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Options for sustaining solar-powered mosquito trapping systems on Rusinga Island, Western Kenya : A social dilemma analysis
Oria, Prisca A. ; Wijnands, Michiel ; Alaii, Jane ; Leeuwis, Cees - \ 2018
BMC Public Health 18 (2018)1. - ISSN 1471-2458
Community - Kenya - Malaria - Mosquito - Social dilemma - Solar - Sustainability - Traps
Background: In 2012, a donor-supported proof of principle study was launched to eliminate malaria from Rusinga Island, western Kenya, using solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS). SMoTS, which also provided power for room lighting and charging mobile telephones, were installed in houses. In view of the involvement of individual and collective benefits, as well as individual and collective maintenance solutions, this study qualitatively examined preferences of some project stakeholders towards SMoTS sustainability components to see if and how they related to social dilemma factors. Methods: The data were collected through participant observation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Results: The results show that respondents largely preferred individual solutions to various aspects of maintenance. Selective collective solutions such as table banking groups were considered positively for mobilising financial resources for maintenance, but respondents were hardly willing to contribute financially to a collective entity. Few people saw a meaningful role for a collective governing body; people preferred to rely on individual household responsibility and private service delivery for repairs and stocking spare parts. An overriding concern was that people lacked trust in other community members, leaders and/or technicians who would be employed by a governing body. Respondents also had little confidence that a governing body or saving group could effectively impose sanctions to misappropriation of funds, poor leadership, defecting group members or technicians that might abuse a salaried position. Conclusion: There seemed to be linkages between preferences towards organising various components of SMoTS sustainability and known hindrances to addressing social dilemmas. This posed considerable challenges to organising the sustainability of this innovative malaria control strategy. Trial registration: NTR3496.
When does it pay off to prime for defense? A modeling analysis
Douma, Jacob C. ; Vermeulen, Peter J. ; Poelman, Erik H. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Anten, Niels P.R. - \ 2017
New Phytologist 216 (2017)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 782 - 797.
Community - Fitness - Insect herbivory - Plant competition - Priming - Volatiles
Plants can prepare for future herbivore attack through a process called priming. Primed plants respond more strongly and/or faster to insect attack succeeding the priming event than nonprimed plants, while the energetic costs of priming are relatively low. To better understand the evolution of priming, we developed a simulation model, partly parameterized for Brassica nigra plants, to explore how the fitness benefits of priming change when plants are grown in different biotic environments. Model simulations showed that herbivore dynamics (arrival probability, arrival time, and feeding rate) affect the optimal duration, the optimal investment and the fitness benefits of priming. Competition for light increases the indirect costs of priming, but may also result in a larger payoff when the nonprimed plant experiences substantial leaf losses. This modeling approach identified some important knowledge gaps: herbivore arrival rates on individual plants are rarely reported but they shape the optimal duration of priming, and it would pay off if the likelihood, severity and timing of the attack could be discerned from the priming cue, but it is unknown if plants can do so. In addition, the model generated some testable predictions, for example that the sensitivity to the priming cue decreases with plant age.
Hyperglycemia is associated with increased risk of patient delay in pulmonary tuberculosis in rural areas
Wang, Qiuzhen ; Ma, Aiguo ; Han, Xiuxia ; Zhao, Shanliang ; Cai, Jing ; Kok, Frans J. ; Schouten, Evert G. - \ 2017
Journal of diabetes 9 (2017)7. - ISSN 1753-0393 - p. 648 - 655.
Community - Determining factor - Diabetes mellitus - Infectious disease - Odds ratio
Background: Excessive time between the first presentation of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diagnosis contributes to ongoing transmission and increased risk of infection in the community, as well as to increased disease severity and higher mortality. People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a higher risk of developing PTB. However, the effect of T2DM on delayed diagnosis of PTB is not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of hyperglycemia (diabetes and prediabetes) and other factors on PTB patient delay in a rural area of China. Methods: In the present community-based investigation, PTB patients aged ≥16years newly diagnosed at county tuberculosis dispensaries were recruited consecutively between September 2011 and December 2013. Fasting blood glucose was determined in all subjects, and a structured questionnaire was used to collect basic information. Results: Of the 2280 patients, 605 (26.5 %) had hyperglycemia. The median (interquartile range) time to seeking health care was 44 (59) days. Health care seeking was delayed in 1754 subjects, and hyperglycemia was independently associated with an increased probability (odds ratio 2.10; 95 % confidence interval 1.49-2.97) of patient delay in subjects aged ≥30years. Other factors associated with patient delay were cough, night sweats, and lack of knowledge regarding typical tuberculosis symptoms. The onset of hemoptysis was negatively correlated with patient delay. Conclusions: Patient delay appears to be a serious problem in this rural area with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. Hyperglycemia is independently associated with an increased probability of patient delay, which, in turn, may result in more serious clinical manifestations.
