Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy as suitable tools for direct determination of cocoa powder in confectionary products
Doka, O. ; Pragai, E. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Kulcsar, R. - \ 2013
European Food Research and Technology 236 (2013)6. - ISSN 1438-2377 - p. 963 - 968.
phenolic content - theobroma-cacao - powders - antioxidant - quantification - polyphenols - mixtures - capacity - samples - beans
Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and colorimetry have been used to rapidly and accurately determine the content of fat-free cocoa solids in dark chocolates. Both techniques are inexpensive and require only a one-time calibration step versus a method capable of absolute concentration measurement (for example HPLC). Once the response of PAS and/or colorimetry has been obtained, the content of fat-free cocoa solids in dark chocolates can be determined directly (i.e. without any sample preparation including the process of extraction) from the calibration curves and the experimentally measured microphone signal (in PAS studies) and colorimetric indices L* and ¿E* (in colorimetric investigations). Both colorimetric indices and PA signals correlate positively with the content of fat-free cocoa solids. The correlation is highly linear over a wide concentration range (25–50 %).
Comparative analyses of seeds of wild fruits or Rubus and Sambucus species from Southern Italy: fatty acid composition of the oil, total phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the methanolic extracts
Fazio, A. ; Plastina, P. ; Meijerink, J. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Gabriele, B. - \ 2013
Food Chemistry 140 (2013)4. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 817 - 824.
chemical-composition - bioactive compounds - berry fruits - nitric-oxide - capacity - inhibition - anthocyanins - cultivar - disease - health
Fruit seeds are byproducts from fruit processing. Characterisation of the bioactive compounds present in seeds and evaluation of their potential biological properties is therefore of particular importance in view of a possible valorisation of seeds as a source of health beneficial components. In this work, we have analysed the seeds of Sambucus and Rubus species in order to identify their bioactive components and to determine the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts. We first analysed their oil content, in order to assess the fatty acid profile and tocopherol content. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of the seeds were analysed for their total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. Polyphenols were identified by HPLC–ESI–MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the production of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators (NO, CCL-20) in RAW 264.7 cells. Our findings show that the methanolic extracts from Rubus seeds have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and could therefore represent an attractive source of bioactive compounds for food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical applications.
Saturated fat stimulates obesity and hepatic steatosis and affects gut microbiota composition by an enhanced overflow of dietary fat to the distal intestine
Wit, N.J.W. de; Derrien, M. ; Bosch-Vermeulen, H. ; Oosterink, E. ; Keshtkar, S. ; Duval, C.N.C. ; Vogel-van den Bosch, H.M. de; Kleerebezem, M. ; Muller, M.R. ; Meer, R. van der - \ 2012
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 303 (2012)5. - ISSN 0193-1857 - p. G589 - G599.
insulin-resistance - metabolic syndrome - lipid-metabolism - c57bl/6j mice - acids - hormones - adiposity - capacity - receptor - gpr41
We studied the effect of dietary fat type, varying in polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S), on development of metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed purified high-fat diets (45E% fat) containing palm oil (HF-PO; P/S 0.4), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S 1.1), or safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S 7.8) for 8 wk. A low-fat palm oil diet (LF-PO; 10E% fat) was used as a reference. Additionally, we analyzed diet-induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. The HF-PO diet induced a higher body weight gain and liver triglyceride content compared with the HF-OO, HF-SO, or LF-PO diet. In the intestine, the HF-PO diet reduced microbial diversity and increased the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. Although this fits a typical obesity profile, our data clearly indicate that an overflow of the HF-PO diet to the distal intestine, rather than obesity itself, is the main trigger for these gut microbiota changes. A HF-PO diet-induced elevation of lipid metabolism-related genes in the distal small intestine confirmed the overflow of palm oil to the distal intestine. Some of these lipid metabolism-related genes were previously already associated with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, our data indicate that saturated fat (HF-PO) has a more stimulatory effect on weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation than unsaturated fat (HF-OO and HF-SO). The overflow of fat to the distal intestine on the HF-PO diet induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. We speculate that both are directly or indirectly contributive to the saturated fat-induced development of obesity and hepatic steatosis.
A resilience-based policy evaluation framework : application to European rural development policies
Schouten, M.A.H. ; Heide, C.M. van der; Heijman, W.J.M. ; Opdam, P.F.M. - \ 2012
Ecological Economics 81 (2012). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 165 - 175.
social-ecological systems - ecosystem services - management - biodiversity - landscape - capacity - metaphor - areas - world
Given the major changes that rural areas have undergone, and are continuing to undergo, serious problems of achieving sustainable development are being experienced. These changes have multiple characters, varying from changes in ecosystem conditions to changes in socio-economic impacts, due to, for example, food- and financial crises. Nowadays, there is an increasing awareness of the need to develop rural policies that support adaptive strategies of stakeholders in response to a disturbance. We propose that resilience thinking offers a framework that could be helpful in the governance of rural changes. This framework is based on the complexity of the social–ecological system and takes into account the unpredictable future, as it emphasizes adaptive approaches to management. As such, it helps evaluate to what extent rural development policies contribute to the resilience of rural areas. Nine criteria were developed including thirteen specifications. In order to evaluate the usability and usefulness of the proposed framework, a case study has been performed that specifically investigated the degree of resilience of a European rural development policy (i.e. the spending of extra funds generated through compulsory modulation under the 2009 Health Check in the Netherlands)
An on-line high performance liquid chromatography-crocin bleaching assay for detection of antioxidants
Bountagkidou, O. ; Klift, E.J.C. van der; Tsimidou, M.Z. ; Ordoudi, S.A. ; Beek, T.A. van - \ 2012
Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1237 (2012). - ISSN 0021-9673 - p. 80 - 85.
radical scavenging compounds - chemiluminescence detection - natural antioxidants - complex-mixtures - identification - capacity - extracts - inhibition - plant
An on-line HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method for the rapid screening of individual antioxidants in mixtures was developed using crocin as a substrate (i.e. oxidation probe) and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH)) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) as a radical generator. The polyene structure of crocin and AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals resemble the lipidic substrates and radicals found in true food more closely than the popular, albeit artificial, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)) do. After separation by a C18 (octadecyl silica) column and UV (ultraviolet) detection, antioxidative analytes react with peroxyl radicals at 90 °C and the inhibition of crocin oxidation (i.e. bleaching) is detected as a positive peak by an absorbance detector at 440 nm. The method is simple, uses standard instruments and inexpensive reagents. It can be applied for isocratic HPLC runs using mobile phases containing 10–90% organic solvent in water, weak acids or buffers (pH 3.5–8.5). With baseline correction, gradient runs are also feasible. The radical scavenging activity of several natural antioxidants and a green tea extract was studied. After optimisation of conditions such as reagent concentrations and flows, the limit of detection varied from 0.79 to 7.4 ng, depending on the antioxidant. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fish welfare assurance system: initial steps to set up an effective tool to safeguard and monitor farmed fish welfare at a company level
Vis, J.W. van de; Poelman, M. ; Lambooij, E. ; Bégout, M.L. ; Pilarczyk, M. - \ 2012
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 38 (2012)1. - ISSN 0920-1742 - p. 243 - 257.
