Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Stadsklimaat_ zo werkt het
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2018
climate adaptation - urban management
lecture and masterclass in lifelong learning course for professionals in urban management
Klimaat-responsief Spijkerkwartier
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2017
urban climate - climate adaptation - renewable energy
Evaluation of Socio-Economic Factors that Determine Adoption of Climate Compatible Freshwater Supply Measures at Farm Level : a Case Study in the Southwest Netherlands
Veraart, Jeroen A. ; Duinen, Rianne van; Vreke, Jan - \ 2017
Water Resources Management 31 (2017)2. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 587 - 608.
Adaptation - Adoption - Agriculture - Climate - Freshwater supply - Knowledge - water supply - fresh water - climate adaptation - drought - watervoorziening - zoet water - landbouw - klimaatadaptatie - droogte

The availability of freshwater resources in soil and groundwater bodies in the southwestern part of The Netherlands is expected to decrease during the agricultural growing season because of an expected increase of freshwater demands and a changing climate. This expected shortage of fresh water might negatively affect agricultural production. To cope with this problem, three pilots were initiated aimed at increasing freshwater supply at farm-level. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the socio-economic factors that determine the wider use of the measures investigated in these pilots. Therefore, the results of a feasibility study and a survey about drought risks were compared. The survey indicates that respondents do not make distinction between a dry and extremely dry year in their estimation of the return period. The results of a feasibility study illustrate that confidence and the level of common understanding regarding the reliability of these innovative measures has increased amongst project participants since 2012. The survey respondents were less optimistic about the wider implementation of the investigated technologies. A reliable freshwater supply and supportive legislation are the most decisive socio-economic factors for a future investment in additional freshwater supply for farmers in this region. Both studies illustrate that the impact of additional freshwater supply on farm economics strongly depends on farm type and crop cultivation plan. These insights may support the wider use of these innovations and may help to improve agro-hydrological models.

Grasklaverteelt motor voor samenwerking en klimaatadaptatie : 'climatecafe' evalueert samenwerking akkerbouw- en veeteeltbedrijven
Wit, Jan de; Adelhart Toorop, R.L. de - \ 2016
Ekoland (2016)12. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 20 - 21.
klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - samenwerking - grasklaver - teelt - biologische landbouw - gewassen - gewasbescherming - akkerbouw - veehouderij - climate adaptation - climatic change - cooperation - grass-clover swards - cultivation - organic farming - crops - plant protection - arable farming - livestock farming
Het wordt natter en warmer in Nederland voorspelt het KNMI. Is de biologische boer bezig met deze verandering? Dat valt wel mee. Er wordt gewerkt aan een goede bodemkwaliteit en structuur. Dat draagt bij aan het aanpassingsvermogen aan een veranderend klimaat (‘adaptatie’). Grasklaver als rustgewas helpt de akkerbouwer daarbij, zo blijkt ook uit modelberekeningen.
Towards Water Smart Cities : climate adaptation is a huge opportunity to improve the quality of life in cities
Hattum, Tim ; Blauw, Maaike ; Bergen Jensen, Marina ; Bruin, Karianne de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2787) - 60
water - waterbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - steden - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - water management - urban areas - towns - climatic change - climate adaptation
REDD+ and Climate Smart Agriculture in landscapes : from national design to local implementation
Salvini, G. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt; Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Arend Ligtenberg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578371 - 143 p.
climate adaptation - environmental policy - governance - un - landscape management - deforestation - klimaatadaptatie - milieubeleid - vn - landschapsbeheer - ontbossing

Global challenges posed by an increasing food demand and climate change call for innovative mechanisms that consider both agriculture and forests. Agriculture and forests are deeply interconnected in mosaic landscapes, just as multiple pieces of the same puzzle. These pieces are handled by numerous stakeholders with different and often contrasting goals. Hence landscape management is steered by power, access to scarce resources, but also vulnerability and hazards. In this thesis I analyze the roles each stakeholder plays on these dynamics, including policy makers, agribusiness actors and subsistence farmers. I explore landscapes as interconnected tiles of a game, in which players are real stakeholders and their goals determine land use dynamics on the game board just as in reality. Sometimes agreements made in the game translate to real-life actions influencing policy and management decisions. Other times the game is just fun and eventually contributes to social learning and trust.

Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (External organisation)
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
climate adaptation
member of Arbeitsgruppe "Stadtentwicklung im Klimawandel"
Hoe maak je de 'coolste tuin' van Arnhem
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
garden design - climate adaptation
Hoe zit dat met het weer in de stad?
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
climate adaptation
Atelier Flevoland
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
Urban Climate - climate adaptation
Klimaatverandering en de stad
Atelier Overijssel
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
Urban Climate - climate adaptation
Stadsklimaat- zo gemaakt
ÖGLA Akademie
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
Urban Climate - climate adaptation
Making urban climate
Nederlandse boominfodag
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
climate adaptation - urban greenery - Urban Climate
Stadsklimaat in ontwerp, beleid en beheer van de stad
"Stadtentwicklung im Klimawandel"
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
Urban Climate - climate adaptation
Wir machen Stadtklima im öffentlichen Raum
Building the Future of Health
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
Urban Climate - climate adaptation
Healthy urban climate
urban climate and public space
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
Urban Climate - climate adaptation
En wat doen jullie met het stadsklimaat?
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2016
Urban Climate - climate adaptation
Agrarisch Waterbeheer in de praktijk : Op zoek naar de gemene deler
Breman, B.C. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. - \ 2016
Het Waterschap 2016 (2016)6. - p. 7 - 9.
waterbeheer - waterschappen - duurzame energie - terugwinning - rioolwaterzuivering - zuiveringsinstallaties - landbouw - innovaties - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - water management - polder boards - sustainable energy - recovery - sewage treatment - purification plants - agriculture - innovations - climate adaptation - urban areas
In dit themanummer over Green Deals staan de volgende artikelen: 1) Green Deals: Code oranje, blauwe oplossing. 2) Op zoek naar de gemene deler: agrarisch waterbeheer in de praktijk. 3) Kraamkamer van innovatie. 4) Modern aanbesteden is kennis delen: marktvisie waterschappen. 5) De politicus Liesbeth van Tongeren: Niet langer in discussie met klimaatsceptici. 6) Er valt iets te kiezen: waterschappen integreren duurzame energieproductie succesvol in hun kerntaken. 7) Slimmer investeren: Strategisch asset management. 8) Creativiteit op het snijvlak van orde en chaos: Waterschap De Dommel flirt met paradoxen. 9) Open overheid, ook voor waterschappen. 10) Werken aan morgen is gisteren al begonnen: hoe ziet werken voor een waterschap er in 2026 uit?
Tools voor klimaatbestendig inrichten van stedelijk gebied
Ven, Frans van der; Brolsma, R. ; Snep, R.P.H. ; Koole, S. - \ 2016
H2O online (2016)29 maart. - 7 p.
stedelijke gebieden - ruimtelijke ordening - waterbeheer - overstromingen - stedelijke planning - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - urban areas - physical planning - water management - floods - urban planning - climatic change - climate adaptation
Er zijn tools ontwikkeld waarmee ontwerpers, deskundigen en belanghebbenden samen conceptuele ontwerpen kunnen opstellen om te helpen de gebouwde omgeving waterrobuust en klimaatbestendig te maken. De Climate Adaptation App helpt deelnemers een long list van mogelijke maatregelen op te stellen. Vervolgens kan met de Adaptation Support Tool worden geschetst waar welke maatregelen getroffen kunnen worden en wordt direct berekend hoe doelmatig ze naar verwachting zullen zijn (rekenen en tekenen). Water- en klimaatopgaven worden op (kosten)effectieve wijze ingevuld en de toegevoegde waarde van ingrepen voor de leefbaarheid gemaximaliseerd. Deze werkwijze en tools zijn met succes toegepast in diverse ontwerpworkshops.
Meer voedsel, minder broeikasgas : landbouw en voedselproductie na Parijs
Verhagen, Jan ; Vellinga, Pier - \ 2016
climatic change - climate adaptation - agriculture and environment - greenhouse gases - agricultural production - groundwater depletion - heat - salinization - emission reduction - food production - food security

De klimaatconferentie in Parijs markeert het retour van de fossiele brandstoffen, vindt scheidend hoogleraar Pier Vellinga. Hij hoopt dat nu ook de uitstoot van broeikasgassen uit de landbouw omlaag gaat. Wageningse wetenschappers zijn daar al mee bezig, maar ook proberen ze de gevolgen van klimaatverandering het hoofd te bieden. Hoe valt er voldoende te produceren bij verdroging, hitte en verzilting?