Using an intervention mapping approach for planning, implementing and assessing a community-led project towards malaria elimination in the Eastern Province of Rwanda
Ingabire, Chantal Marie ; Hakizimana, Emmanuel ; Kateera, Fredrick ; Rulisa, Alexis ; Borne, Bart Van Den; Nieuwold, Ingmar ; Muvunyi, Claude ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Vugt, Michele Van; Mutesa, Leon ; Alaii, Jane - \ 2016
Malaria Journal 15 (2016)1. - ISSN 1475-2875
Community - Empowerment - Engagement - Intervention mapping - Involvement - Malaria - Participation - Rwanda
Background: Active community participation in malaria control is key to achieving malaria pre-elimination in Rwanda. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based malaria elimination project in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district, Eastern province of Rwanda. Methods: Guided by an intervention mapping approach, a needs assessment was conducted using household and entomological surveys and focus group interviews. Data related to behavioural, epidemiological, entomological and economical aspects were collected. Desired behavioural and environmental outcomes were identified concurrently with behavioural and environmental determinants. Theoretical methods and their practical applications were enumerated to guide programme development and implementation. An operational plan including the scope and sequence as well as programme materials was developed. Two project components were subsequently implemented following community trainings: (1) community malaria action teams (CMATs) were initiated in mid-2014 as platforms to deliver malaria preventive messages at village level, and (2) a mosquito larval source control programme using biological substances was deployed for a duration of 6 months, implemented from January to July 2015. Process and outcome evaluation has been conducted for both programme components to inform future scale up. Results: The project highlighted malaria patterns in the area and underpinned behavioural and environmental factors contributing to malaria transmission. Active involvement of the community in collaboration with CMATs contributed to health literacy, particularly increasing ability to make knowledgeable decisions in regards to malaria prevention and control. A follow up survey conducted six months following the establishment of CMATs reported a reduction of presumed malaria cases at the end of 2014. The changes were related to an increase in the acceptance and use of available preventive measures, such as indoor residual spraying and increase in community-based health insurance membership, also considered as a predictor of prompt and adequate care. The innovative larval source control intervention contributed to reduction in mosquito density and nuisance bites, increased knowledge and skills for malaria control as well as programme ownership. Conclusion: This community-based programme demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of active community participation in malaria control activities, which largely contributed to community empowerment and reduction of presumed malaria in the area. Further studies should explore how gains may be sustained to achieve the goal of malaria pre-elimination.
Home is where the habit of the heart is : governing a gendered sphere of belonging
Wilde, Mandy De - \ 2016
Home Cultures 13 (2016)2. - ISSN 1740-6315 - p. 123 - 144.
Affective citizenship - Belonging - Community - Gender - Governance - Parochial space
Dutch neighborhood policy is increasingly, and quite literally, addressing the habits of the heart-residents' values, emotions, and intimate relationships-To encourage what we may call "affective citizenship." Central to this governmental strategy is the creation of communities as spheres of belonging. This article focuses on neighborhoods as potential spaces of belonging and the role that "feeling at home" plays in residents' community participation. More specifically, the article focuses on how immigrant women who are subject to the policy interventionism of a community participation program make use of a neighborhood center-A "parochial space"-in a Dutch urban neighborhood. I show how the program resonates with and affects their feelings of home; and, address how the practices, concerns, and emotions of an intimate, gendered, domestic sphere are given expression in "parochial spaces" through the encounters and activities of immigrant women, thereby blurring the boundaries between what is conventionally considered public and private. Also, I show how this enacts a gendered sphere of belonging that enables women to cultivate bonds of affinity with other women in the neighborhood. I argue that the governmental strategy of "affective citizenship" allows immigrant women to express their emotions, values, and morals through domesticating space, feminizing culture, and "whispering voice." Despite the feelings of belonging experienced by many immigrant women, the case study reveals how this does not lead to an inclusive community but often to a community that is fragile, temporary, and exclusive. The article thereby reveals the dynamism of belonging and why it is so difficult to plan and manage for the benefit of community building.
Designer ecosystems : A solution for the conservation-exploitation dilemma
Awasthi, Ashutosh ; Singh, Kripal ; O'Grady, Audrey ; Courtney, Ronan ; Kalra, Alok ; Singh, Rana Pratap ; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio ; Steinberger, Yosef ; Patra, D.D. - \ 2016
Ecological Engineering 93 (2016). - ISSN 0925-8574 - p. 73 - 75.