dicentrarchus-labrax - feeding-activity - animal-welfare - bass - capacity - rhythms - pattern - haccp
The objective was to take a first step in the development of a process-oriented quality assurance (QA) system for monitoring and safeguarding of fish welfare at a company level. A process-oriented approach is focused on preventing hazards and involves establishment of critical steps in a process that requires careful control. The seven principles of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) concept were used as a framework to establish the QA system. HACCP is an internationally agreed approach for management of food safety, which was adapted for the purpose of safeguarding and monitoring the welfare of farmed fish. As the main focus of this QA system is farmed fish welfare assurance at a company level, it was named Fish Welfare Assurance System (FWAS). In this paper we present the initial steps of setting up FWAS for on growing of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Four major hazards were selected, which were fish species dependent. Critical Control Points (CCPs) that need to be controlled to minimize or avoid the four hazards are presented. For FWAS, monitoring of CCPs at a farm level is essential. For monitoring purposes, Operational Welfare Indicators (OWIs) are needed to establish whether critical biotic, abiotic, managerial and environmental factors are controlled. For the OWIs we present critical limits/target values. A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a factor must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate or reduce a hazard to an acceptable level. For managerial factors target levels are more appropriate than critical limits. Regarding the international trade of farmed fish products, we propose that FWAS needs to be standardized in aquaculture chains. For this standardization a consensus on the concept of fish welfare, methods to assess welfare objectively and knowledge on the needs of farmed fish are required
Extraction of antioxidant pigments from dye sorghum leaf sheaths
Kayode, A.P.P. ; Bara, C.A. ; Dalode-Vieira, G. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Nout, M.J.R. - \ 2012
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 46 (2012)1. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 49 - 55.
phenolic-compounds - anthocyanins - 3-deoxyanthocyanidins - vegetables - varieties - capacity - assay - acid - food - red
Extraction of antioxidant biocolorant pigments from leaf sheaths of dye sorghum was optimized. Effects of temperature and ethanol concentration of the extraction solvent on the concentrations of the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, and the colour parameters of the biocolorant extract were evaluated using the response surface methodology. Extraction parameters affected the extraction rate of the biocolorant pigments and the colour characteristics of the extract. Maximum pigment yields were obtained at 50 °C and an ethanol concentration of the solvent of 51 mL 100 mL-1. Addition of HCl (1 mL 100 mL-1) to the solvent significantly improved the extractability of the biocolorant pigments. The crude extract from the leaf sheaths showed high antioxidant capacity with a total antioxidant capacity of 1026 mg of Trolox equivalent (TE) g-1 of DM. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Comparison of risk assessment methods to determine the subsoil compaction risk of agricultural soils in the Netherlands
Akker, J.J.H. van den; Hoogland, T. - \ 2011
Soil & Tillage Research 114 (2011)2. - ISSN 0167-1987 - p. 146 - 154.
mechanical strength - physical-properties - sidass project - part 1 - model - capacity - stresses - predict - values - time
Subsoil compaction is a recognised threat in the European Soil Strategy and knowledge concerning the vulnerability of subsoils to compaction in Europe and the Netherlands is information required for the determination of priority areas (or risk areas) in the future European Soil Framework Directive. In Europe two risk assessment methods (RAM) are used in more than one country to determine the subsoil compaction risk. The first one (RAM-A) initially determines the susceptibility of soils to compaction as a function of texture and packing density. In the second step the vulnerability to compaction is determined as a function of susceptibility and climate. The second RAM (RAM-B) is a mechanistic model in which the soil mechanical strength determines whether a subsoil is susceptible to compaction. The RAMs are used to produce maps presenting the susceptibility and vulnerability to compaction of Dutch subsoils (RAM-A) and maps with the compression strength and maximal allowable wheel load of a Terra Tire to prevent compaction of Dutch subsoils (RAM-B). Both RAMs have weaknesses. RAM-A is an expert model and can be rather arbitrarily with results that are not in agreement with our experience. RAM-B suffers from lack of good data and probably underestimates subsoil strengths. Results of both RAMs are compared to each other and to a map showing the probability that the subsoil is already overcompacted. This probability map is based on bulk density data in the Dutch Soil Database (BIS). There is a good match between the results of both RAMs, however, the match with the probability map (presumed to be “reality”) is not good. In both RAMs sand and loamy sand soils are indicated as more vulnerable than clay soils, while in the probability map sand subsoils suffer less of subsoil compaction than clay soils. Of concern is that, according to the probability map, about 50% of the most productive and fertile soils of The Netherlands have overcompacted subsoils. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Roofwantsen in roos, Thema: Doorontwikkelen duurzame gewasbescherming BO-12.03-003.01-002.04
Pijnakker, J. - \ 2011
rozen - gewasbescherming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plaagbestrijding met natuurlijke vijanden - agressie - predatie - capaciteit - roses - plant protection - sustainability - augmentation - aggression - predation - capacity
Informatieposter over roofwantsen in roos (Thema: doorontwikkelen duurzame gewasbescherming). Bij biologische bestrijding in roos werken telers momenteel voornamelijk met roofmijten die diverse mijten en kleine insectenlarven eten. Ze zijn geschikt voor het bestrijden van spint, maar schieten tekort tegen trips en witte vlieg. De telers vragen om ‘agressievere’ natuurlijke vijanden (predatoren) tegen deze plaaginsecten
Small Interannual Variability of Global Atmospheric Hydroxyl
Montzka, S.A. ; Krol, M.C. ; Dlugokencky, E. ; Hall, B. ; Jöckel, P. ; Lelieveld, J. - \ 2011
Science 331 (2011)6013. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 67 - 69.
methyl chloroform - carbon-monoxide - tropospheric oh - (co)-c-14 - chemistry - emissions - abundance - capacity - radicals - ozone
The oxidizing capacity of the global atmosphere is largely determined by hydroxyl (OH) radicals and is diagnosed by analyzing methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) measurements. Previously, large year-to-year changes in global mean OH concentrations have been inferred from such measurements, suggesting that the atmospheric oxidizing capacity is sensitive to perturbations by widespread air pollution and natural influences. We show how the interannual variability in OH has been more precisely estimated from CH3CCl3 measurements since 1998, when atmospheric gradients of CH3CCl3 had diminished as a result of the Montreal Protocol. We infer a small interannual OH variability as a result, indicating that global OH is generally well buffered against perturbations. This small variability is consistent with measurements of methane and other trace gases oxidized primarily by OH, as well as global photochemical model calculations.