Integrated assessment of farm level adaptation to climate change in agriculture : an application to Flevoland, The Netherlands
Mandryk, M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Pytrik Reidsma; Bas Arts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576612 - 155 p.
climate adaptation - climatic change - agriculture - farm structure - farming systems - future - klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - landbouw - bedrijfsstructuur in de landbouw - bedrijfssystemen - toekomst
The findings of the thesis allowed assessing plausible futures of agriculture in Flevoland around 2050 with insights in effective adaptation to climate change at different levels. Besides empirical findings, this thesis contributed methodologically to the portfolio of climate change impact and adaptation assessment. Overall, this thesis performed a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account crop, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multi-objective) and participatory assessment. The following features have been elaborated in this thesis to better assess the context of farm level impact and adaptation: analysis of long term farm structural change, assessment of farmers’ multiple objectives, assessment of contribution of crop and farm level adaptation measures to improvement of farm performance on important objectives, and an analysis on institutional feasibility of implementation of adaptation measures.
Succes- en faalfactoren Agrarisch Waterbeheer
Breman, B.C. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Noij, I.G.A.M. ; Vleemingh, M.P.I. ; Ellen, G.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2718) - 37 p.
waterbeheer - waterschappen - kaderrichtlijn water - water - landbouw - klimaatadaptatie - water management - polder boards - water framework directive - agriculture - climate adaptation
Dit rapport is het resultaat van een verkenning naar succes- en faalfactoren van agrarisch waterbeheer. Bij agrarisch waterbeheer nemen agrarisch ondernemers zelfstandig, of in samenwerking met anderen, bovenwettelijke maatregelen op het eigen bedrijf, gericht op de opgaven ten aanzien van waterkwaliteit, waterkwantiteit en/of biodiversiteit. Gezien de aard van de wateropgaven in Nederland is het belangrijk dat dit agrarisch waterbeheer goed van de grond komt. Belangrijke succesfactoren daarbij zijn onder andere dat: (1) agrarisch waterbeheer breed wordt benaderd en dat er ook voldoende aandacht is voor waterkwantiteit en de relatie met het bedrijfssysteem; (2) dat agrarisch waterbeheer wordt benaderd als een gezamenlijke opgave waarin uiteenlopende partijen samen werken en verantwoordelijkheid delen; (3) er gekozen wordt voor een meersporenbenadering met onderscheid tussen een gebiedsgerichte-, collectieve-, thematische- en sectorale benadering en (4) dat het financieel en juridisch instrumentarium (o.a. POP3) beter wordt afgestemd op de praktijk van agrarisch waterbeheer.
Eco-districts : can they accelerate urban climate planning?
Fitzgerald, Joan ; Lenhart, Jennifer - \ 2016
Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 34 (2016)2. - ISSN 0263-774X - p. 364 - 380.
climate adaptation - climate mitigation - environmental governance - environmental policy - local climate action

Despite signing the Mayors Climate Change Agreement, few US cities have made significant progress in either climate mitigation or adaptation. For the most part, European cities have been more effective, albeit with assistance from the European Union and their national governments. Several of the most successful European cities have implemented eco-districts, which have offered many lessons for overall sustainability planning. Using Malmö, Sweden as a case study, we ask how planners and elected officials learned from implementing an eco-district, focusing on experimentation with new technologies and approaches to planning. We identify how “double-loop learning”, a term coined by Argyris and Shön, was at play in changing planning practice. As eco-districts are catching on in North American cities, there is much to be learned from European practice.