Biodiversity - Community - Conservation - Ecosystem - Exotic invasion - Restoration - Sustainability
Increase in human population is accelerating the rate of land use change, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, triggering a serious threat to life supporting ecosystem services. Existing strategies for biological conservation remain insufficient to achieve a sustainable human-nature relationship and this situation has fueled a debate on the conservation-exploitation dilemma. We need to devise novel strategies, in a mutually inclusive way, which can support biological conservation and secure economic development of deprived populations. Here we propose the use of designer ecosystems which can ensure ecological sustainability while providing ample and some new means of livelihood to local people. Such designer ecosystems may provide a solution to the conservation-exploitation dilemma through lessening population pressure on conserved ecosystems and remediating environmental pollution and ecosystem degradation to secure a broad range of ecosystem services of economic and cultural values.
Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda : A cross sectional study
Ingabire, Chantal Marie ; Kateera, Fredrick ; Hakizimana, Emmanuel ; Rulisa, Alexis ; Muvunyi, Claude ; Mens, Petra ; Koenraadt, Sander ; Mutesa, Leon ; Vugt, Michele Van; Borne, Bart Van Den; Alaii, Jane - \ 2016
Malaria Journal 15 (2016)1. - ISSN 1475-2875
Community - Health insurance - Healthcare seeking - Malaria symptoms - Rwanda - Theory of planned behaviour - 016-3945
Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (HH) survey was conducted from December 2014 to February 2015 in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district in the Eastern province of Rwanda. HHs that reported having had at least one member who experienced a fever and/or malaria episode in the previous 3 months prior to the study were included in the analysis. Healthcare-seeking behaviours associated with the last episode of illness were analysed. Socio-demographic, health facility access, long-lasting insecticidal-treated nets (LLINs), data on malaria knowledge, data and theory of planned behaviour (TPB) related variables (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control) with regard to fever/malaria healthcare seeking, were collected. The primary outcome was prompt and adequate care defined as: (1) seeking advice or treatment at a health facility (health centre or hospital) or from a community health worker (CHW); (2) advice or treatment seeking within same/next day of symptoms onset; (3) received a laboratory diagnosis; (4) received advice or treatment; and, (5) reported completing the prescribed dose of medication. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases were evaluated using a logistic regression analysis. Results: Overall, 302 (21 %) of the 1410 interviewed HHs reported at least one member as having experienced a fever or malaria within the 3 months prior to the survey. The number of HHs (where at least one member reported fever/malaria) that reported seeking advice or treatment at a health facility (health centre or hospital) or from a CHW was 249 (82.4 %). Of those who sought advice or treatment, 87.3 % had done so on same/next day of symptoms developing, 82.8 % received a laboratory diagnosis, and more than 90 % who received treatment reported completing the prescribed dosage. Prompt and adequate care was reported from 162 of the 302 HHs (53.6 %) that experienced fever or malaria for one or more HH members. Bivariate analyses showed that head of household (HoH)-related characteristics including reported knowledge of three or more malaria symptoms, having health insurance, being able to pay for medical services, use of LLINs the night before the survey, having a positive attitude, perceiving social support, as well as a high-perceived behavioural control with regard to healthcare seeking, were all significantly associated with prompt and adequate care. In the final logistic regression model, a high-perceived behavioural control (odds ratio (OR) 5.068, p = 0.042), having a health insurance (OR 2.410, p = 0.044) and having knowledge of malaria symptoms (OR 1.654, p = 0.049) significantly predicted prompt and adequate care. Conclusions: To promote prompt and adequate care seeking for malaria in the area, particular emphasis should be placed on community-focused strategies that promote early malaria symptom recognition, increased health insurance coverage and enhanced perceived behavioural control with regard to healthcare-seeking.
Short-term seasonal habitat facilitation mediated by an insect herbivore
Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Ode, Paul J. ; Malcicka, Miriama ; Gols, Rieta - \ 2016
Basic and Applied Ecology 17 (2016)5. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 447 - 454.