Capacity development in higher education : five years involvement of Wageningen UR with NPT and NFP
Muskens, R. ; Kusters, K. ; Beuming, B.P.J.M. ; Budel, L.L. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789085859116 - 86
hoger onderwijs - universiteiten - agrarisch onderwijs - beroepsopleiding - landbouwsector - economische sectoren - waterbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - onderwijshervorming - onderwijsvernieuwing - landbouwkundig onderzoek - capaciteit - ontwikkeling - internationale samenwerking - onderwijsbeleid - nederland - ontwikkelingslanden - landbouwvoorlichting - gelderland - veluwe - higher education - universities - agricultural education - vocational training - agricultural sector - economic sectors - water management - natural resources - sustainability - educational reform - educational innovation - agricultural research - capacity - development - international cooperation - educational policy - netherlands - developing countries - agricultural extension
Motorvermogen van vissersschepen naar de wettelijke normen; Eindevaluatie Co-management en motorvermogen
Hoefnagel, E.W.J. ; Mil, E.M. van - \ 2010
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Natuurlijke hulpbronnen ) - ISBN 9789086154548 - 162
vissersschepen - vis vangen - motoren - kracht - capaciteit - normen - rechtshandhaving - publiek-private samenwerking - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landbouwbeleid - Nederland - fishing vessels - fishing - engines - power - capacity - standards - law enforcement - public-private cooperation - sustainability - agricultural policy - Netherlands
Dit onderzoeksverslag betreft een eindevaluatie van de uitbreiding van het co-managementsysteem op het vlak van het motorvermogen. In deze derde evaluatie wordt de uitvoering, naleving en effectiviteit van het arrangement onderzocht. Co-management blijkt een geschikt instrument om het proces op gang te brengen het motorvermogen van viskotters beheersbaar te maken. Dit proces is ondersteund door de hoge olieprijs en verslechterde economische situatie in de visserij, waardoor vissers er belang bij hebben zuinig om te gaan met energie en daardoor geneigd zijn hun scheepsmotor niet voluit te gebruiken.
Molecular interpretation of electrokinetic potentials
Lyklema, J. - \ 2010
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science 15 (2010)3. - ISSN 1359-0294 - p. 125 - 130.
silver iodide - double-layer - interface - capacity - charge
A discussion is given of the electrokinetic, or ¿-potential in terms of the slip process and the composition of the electric double layer. Electrokinetically, only the outer parts of double layers are active. The existence of a stagnant part is generally observed for aqueous solutions adjacent to solid surfaces. It is claimed that this stagnancy is caused by the spontaneous structuring of fluids near solid surfaces. Hence, it is a ubiquitous phenomenon and the thickness of the stagnant layer does not significantly depend on the wettability and the surface charge of the surfaces.
Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers
Lutz, C.H.M. ; Kemp, R.G.M. ; Dijkstra, S.G. - \ 2010
Small Business Economics 35 (2010)1. - ISSN 0921-898X - p. 19 - 33.
conjoint-analysis - incumbent firms - switching costs - deterrence - entrepreneurship - markets - investment - economies - consumer - capacity
This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on the seven generic factors, a conjoint analysis is carried out to identify the most important factors perceived by firms. The conjoint analysis shows that in particular the barriers rooted in three underlying dimensions require attention of market authorities as they may prevent new entrants from entry: capital, access to distribution channels and strategic action. Remarkably, government rules and regulations, product differentiation, research and development (R&D) and advertising constitute minor entry problems according to firms
Europe adapts to climate change: comparing national adaptation strategies
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Swart, R.J. ; Carter, T.R. ; Cowan, C. ; Henrichs, T. ; Mela, H. ; Morcecroft, M.D. ; Rey, D. - \ 2010
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 20 (2010)3. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 440 - 450.
social-ecological systems - boundary organizations - policy - governance - science - vulnerability - capacity - scales - uk
For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and facilitating the development of a national adaptation strategy. Secondly, the scientific and technical support needed for the development and implementation of such a strategy. Thirdly, the role of the strategy in information, communication and awareness-raising of the adaptation issue. Fourthly, new or existing forms of multi-level governance to implement the proposed actions. Fifthly, how the strategy addresses integration and coordination with other policy domains. Finally, how the strategy suggests the implementation and how the strategy is evaluated. The paper notes that the role of National Adaptation Strategies in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper concludes that even though the strategies show great resemblance in terms of topics, methods and approaches, there are many institutional challenges, including multi-level governance and policy integration issues, which can act as considerable barriers in future policy implementation
Community health promotion: A framework to facilitate and evaluate supportive social environments for health
Wagemakers, A. ; Vaandrager, L. ; Koelen, M.A. ; Saan, H. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2010
Evaluation and Program Planning 33 (2010)4. - ISSN 0149-7189 - p. 428 - 435.
physical-activity - public-health - research partnerships - coalitions - capacity - model - participation - determinants - programs - collaboration
The evaluation of community health promotion designed to create supportive social environments for health is still in its infancy. There is a lack of consensus on concepts, a lack of information on interventions that bring about social change, and a lack of feasible methods and tools. Consequently, the effectiveness of community health promotion may not be evaluated under all relevant headings. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to the evaluation of change in the social environment by presenting a framework. On the basis of the relevant literature we describe the relation between social environment and health predicting mediators. We selected participation and collaboration as core concepts in moderating the social environment of health because these terms give insight into the actual dynamics of health promotion practice. We synthesize the results into a framework with operational variables and offer four guidelines on how to apply the framework: use the variables as a menu, set specific aims for social change processes, use an action research approach, and triangulate data. The framework and guidelines enable the start-up, facilitation and evaluation of social change and learning processes and provide common ground for researchers and practitioners to improve the practice of their professions
Influence of Roasting on the Antioxidant Activity and HMF Formation of a Cocoa Bean Model Systems
Oliviero, T. ; Capuano, E. ; Cämmerer, B. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2009
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2009)1. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 147 - 152.
maillard reaction-products - coffee - glycosylation - melanoidins - components - capacity - glycine - lactose - xylose - color
During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich foods, such as cocoa, a dry model system was set up and roasted at 180 °C for different times. The role played in the formation of MR products and in the antioxidant activity of the system by proteins, catechin, and cocoa butter was investigated by varying the model system formulation. Results showed that the antioxidant activity decreased during roasting, paralleling catechin concentration, thus suggesting that this compound is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of roasted cocoa beans. Model system browning was significantly higher in the presence of catechin, which contributed to the formation of water-insoluble melanoidins, which are mainly responsible for browning. HMF concentration was higher in casein-containing systems, and its formation was strongly inhibited in the presence of catechin. No effects related to the degree of lipid oxidation could be observed. Data from model systems obtained by replacing fat with water showed a much lower rate of MR development and catechin degradation but the same inhibitory effect of catechin on HMF formation.