Stimuli for municipal responses to climate adaptation: insights from Philadelphia – an early adapter
Uittenbroek, C.J. ; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie ; Runhaar, H.A.C. - \ 2016
International Journal of Climate change Strategies and Management 8 (2016)1. - ISSN 1756-8692 - p. 38 - 56.
climate adaptation - stimuli - governance approaches - Philadelphia - institutional entrepreneurship - political leadership
An in-depth understanding of these stimuli is currently lacking in literature as most research has focussed on overcoming barriers to climate adaptation. The aim of this paper is to identify stimuli for municipal responses to climate adaptation and examine how they influence the governance approach to addressing climate adaptation through explorative case study research. Fort this, an early adapter was selected as case: Philadelphia (USA). By reconstructing the organization of two municipal responses to climate adaptation in this city, we have been able to identify stimuli and gain insight in the city’s governance approach. The reconstruction is based on data triangulation that consists of semi-structured interviews with actors involved in these responses, policy documents and newspaper articles. The research illustrates the importance of stimuli such as strategically framing climate adaptation within wider urban agendas, political leadership and institutional entrepreneurs. Moreover the research reveals that it is the combination of stimuli that influences the governance approach to climate adaptation. Some stimuli will trigger a dedicated approach to climate adaptation, while others initiate a mainstreaming approach. This research is important especially to municipalities to recognize stimuli within their own (policy) context and subsequently, make informed decisions to exploit all or some of these stimuli to initiate a governance approach to climate adaptation.
The role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation : A comparison of adaptation practices initiated by governmental and non-governmental actors
Meijerink, Sander ; Stiller, Sabina ; Keskitalo, E.C.H. ; Scholten, Peter ; Smits, Robert ; Lamoen, Frank van - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 25 - 37.
Adaptation to climate change - Complexity theory - Leadership - Multi-level governance - Water governance - climate adaptation - governance - regional planning - international comparisons - water management - provinces - municipalities - netherlands - germany - uk - klimaatadaptatie - leiderschap - regionale planning - internationale vergelijkingen - waterbeheer - provincies - gemeenten - nederland - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk

This paper aims to better understand the role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation. We first present a framework, which distinguishes five functions of leadership within inter-organizational networks: the connective, enabling, adaptive, political–administrative and dissemination functions. Next, we compare the role of leadership in two examples of regional adaptation practices which were initiated by governmental actors with two examples which were initiated by non-governmental actors. The case studies are located in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Our research question is twofold: to what extent can the five functions of leadership be identified in practices of climate change adaptation, and are there differences in the patterns of leadership between adaptation practices which are initiated by governmental and by non-governmental actors? The study shows that although all leadership functions were fulfilled in all four cases, patterns of leadership were different and the fulfilment of leadership functions posed different challenges to non-governmental actors and governmental actors.