Clubiona phragmitis - Community - Earwig - Ecological interactions - Forficula auricularia - Porcellio scaber - Spider - Woodlice
In nature some organisms may facilitate others by creating shelter or other niches that they use for variable periods. We describe a natural multitrophic-species complex in the Netherlands involving a plant, the common hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium) a specialist chewing herbivore, the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella) and various arthropods associated with them. Larvae of D. pastinacella feed on H. sphondylium seeds and, after they have finished feeding, chew holes in the hollow stems where they pupate. In some areas of the country almost 50% of plants are attacked by webworms. The holes are used by other arthropods to gain access to the stems including herbivores, omnivores, predators and decomposers. The duration of plant occupancy varies between 3 and 4 months, until the plants die. Plants without moth-produced holes were always free of other arthropods, whereas plants with holes, in addition to pupae (and/or mummified-parasitized webworm larvae), often contained many woodlice, earwigs and/or spiders. Earwigs and woodlice perform important ecological functions as predators (in orchards) and decomposers respectively. Our results show that the simple biological activity of one herbivore species can have at least short-term effects on the local arthropod community. In der Natur können manche Organismen andere begünstigen, indem sie Refugien oder andere Nischen erschaffen, die sie für unterschiedliche Zeiträume nutzen. Wir beschreiben einen natürlichen multitrophischen Artenkomplex in den Niederlanden, der den Wiesen-Bärenklau (Heracleum sphondylium), die Pastinakmotte (Depressaria pastinacella) und verschiedene mit ihnen assoziierte Arthropoden umfasst. Die Larven der Pastinakmotte fressen an Bärenklausamen und beißen später Löcher in die hohlen Stengel, um sich darin zu verpuppen. Die Löcher werden von anderen Arthropoden genutzt, um Zugang ins Stengelinnere zu erhalten. Die Pflanze wird für etwa drei bis vier Monate besiedelt bis sie abstirbt. Pflanzen ohne Mottenlöcher wurden niemals von anderen Arthropoden besiedelt, während Stengel mit Löchern zusätzlich zu den Mottenpuppen bzw. parasitierten Larvenmumien häufig viele Asseln, Ohrwürmer und/oder Spinnen enthielten. Ohrwürmer und Asseln erfüllen wichtige ökologische Funktionen als Räuber in Obstplantagen bzw. als Zersetzer. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die einfache biologische Aktivität einer Herbivorenart zumindest kurzfristige Auswirkungen auf die lokale Arthropodengemeinschaft haben kann.
Development of a sustainable livelihood security model for storm-surge hazard in the coastal areas of Bangladesh
Mutahara, Muhmuda ; Haque, Anisul ; Khan, M.S.A. ; Warner, Jeroen F. ; Wester, Flip - \ 2016
Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment 30 (2016)5. - ISSN 1436-3240 - p. 1301 - 1315.
Bangladesh - Coastal zone - Community - Hazard - Livelihood security - Multi- criteria analysis - Storm-surge
Coastal communities in Bangladesh are at great risk due to frequent cyclones and cyclone induced storm-surges, which damages inland and marine resource systems. In the present research, seven marginal livelihood groups including Farmers, Fisherman, Fry (shrimp) collectors, Salt farmers, Dry fishers, Forest resource extractors, and Daily wage labourers are identified to be extremely affected by storm- surges in the coastal area of Bangladesh. A livelihood security model was developed to investigate the security status of the coastal livelihood system in a participatory approach. In the model, livelihood security consists of five components: (1) Food, (2) Income, (3) Life & health, (4) House & properties, and (5) Water security. Analytical hierarchy process was followed to assess the livelihood security indicators based on respondents’ security options. The model was verified through direct field observation and expert judgment. The Livelihood Security Model yields a Livelihood Security Index which can be used for assessing and comparing the household security level (in %) of different livelihood groups in the storm-surge prone coastal areas. The model was applied with data from two major coastal areas (Cox’s Bazar and Satkhira) of Bangladesh and is applicable to other coastal areas having similar settings.
Talcahuano, Chile, in the wake of the 2010 disaster : A vulnerable middle?
Engel, Karen E. - \ 2016
Natural Hazards 80 (2016)2. - ISSN 0921-030X - p. 1057 - 1081.
Capital - Chile - Class - Community - Disaster - Earthquake - Emergence - Resilience - Resources - Vulnerability
Because of Chile’s geographical position, earthquakes and tsunamis are recurrent phenomena and reducing vulnerability to these events is imperative. To do this, one needs to understand the geophysical features of the hazards involved and the vulnerability that exposed communities live with. This article presents some unexpected findings of a research regarding the latter and devised to investigate the vulnerability realities that the devastating 2010 earthquake/tsunami event in Chile exposed. Interestingly, this study revealed households that are formally considered resilient in the face of natural hazards, but are in fact not. These households are part of a group I call the emergent middle. The ‘middle’ because they are neither rich nor poor, but do not fit the typical middle-class category, and ‘emergent’ because their primary concerns are staying out of poverty and climbing the socioeconomic ladder. The findings of this research suggest that they find themselves in a precarious situation and that their vulnerability to natural hazards largely emerges from their economic fragility and their limited access to relevant resources in the wake of a hazardous event. This article is based on data that were collected through extensive field work in the Greater Concepción area and in particular in Talcahuano that was severely hit in 2010.
“Smallholders Need Markets, Not Hand-Outs”: Partnering for Innovation in Agricultural Development
Dentoni, D. - \ 2015
The Annual Review of Social Partnerships 2015 (2015)10. - ISSN 2059-4291 - p. 124 - 126.
Partnerships - Community - International development - Partnership journey - Scaling - Smallholder farmers