De melkrobot is volwassen : aantal robots in tien jaar vervijfvoudigd
Huiden, F. - \ 2009
Boerderij 94 (2009)24. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 20 - 22.
melkmachines - robots - economische groei - capaciteit - economische ontwikkeling - milking machines - economic growth - capacity - economic development
De melkrobot is bezig met een onstuitbare opmars onder meelkveehouders. Gezinsbedrijven maar ook ZZP'ers en grote bedrijven zien de voordelen. Er wordt volop verder ontwikkeld aan de robotsystemen om de capaciteit van robotmelken op te vijzelen
Phytoextraction of phosphorus-enriched grassland soils
Salm, C. van der; Chardon, W.J. ; Koopmans, G.F. ; Middelkoop, J.C. van; Ehlert, P.A.I. - \ 2009
Journal of Environmental Quality 38 (2009). - ISSN 0047-2425 - p. 751 - 761.
plant-available phosphorus - iron hydroxide - sandy soil - phosphate - fertilizer - accumulation - netherlands - extraction - capacity - dynamics
Received for publication February 7, 2008. High soil P contents in agricultural soils in the Netherlands cause excessive losses of P to surface waters. The reductions in P application rates in the present manure policy are not sufficient to reach surface water quality standards resulting from the European Water Framework Directive in 2015. Accordingly, additional measures are necessary to reduce P loading to surface water. Greenhouse experiments showed that a rapid reduction in soluble P and readily available soil P can be obtained by zero P application. However, field data confirming these findings are scarce. In 2002 a phytoextraction experiment started on four grasslands sites on sand, peat, and clay soils. The phytoextraction (mining) plots receive no P and 300 kg N ha–1 yr–1 and the grass is removed by mowing. The experiment showed that zero P application, over a period of 5 yr, led to a strong (30–90%) reduction in P concentrations in soil solution in the upper soil layer (0–0.05 m). The reduction in concentrations declined with depth. Mining also resulted in a decline in P pools in the soil solid phase. The largest decline (10–60%) was found in weakly bound P pools (water extractable P; Pw, and ammonium lactate extractable P; P-AL), whereas reductions in more strongly bound P forms were relatively small. It may be concluded that phytoextraction appears an effective method of reducing soil P concentrations in the uppermost soil layers in a couple of years and prolonged mining may thus be effective in reducing leaching and runoff of P
Exploring earth system governance: A case study of floodplain management along the Tisza river in Hungary
Werners, S.E. ; Fachner, Z. ; Matczak, P. ; Falaleeva, M. ; Leemans, R. - \ 2009
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 19 (2009)4. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 503 - 511.
social-ecological systems - capacity
This paper discusses a recently proposed conceptualisation of ‘earth system governance’ by applying it to floodplain management in the Hungarian Tisza river basin. By doing so it aims to improve our understanding of governance systems facilitating adaptation to a changing world. The conceptualisation of earth system governance consists of three elements: problem structure, principles and research challenges. These three elements are assessed using results from actor interviews and policy review. A regional example of natural resources management is found to be a valid case for earth system governance research. The proposed conceptualisation of earth system governance explains well the main problems, barriers and opportunities for adapting floodplain management to climate change in the Tisza region. Problem structure analysis highlights how previous socio-economic and political orders continue to shape expectations and patterns of conduct. Current barriers can be attributed to a lack of the key governance principles credibility, stability, inclusiveness and adaptiveness. Interviewees perceived the lack of credibility and effective cooperation between organisations as the largest barrier. The research challenges proposed for earth system governance agree well with opportunities identified for adapting Tisza floodplain management, calling for inclusion of actors beyond governments and state agencies, and equitable resource allocation in particular. The analysis suggests that an additional challenge for earth system governance is the prioritisation of actions to support an existing governance system and its actors in adapting.
Urban environmental governance innovations in China
Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2009
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1 (2009)1. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 96 - 100.
state - water - democratization - enforcement - transition - capacity - program - policy - law
China's system of environmental governance is changing rapidly, resulting in new environmental institutions and practices. State authorities rule increasingly via laws and decentralise environmental policymaking and implementation. Non-state actors ¿ both private companies and (organised) citizens ¿ are given and taking more responsibilities and tasks in environmental governance. This results in new relations between state, market and civil society in environmental governance, with more emphasis on efficiency, accountability and legitimacy. The diffusion of these governance innovations throughout China as well as their environmental effectiveness will be focal points for future research
Accessing information in working memory: Can the focus of attention grasp two elements at the same time?
Oberauer, K. ; Bialkova, S.E. - \ 2009
Journal of Experimental Psychology. General 138 (2009)1. - ISSN 0096-3445 - p. 64 - 87.
short-term-memory - individual-differences - premise integration - task - capacity - comprehension - model - costs - representations - construction
Processing information in working memory requires selective access to a subset of working-memory contents by a focus of attention. Complex cognition often requires joint access to 2 items in working memory. How does the focus select 2 items? Two experiments with an arithmetic task and 1 with a spatial task investigate time demands for successive operations that involve 2 digits or 2 spatial positions, respectively. When both items used in an operation have been used in the preceding operation, latencies are shortened. No such repetition benefit (arithmetic) or a much smaller benefit (spatial) was found when only 1 item was repeated. The results rule out serial access to the 2 items, parallel access by expanding the focus, and parallel access by splitting the focus. They support the notion that 2 items are accessed by chunking them, so that they fit a focus limited to 1 chunk. Keywords: attention, working memory, relations
Value chain management for commodities: a case study from the chemical industry
Kannegiesser, M. ; Günther, H.O. ; Beek, P. van; Grunow, M. ; Habla, C. - \ 2009
OR Spektrum 31 (2009)1. - ISSN 0171-6468 - p. 63 - 93.
revenue management - optimization - procurement - strategies - airlines - networks - capacity - prices - market
We present a planning model for chemical commodities related to an industry case. Commodities are standard chemicals characterized by sales and supply volatility in volume and value. Increasing and volatile prices of crude oil-dependent raw materials require coordination of sales and supply decisions by volume and value throughout the value chain to ensure profitability. Contract and spot demand differentiation with volatile and uncertain spot prices, spot sales quantity flexibility, spot sales price¿quantity functions and variable raw material consumption rates in production are problem specifics to be considered. Existing chemical industry planning models are limited to production and distribution decisions to minimize costs or makespan. Demand-oriented models focus on uncertainty in demand quantities not in prices. We develop an integrated model to optimize profit by coordinating sales quantity, price and supply decisions throughout the value chain. A two-phase optimization approach supports robust planning ensuring minimum profitability even in case of worst-case spot sales price scenarios. Model evaluations with industry case data demonstrate the impact of elasticities, variable raw material consumption rates and price uncertainties on planned profit and volumes
The mitigation–adaptation dichotomy and the role of spatial planning
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Swart, R.J. ; Knaap, W.G.M. van der - \ 2009
Habitat International 33 (2009)3. - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 230 - 237.