Naar de klimaattop
Kleis, R. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Fresco, L.O. ; Spijkerman, A. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 14 - 15.
conferenties - klimaatverandering - klimaat - klimaatadaptatie - milieuwetenschappen - wetenschappers - studenten - duurzame ontwikkeling - conferences - climatic change - climate - climate adaptation - environmental sciences - scientists - students - sustainable development
In de periferie van de VN-klimaatconferentie, van 30 november tot en met 11 december in Parijs, wemelt het van de bijeenkomsten en side-events. Ook Wageningen UR levert haar bijdrage aan dit marktplein van de klimaatwetenschap. Enkele tientallen wetenschappers en studenten trekken naar Parijs om hun boodschap te verkondigen. Op deze pagina’s een kleine greep.
Adaptation and acclimation of seed performance
Souza Vidigal, D. De - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harro Bouwmeester, co-promotor(en): Leonie Bentsink; Henk Hilhorst. - Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575943 - 156
zaden - zaadkwaliteit - zaadkieming - klimaatverandering - adaptatie - arabidopsis - kiemrust - klimaatadaptatie - seeds - seed quality - seed germination - climatic change - adaptation - seed dormancy - climate adaptation
Wat te doen tegen de toename van overstromingsrisico's in de toekomst? : handelingsperspectieven voor beleid en beheer afgeleid uit het onderzoek naar toekomstbestendige overstromingsrisicobeheersing van Kennis voor Klimaat
Klijn, F. ; Maarse, M. ; Kok, M. ; Loon-Steensma, J.M. van; Moel, H. de; Mulder, J. - \ 2015
Amersfoort : Stowa (STOWA-rapportnummer 2015-33) - ISBN 9789057737213 - 123
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - overstromingen - overstromingstolerantie - hoogwaterbeheersing - waterbeheer - risicovermindering - nederland - climatic change - climate adaptation - floods - flooding tolerance - flood control - water management - risk reduction - netherlands
Het klimaat verandert en de zeespiegel stijgt. Daarover bestaat geen twijfel, hoewel er nog wel onzekerheid bestaat over de snelheid van de veranderingen, en soms over de precieze richting daarvan. Ondanks deze onzekerheden is het verstandig te anticiperen op wat komen gaat. Daar zijn we in Nederland dan ook al volop mee bezig. In de afgelopen jaren is in diverse projecten en programma’s zoals Kennis voor Klimaat, het Deltaprogramma en STOWA/Deltaproof, veel kennis opgedaan over mogelijke strategieën om ons aan te passen aan de veranderende klimatologische omstandigheden. Maar hoe zien dergelijke adaptatiestrategieën er precies uit en hoe kom je tot een concrete invulling? Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van concrete maatregelen die kunnen worden ingezet bij adaptatie in verband met de toenemende overstromingsrisico’s. Het rapport richt zich vooral op wat gemeenten, provincies en waterschappen kunnen doen.
Strategies to adapt to climate change in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: landscape impact assessment for on-farm adaptation
Bitew, A.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Keesstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574625 - 170
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - landschap - impact - ecologische beoordeling - ethiopië - climatic change - climate adaptation - landscape - ecological assessment - ethiopia

PhD Thesis Title: Strategies to adapt to climate change in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: landscape impact assessment for on-farm adaptation

By

Alemayehu Muluneh Bitew

Agriculture and the economies of Ethiopia are highly sensitive to climatic fluctuations. Rainfall is the most important determinant of Ethiopia’s economic success or failure from year to year. A 10% decrease in seasonal rainfall from the long-term average generally translates into a 4.4% decrease in the country’s food production. Studies indicate that future climate change scenario by 2050 could also cause Ethiopian GDP to be 8-10% smaller than under a no-climate change baseline. The Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia is a potential food producing area and yet one of the most drought prone areas in the country and already face an enormous food security challenge. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to quantify changes in current and future growing season rainfall characteristics including rainfall extremes and to evaluate their impacts with the intension of evaluating and developing potential adaptation options for maize cropping in the drought-prone CRV of Ethiopia. Projections for future climate in the CRV suggested that the Belg rainfall which is already erratic, occurring very late or failing altogether for the current climate will continue to decrease during the rest of this century which makes future Belg crop production very difficult. But, the Kiremt season total rainfall is likely to show an increase. Our field experiment and modelling has proven that for the current climate and future projections supplemental irrigation can avoid total crop failure in drought years and is a viable option to improve food security in the Rift Valley dry lands of Ethiopia. Furthermore, shifting sowing period of maize from the current Belg season (April or May) to the first month of Kiremt season (June) can offset the predicted yield reduction caused by climate change.

Navigating frames : a study of the interplay between meaning and power in policy deliberations over adaptation to climate change
Vink, M.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Art Dewulf. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574694 - 230
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - waterbeleid - governance - beleid - climatic change - climate adaptation - water policy - policy

Introduction

The PhD thesis is inspired by the rapid rise in political attention on climate change from 2005 onwards, followed by the media hype known as ‘climategate’ and the subsequent fall in attention afterwards. The polarisation in the public debate between so-called activists and deniers shows that climate change is a classroom example of what scholars in policy and planning define as a wicked or unstructured problem. This type of problem is characterised by a wide variety of societal understandings or frames through which new knowledge is interpreted. Governing wicked problems is a tricky process and has a history of policy conflict and controversy. In this thesis, I aim to elucidate the process and outcomes of governing adaptation to climate change. I do so by focusing on the social interactions of public and private players in governance and how they develop meanings and related policy outcomes through their frame interactions.

