominated by animal proteins such as the stabilization of emulsions and foams. For animal proteins it has been extensively demonstrated how the complexation of proteins with polysaccharides can be exploited to modulate interfacial stabilization. Many plant proteins are much less hydrophilic and often cannot be easily extracted from the raw plant material in their native state. This gives rise to a new set of challenges and opportunities when considering the use of protein–polysaccharide complexes for interfacial stabilization. Here we review the recent literature on the use of complexes of plant proteins with polysaccharides for interfacial stabilization. This includes the use of composite plant protein/polysaccharide nanoparticles and microparticles, plant protein–polysaccharide complex coacervates and plant protein–polysaccharide multilayer emulsions. While on the one hand the lower solubility of the plant proteins presents a challenge, by association with very hydrophylic polysaccharide, very strong amphiphilicity is obtained that can lead good stabilization of oil–water and air–water interfaces.

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