climate-change adaptation - sustainable development - river-basins - policy - governance - framework - capacity - science - uncertainty - management
There is a growing awareness that both adaptation and mitigation measures are needed to reduce the impacts of climate change. Historically, due to a wide variety of reasons, mitigation and adaptation have been framed by scientists and policy makers as two different approaches to deal with the same problem: climate change. As a result, there are large differences in the way knowledge is produced, the analytical approaches that are used, and the designed policy strategies. This paper discusses the origin of the adaptation¿mitigation dichotomy. Second, the paper addresses the relationship between climate change responses and spatial planning since there is a growing awareness that spatial planning can function as a switchboard for mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development objectives. Furthermore, the paper explores the role that spatial planning can play in developing effective mitigation and adaptation options in an integrated manner, searching for synergies and trade-offs. This creates the necessity to take climate change responses into account in spatial planning practices. We argue that climate change could also lead to changes in the traditional administrative structures that spatial planners are accustomed to. Since many of the main impacts of climate change have a water dimension, we discuss the river basin approach as the new administrative level at which spatial planning can increase the effectiveness of adaptation and mitigation measures and integrate these into other sustainable development policies.
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Studies on the Formation of Roasting-Induced Antioxidative Structures in Coffee Brews at Different Degrees of Roast
Bekedam, E.K. ; Schols, H.A. ; Cämmerer, B. ; Kroh, L.W. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Smit, G. - \ 2008
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (2008)12. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4597 - 4604.
chemical-characterization - thermal-degradation - chlorogenic acids - model systems - melanoidins - capacity - foods - beverages - green
The antioxidative properties of coffee brew fractions were studied using electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and Fremy¿s salt (nitrosodisulfonate) as stabilized radicals. TEMPO was scavenged by antioxidants formed during roasting and not by chlorogenic acid, whereas Fremy¿s salt was scavenged by all antioxidants tested including chlorogenic acid. The stabilized radical TEMPO allowed the exclusive measurement of roasting-induced antioxidants. The roasting-induced antioxidant activity of coffee brews increased with increasing degree of roast, and most of these antioxidants were formed during the initial roasting stage. The majority of these roasting-induced antioxidants were present in the high molecular weight fractions, indicating that the formation of these antioxidants preferably occurs at specific high molecular weight structures, likely being arabinogalactan and/or protein moieties which might be part of the melanoidin complex. It was found that chlorogenic acids most probably do not lose their antioxidant activity and phenolic characteristics upon incorporation in coffee melanoidins. The parameter fast reacting antioxidants (FRA) was introduced as an alternative for the antioxidative potential. FRA levels showed that coffee fractions rich in roasting-induced antioxidants exposed their antioxidant activity relatively slowly, which must be a consequence of its complex structure. Finally, the melanoidin content and the roasting-induced antioxidant activity showed a positive and linear correlation for the coffee brew fractions, showing that roasting-induced antioxidants are present within melanoidins. This is the first time that the formation of roasting-induced antioxidants could be directly correlated with the extent of Maillard reaction and melanoidin formation in a complex product such as coffee.
Tussenevaluatie co-management en motorvermogen : controle en sanctionering
Hoefnagel, E.W.J. ; Mil, E.M. van - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 6, Beleid ) - ISBN 9789086152100 - 81
landbouwbeleid - vis vangen - vissersschepen - kracht - schepen - motoren - capaciteit - noordzee - nederland - rechtshandhaving - straf - publiek-private samenwerking - agricultural policy - fishing - fishing vessels - power - ships - engines - capacity - north sea - netherlands - law enforcement - punishment - public-private cooperation
Dit onderzoeksverslag betreft een evaluatie van de uitbreiding van het co-managementsysteem op het vlak van het motorvermogen. Deze tweede evaluatie concentreert zich vooral op de uitvoering van de controle en sanctionering door de beheergroepen en de AID, en de meningen van gecontroleerde vissers over deze activiteiten.
Antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and nutritional quality of different strawberry genotypes
Tulipani, S. ; Mezzetti, B. ; Capocasa, F. ; Bompadre, S. ; Beekwilder, M.J. ; Vos, C.H. de; Capanoglu, E. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Battino, M. - \ 2008
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (2008)3. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 696 - 704.
fragaria x ananassa - vitamin-c - berry phenolics - capacity - fruit - vegetables - identification - pigments - assay - anthocyanins
Strawberry contains high levels of micronutrients and phytochemical compounds. These exhibit functional roles in plant growth and metabolism and are also essential for the nutritional and organoleptic qualities of the fruit. The aim of the present work was to better characterize the phytochemical and antioxidant profiles of the fruit of nine different genotypes of strawberry, by measuring the total flavonoid, anthocyanin, vitamin C, and folate contents. Cultivar effects on the total antioxidant capacities of strawberries were also tested. In addition, the individual contribution of the main antioxidant compounds was assessed by HPLC separation coupled to an online postcolumn antioxidant detection system. This study showed the important role played by the genetic background on the chemical and antioxidant profiles of strawberry fruits. Significant differences were found between genotypes for the total antioxidant capacity and for all tested classes of compounds. The HPLC analyses confirmed qualitative and quantitative variability in the antioxidant profiles. These studies show that differences exist among cultivars, applicable in dietary studies in human subjects.
The in vivo antioxidant action and the reduction of oxidative stress by boysenberry extract is dependent on base diet constituents in rats
Barnett, L.E. ; Broomfield, A.M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Hunt, M.B. ; McGhie, T.K. - \ 2007
Journal of Medicinal Food 10 (2007)2. - ISSN 1096-620X - p. 281 - 289.
dna-damage - vitamin-e - lipid-peroxidation - anthocyanins - capacity - fruit - cyanidin - humans - plasma - juice
Dietary antioxidants are often defined by in vitro measures of antioxidant activity. Such measures are valid indicators of the antioxidant potential, but provide little evidence of activity as a dietary antioxidant. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo antioxidant efficacy of a berry fruit extract by measuring biomarkers of oxidative damage to protein (carbonyls), lipids (malondialdehyde), and DNA (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine urinary excretion) and plasma antioxidant status (antioxidant capacity, vitamin E) in rats when fed basal diets containing fish and soybean oils, which are likely to generate different levels of oxidative stress. Boysenberry (Rubus loganbaccus x baileyanus Britt) extract was used as the dietary antioxidant. The basal diets (chow, synthetic/soybean oil, or synthetic/fish oil) had significant effects on the biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidant status, with rats fed the synthetic/fish oil diet having the lowest levels of oxidative damage and the highest antioxidant status. When boysenberry extract was added to the diet, there was little change in 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in urine, oxidative damage to proteins decreased, and plasma malondialdehyde either increased or decreased depending on the basal diet. This study showed that boysenberry extract functioned as an in vivo antioxidant and raised the antioxidant status of plasma while decreasing some biomarkers of oxidative damage, but the effect was highly modified by basal diet. Our results are further evidence of complex interactions among dietary antioxidants, background nutritional status as determined by diet, and the biochemical nature of the compartments in which antioxidants function
Making integration of adaption and mitigation work: mainstreaming into sustainable development policies?
Swart, R.J. ; Raes, F. - \ 2007
Climate Policy 7 (2007)4. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 288 - 303.
climate-change policy - capacity
Can an integrated approach to mitigation and adaptation offer opportunities for a more effective response to climate change than the current strategies? The nature of the linkages depends on the dimensions: economic, institutional or environmental, and on the scale. Differences are pervasive: adaptation and mitigation usually have different temporal and spatial scales and are mostly relevant for different economic sectors, so that costs and benefits are distributed differently. The article concludes that generally the global, regional and - in most countries - national potential of synergetic options to mitigate and adapt to climate change is relatively low, and both strategies should be considered as complementary. However, a few notable exceptions are identified in the land and water management and urban planning sectors, in particular in countries or locations where these sectors provide important adaptation and mitigation opportunities. What is the theoretically most efficient and least expensive mixture of adaptation and mitigation policies may not be a very urgent policy question. Instead, five pragmatic ways of broadening climate policy are suggested, while taking into account the linkages between adaptation and mitigation: (1) avoiding trade-offs - when designing policies for mitigation or adaptation, (2) identifying synergies, (3) enhancing response capacity, (4) developing institutional links between adaptation and mitigation - e.g. in national institutions and in international negotiations, and (5) mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation considerations into broader sustainable development policies
Suitability of transport equations in modelling soil erosion for a small Loess Plateau catchment
Hessel, R. ; Jetten, V.G. - \ 2007
Engineering Geology 91 (2007)1. - ISSN 0013-7952 - p. 56 - 71.
interrill overland-flow - sediment transport - rough surfaces - capacity - lisem
Erosion models have not often been applied to very steep terrain such as the gully catchments of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the suitability of a number of transport equations for use in erosion modelling under Loess Plateau conditions. To do this the equations were programmed into the LISEM model, which was applied to the 3.5 km2 Danangou catchment in the rolling hills region of the Loess Plateau. Previous evaluations of transport equations used either flume tests or river sections, and did no spatial modelling. The results show that some equations predicted physically impossible concentrations (defined as above 1060 g/l). The results were evaluated by using two methods: 1) by comparing predicted and measured sedigraphs and sediment yield at the catchment outlet, and 2) by comparing the fraction of the catchment in which physically impossible transport capacities occurred. The results indicated that for the small grain sizes, high density flows and steep slopes of the gully catchments on the Loess Plateau the Shields parameter attained very high values. Furthermore, the transport threshold can usually be neglected in the equations. Most of the resulting equations were too sensitive to slope angle (Abrahams, Schoklitsch, Yalin, Bagnold, Low and Rickenmann), so that transport rates were overpredicted for steep slopes and underpredicted for gentle slopes. The Yang equation appeared to be too sensitive to grainsize. The Govers equation performed best, mainly because of its low slope dependency, and is therefore recommended for erosion models that simulate sediment transport by flowing water in conditions with small grain sizes and steep slopes.
Co-management en motorvermogen : nulmeting van opvattingen van vissers
Hoefnagel, E.W.J. - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 6, Beleid ) - ISBN 9789086151387 - 69
landbouwbeleid - vis vangen - vissersschepen - motoren - kracht - capaciteit - noordzee - nederland - agricultural policy - fishing - fishing vessels - engines - power - capacity - north sea - netherlands
Met het versterken en uitbreiden van het co-managementsysteem, op het vlak van het motorvermogen, neemt de visserijsector zelf verantwoordelijkheid voor het terugdringen vanhet gebruik van motoren met een groter vermogen dan de motor op grond van de verstrektevisvergunning zou mogen hebben. Dit onderzoeksverslag betreft een zogenaamde nulmeting,dat als uitgangspunt gebruikt kan worden om na te gaan of er veranderingen zijnopgetreden tijdens de werking van dit arrangement in opvattingen en gedragingen van vissersmet betrekking tot het gebruik van motorvermogen in de Noordzeevisserij
Robotcapiciteit is beter te benutten
Andre, G. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Bleumer, E.J.B. - \ 2006
V-focus 3 (2006)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 22 - 23.
machinaal melken - robots - capaciteit - melkmachines - rendement - melkveehouderij - automatisering - machine milking - capacity - milking machines - returns - dairy farming - automation
Bij automatisch melken is de robotcapaciteit een beperkende factor. De Animal Science Group (ASG) van Wageningen Universiteit ontwikkelt een rekenmethode om de robotcapaciteit optimaal te benutten, zodat het rendement van een AMS kan worden geoptimaliseerd. Wat zijn de ervaringen op het High-techbedrijf van de Waiboerhoeve in Lelystad?
Anti-radical power gives insight into early lipid oxidation events during frying
Loon, W.A.M. ; Linssen, J.P.H. ; Legger, A. ; Voragen, A.G.J. - \ 2006
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86 (2006)10. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 1446 - 1451.
olive oil - antioxidant activity - vegetable-oils - fat - capacity - fractions - polar
The aim of this research was to use anti-radical power (ARP) to study early lipid oxidation events during frying. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH¿) test was used to determine the ARP. As oil does not dissolve completely in methanol, which is generally used for the DPPH¿ test, butanol was used instead. Changing the solvent did not influence the value of the ARP. The decrease of the ARP highly correlated with the increase of the peroxide value for soybean oil heated at 110 °C (R2 = 0.99). Sensory analysis showed that rancidity of soybean oil and frying oil, heated at 180 °C, was perceived before the ARP decreased. Once the oil was perceived as rancid, the intensity of rancidity did not change significantly upon further heating. The ARP of soybean oil was found to decrease faster at 110 °C than at 180 °C, suggesting different mechanisms of radical formation. The total polar compounds of frying oil in which French fries were fried did not differ significantly from frying oil that was heated alone. However, frying of French fries caused more hydrolysis of the oil, while the ARP decreased faster when the oil was heated alone
Gas transport through the root-shoot transition zone of rice tillers
Groot, T.T. ; Bodegom, P.M. van; Meijer, H.A.J. ; Harren, F.J.M. - \ 2005
Plant and Soil 277 (2005)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 107 - 116.
methane transport - oxygen loss - aerenchyma - cultivars - plants - emission - respiration - perspective - aeration - capacity
Rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) are mainly cultivated in flooded paddy fields and are thus dependent on oxygen transport through the plant to maintain aerobic root metabolism. This gas transport is effectuated through the aerenchyma of roots and shoots. However, the efficiency of gas transport through the root¿ shoot transition zone is disputed and there are indications that the root¿shoot transition zone may represent one of the largest resistances for gas transport. Therefore, we present gas conductance measurements of the root¿shoot transition of individual rice tillers measured using SF6. SF6 was detected with a highly advanced laser based photoacoustic detection scheme allowing sensitive, high resolution measurements. In conjunction with these measurements, various plant morphological parameters were quantified. These measurements indeed indicate that the conductance at the root¿shoot transition may be much smaller than the conductance of root and shoot aerenchyma within the rice plant. Conductance was strongly correlated to tiller transverse area. After elimination of tiller area from the conductance equation, the resulting permeance coefficient was still correlated to tiller area, but negatively and related to the process of radial tiller expansion. In addition, a decrease in the permeance coefficient was also observed for increasing distance from the plant centre. No correlation was found with tiller type or age of the mother tiller. Incorporation of estimates of the conductance of the root¿shoot transition zone coupled to plant morphological parameters will allow considerable improvement of understanding and models on gas transport through plants.
Identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry
Beekwilder, M.J. ; Hall, R.D. ; Vos, C.H. de - \ 2005
BioFactors 23 (2005)4. - ISSN 0951-6433 - p. 197 - 205.
ellagic acid - vitamin-c - red raspberries - capacity - anthocyanins - phenolics - ellagitannins - storage - fruits - flavonoids
In this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. The review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of ripeness, cultivar, storage and processing techniques, and the bioavailability of raspberry antioxidants in humans after eating the fruit. It is clear that raspberry, like several other fruits and vegetables such as tomato, strawberry, kiwi and broccoli, represents a valuable contrasting source of potentially healthy compounds and can represent an important component of a balanced diet
Comparison times are longer for hedonic than for intensity judgements of taste stimuli
Veldhuizen, M.G. ; Vessaz, M.N. ; Kroeze, J.H.A. - \ 2005
Physiology and Behavior 84 (2005)3. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 489 - 495.
gustatory reaction-time - orbitofrontal cortex - human adults - responses - duration - monkey - preference - capacity - neurons - humans
Response times of intensity and hedonic comparisons were determined in a within-subjects experimental design. Forced-choice paired comparisons of orange lemonades with various concentrations of added quinine sulfate were made by 48 subjects. Depending on experimental condition, the subjects had to focus either on intensity or on pleasantness and give their responses as fast as possible. The data showed shorter response times for intensity comparisons than for pleasantness comparisons. Although taste processing may be partially serial and partially parallel, the larger part of the response times and the differences between them may be due to cognitive processing
Interaction of water unextractable solids and xylanase with gluten protein: effect of wheat cultivar
Wang, M. ; Vliet, T. van; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2005
Journal of Cereal Science 41 (2005)3. - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 251 - 258.
physical-properties - soluble pentosans - flour - dough - starch - bread - separation - capacity - quality
A previously proposed explanation for the change in gluten properties on addition of pentosans to doughs was based on data for only one wheat cultivar. Using three wheat cultivars, Scipion, Soissons and Amazon, differing in technological quality from weak to strong we have obtained results that support the previous explanation. In addition to standard techniques for characterizing gluten and glutenin macropolymer (GMP) yield, composition and properties, a new technique (particle size analysis) was applied that provides further detail on GMP particle size distribution. For each of the three wheat cultivars the effect of WUS and xylanase on gluten and GMP yield, composition and properties followed the trend previously observed. However, WUS and xylanase affected gluten yield and properties more strongly for Scipion and Soissons than for Amazon. Amazon flour contains more protein and less pentosans. The analysis of GMP particles demonstrates that the volume surface average particle diameter D3,2 of GMP particles from Amazon wheat is larger than those from Scipion and Soissons. Amazon has the ability to form larger and stickier particles. These factors may explain why the effects of pentosans and xylanase on gluten yield and properties are smaller for this wheat
Branden, heet water en heet schuim: energieverbruik en capaciteit verschilt
Kurstjens, D.A.G. - \ 2004
Tuin en Park Techniek 11 (2004)1. - ISSN 1380-3212 - p. 28 - 29.
onkruidbestrijding - bestrating - wegen - bestrijdingsmethoden - warmtebehandeling - heetwaterbehandeling - verbranden - schuim - schuimen - capaciteit - energiegebruik - brandstofverbruik - watergebruik - gebruiksefficiëntie - gebruikswaarde - weed control - pavements - roads - control methods - heat treatment - hot water treatment - burning - foams - foaming - capacity - energy consumption - fuel consumption - water use - use efficiency - use value
Voor onkruidbestrijding op verhardingen is het vanuit milieuoverwegingen belangrijk om effectieve en betaalbare alternatieven voor chemische bestrijding te vinden. Wageningen UR vergeleek drie thermische methoden van onkruidbestrijding op energieverbruik, capaciteit en bestrijdingseffect (bij verschillende rijsnelheden). Een Hoaf Weedstar 100 onkruidbrander, een zelfrijdende heetwatermachine en een Herbifoam-installatie voor heet schuim werden ingezet op proefvelden ingezaaid met gele mosterd en Engels raaigras. Op gele mosterd was de brander het zuinigst en snelst; bij gras de heetwatermachine
IJking inlaat Burgvlietkade te Gouda
Boiten, W. ; Kole, J.W. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Sectie Waterhuishouding (Rapport / Wageningen Universiteit, Sectie Waterhuishouding 119) - 12
wateraanvoer - hydraulische systemen - polders - capaciteit - zuid-holland - water advance - hydraulic structures - capacity
Vanuit de Stadsboezem van de gemeente Gouda kan het waterschap water inlaten naar de Reeuwijkse Plassen via de inlaat Burgvlietkade. Deze inlaat zal worden geautomatiseerd. Om te kunnen rekenen aan de waterbalans voor de polder Reeuwijk, is het gewenst om de inlaatcapaciteit van de inlaat te kennen.
Melkstal of automatisch melksysteem?
Kamp, A. van der; Hutschemaekers, B.J.H. - \ 2003
Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 17 (2003)4. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 14 - 15.
machinaal melken - melkmachines - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - efficiëntie - capaciteit - arbeid (werk) - melkproductie - kosten - bedrijfsvoering - investeringsbeslissingen - machine milking - milking machines - farm management - efficiency - capacity - labour - milk production - costs - management - investment decisions
Als de melkstal aangepast moet worden stellen veel veehouders zich de vraag: een nieuwe melkstal of automatisch melken? Of een automatisch melksysteem (AM-systeem) interessant is, hangt af van de bedrijfssituatie, de te verwachten arbeidsbesparing en de verwachting voor de melkproductie per koe. Ook Minas en het stelsel van mestafzetovereenkomsten (MAO) kunnen hierbij een rol spelen, omdat bij een eventuele melkproductiestijging het quotum kan worden volgemolken met minder koeien. We reiken de veehouders die de aanschaf van een AM-systeem overwegen een handvat aan voor hun beslissing.
Efficienter melken met Automatisch Melksysteem
Bos, K. ; Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij (PV), - \ 2003
Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 17 (2003)3. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 10 - 11.
machinaal melken - robots - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - efficiëntie - capaciteit - melkmachines - optimalisatie - machine milking - farm management - efficiency - capacity - milking machines - optimization
Een analyse van de melkfrequentie- instellingen en de gerealiseerde waarden geeft een goed inzicht in het functioneren van het systeem.
Besteed zorg aan inrichting melkstal
Wemmenhove, H. - \ 2002
Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 16 (2002)1. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 12 - 13.
melkstandinrichtingen - melken - bouwconstructie - ontwerp - meubilair - arbeidsomstandigheden - capaciteit - melkveehouderij - huisvesting van koeien - huisvesting, dieren - milking parlours - milking - building construction - design - furniture - working conditions - capacity - dairy farming - cow housing - animal housing
Momenteel worden dan ook veel melkstallen uitgebreid en/of gerenoveerd. Capaciteit, hygiëne en veiligheid voor melk, melker en koe zijn daarbij kernpunten.
Antioxidant properties of differently processed spinach products
Castenmiller, J.J.M. ; Linssen, J.P.H. ; Heinonen, I.M. ; Hopia, A.I. ; Schwarz, K. ; Hollman, P.C.H. ; West, C.E. - \ 2002
Nahrung - Food 46 (2002)4. - ISSN 0027-769X - p. 290 - 293.
low-density-lipoprotein - natural antioxidants - alpha-tocopherol - methyl linoleate - total phenolics - red wine - vegetables - capacity - fruits - common
The effect of variously processed spinach products (whole-leaf, minced and enzymatically liquefied spinach) on lipid oxidation was determined. In an autoxidative methyl linoleate (MeLo) system the inhibition of hydroperoxide formation, measured by HPLC after three days of oxidation, was in descending order: whole-leaf > liquefied > minced spinach. The inhibition of formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and hexanal by spinach was determined in cooked meatballs with added spinach after two days of storage at 4°C. The formation of TBARS was inhibited by liquefied spinach at 200 g/kg meat; all other spinach products tested at 100 and 200 g/kg were pro-oxidative. The formation of hexanal was inhibited by both minced and liquefied spinach at 100 and 200 g/kg meat. The variously processed spinach products behaved differently when tested for their antioxidant activity (MeLo) or oxidative stability (meatballs). We conclude that the effect of spinach products on lipid oxidation is affected by processing
Kwaliteit van gemeenten voor waterrecreatie; onderzoek in het kader van monitoring kwaliteit groene ruimte
Goossen, C.M. ; Langers, F. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 313) - 65
waterrecreatie - capaciteit - monitoring - nederland - kennis - gemeenten - openluchtrecreatie - watersport - water recreation - capacity - netherlands - knowledge - municipalities
Met behulp van bestaande gegevens is de geschiktheid van gemeenten voor waterrecreatie bepaald, toegespitst op zeilen, varen met een motorboot, vissen en zwemmen. Dat is maar gedeeltelijk gelukt. Voor varen is een redelijk beeld te geven. Voor vissen is het niet goed mogelijk, omdat onvoldoende goede en vergelijkbare basisgegevens beschikbaar zijn. Voor zwemmen is het maar beperkt mogelijk, omdat de provincies niet op uniforme wijze gegevens over de kwaliteit van zwemplassen verzamelen.
Melker bepaalt capaciteit melkstal
Wemmenhove, H. ; Diepen, G. van - \ 1999
Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden. Praktijkonderzoek 12 (1999)5. - ISSN 1386-8470 - p. 14 - 16.
melkvee - melkstandinrichtingen - melkopbrengst - capaciteit - dairy cattle - milking parlours - milk yield - capacity
Hoeveel koeien kan ik er per uur mee melken. Dit is een vraag die vele veehouders stellen, wanneer een nieuwe melkstal wordt aangeschaft. Het antwoord is niet eenvoudig te geven. De capaciteit van een melkstal hangt van vele factoren af.
Methode voor het bepalen van aslastpatronen voor plattelandswegen
Wilde, J.G.S. de - \ 1998
Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 518) - 39
verkeer - verkeerspatronen - dichtheid - capaciteit - tellen - onderzoek - voertuigen - rolweerstand - wegen - plattelandswegen - wegtransport - basisproducten - traffic - traffic patterns - density - capacity - counting - research - vehicles - rolling resistance - roads - rural roads - road transport - commodities
Methode voor aanwijzing van geschikte locaties voor ontwikkeling en behoud van agrarische natuur
Hermans, C.M.L. ; Buit, A.M.C.F. ; Ypma, K.W. - \ 1998
Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 612) - 65
landbouw bedrijven - natuurbescherming - landbouw - landbouwgrond - landschap - capaciteit - toepassingen - nederland - noord-brabant - agrarisch natuurbeheer - farming - nature conservation - agriculture - agricultural land - landscape - capacity - applications - netherlands - agri-environment schemes
Perspectief van energieteelt op verontreinigde terreinen voor de energie-opwekking in Nederland
Vermeulen, G.D. ; Harmsen, J. ; Castilho, P. del; Ligthart, F. - \ 1998
Utrecht : Novem - 43
biomassa - bio-energie - planten - energie - nuttig gebruik - oogstschade - bodemverontreiniging - bodemgiftigheid - bodemzoutgehalte - haalbaarheidsstudies - capaciteit - toepassingen - nederland - biomass - bioenergy - plants - energy - utilization - crop damage - soil pollution - soil toxicity - soil salinity - feasibility studies - capacity - applications - netherlands
Inventory of European capacity in agricultural research for development : contribution to the EIARD colloquium, September 25 - 26, 1997, Montpellier
Neuman, F. ; Diedenhoven, M. van; Epinat, V. ; Internationaal Agrarisch Centrum, ; ATSAF-ZADI, - \ 1997
Wageningen [etc.] : IAC [etc.]
agricultural research - research policy - research projects - agricultural development - capacity - european union - landbouwkundig onderzoek - onderzoeksbeleid - onderzoeksprojecten - landbouwontwikkeling - capaciteit - europese unie
Gebruikswaarde kadaverkoelers 1997
Loo, D. van de; Voermans, J. - \ 1997
Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 11 (1997)6. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 28 - 29.
kadaververwijdering - koudeopwekking - koelen - koelcellen - warmtewisselaars - capaciteit - toepassingen - carcass disposal - refrigeration - cooling - cold stores - heat exchangers - capacity - applications
Kadaverkoelers zijn betrekkelijk nieuw, zodat het niet verwonderlijk is dat we de afgelopen jaren verschillende kinderziekten zijn tegengekomen. Uit het gebruikswaardeonderzoek in 1997 is gebleken dat de kwaliteit over de gehele linie aanzienlijk is verbeterd.
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