The thesis starts with the notion that adapting to the long-term and uncertain character of climate change results in a special type of governing, especially in the context of the little institutionalised policy domain and the wide variety of societal frames involved. Governing adaptation to climate change involves careful monitoring of policy direction, speed, and societal current in relation to scientific projections and societal sensemaking of what climate impacts might be ahead. Navigating climate change therefore metaphorically boils down to a form of dead reckoning, a systemised method of monitoring course, speed, and current through which sailors in the 15th century used to navigate their ships into the unknown.

Navigating hierarchically organised ships, however, is different from steering plural democratically organised societies. In policy sciences, this process of governing long-term policy issues in plural societies is traditionally defined as a dynamic process of both puzzling over what the issue means to society and powering to get things done. Puzzling and powering are broadly defined as interrelated; new meanings might alter actors’ positions and corresponding policy outcomes, and changing power positions might alter societal understandings of what is at stake. Processes of puzzling and powering are considered to vary across traditions of state organisation and related institutional arrangements.

In the climate adaptation governance literature however, the governance process is differently defined. Scholars define governance of adaptation to climate change as a matter of getting the knowledge system right to design the right policies, and getting the institutional system right to enforce the policies. This static approach does not show an interrelated or dynamic understanding of actor-centred processes based on sensemaking and positioning. Other scholars define climate adaptation as a matter of developing the right knowledge, creating legitimacy, or enhancing justness through deliberative or participatory approaches to governing, but seem to neglect the need for power organisation to get things done.

To be able to contribute to both the policy sciences and the climate adaptation governance literature, the thesis opens up the black box of climate adaptation governance by zooming in on the actual policy deliberations in four concrete governance cases in different institutional arrangements and traditions of state organisation. To do so, I propose frame interactions as a means for better understanding the traditionally defined interplay between processes of puzzling over meaning and powering over positions in different institutional contexts. This results in the following central research question:

In what way do frame interactions construct interplaying processes of puzzling over meaning and powering over positions in different institutional arrangements occupied with governing societal adaptation to climate change?

Research design

To investigate and compare the frame interaction processes in different institutional arrangements and state traditions, I started with a distant view towards frame developments in official water policy proposals over time. Using longitudinal frame analysis, I discussed these developments against the backdrop of a rise and fall in societal attention to climate change. Subsequently, I systematically assessed the scholarly approaches in making sense of climate adaptation governance. Inspired by both the developments in official policy framing over time and the different theoretical approaches to governance of adaptation to climate change, I opened the black box of frame developments and frame interactions in concrete governance practices. I adopted explorative case study research to get an in-depth understanding of the governance processes. By participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, and longitudinal frame analysis of policy deliberations in four different case studies, I was able to get in-depth understanding of governance processes in different institutional contexts. Because my research was embedded in the Dutch research programme Knowledge for Climate, which centres on climate adaptation governance challenges in the Dutch context, I took this Dutch context as my point of departure. The lowland delta nature of most of the Dutch territory makes the country potentially vulnerable to climate- related issues. Climate change poses governance challenges to delta regions in general, for which the Dutch delta might be an interesting illustration and an interesting case for academic inspiration and cross-national comparison.

In terms of institutional arrangements, Dutch adaptation to climate change empirically shows continuities as well as discontinuities with the traditional Dutch cornerstone of dealing with collective action problems through poldering. In two selected case studies, climate adaptation is mainstreamed in existing poldering approaches and follows what is traditionally defined as a neo-corporatist state tradition. In neo-corporatism, a limited number of traditionally defined organised interests negotiate with the state in an institutionalised fashion. One selected case study shows signs of discontinuity with this traditional approach, allowing for more ad hoc deliberation with a much wider and less organised array of stakeholders and societal actors, known as deliberative governance. This approach follows the pleas in the contemporary climate adaptation governance literature for more participation. To understand the implications of state traditions for framing processes, I compare the selected case studies with a fourth selected case study of a similar deliberative governance initiative in the pluralist state tradition of the UK. Pluralism entails less state involvement in policymaking, but more central coordination of societally initiated policy actions through national legislation.

Findings

From a distant view, I show how policy frames evolve over time as an ongoing long-term conversation between policy proposals. Zooming in on four case studies reveals a wide array of frames in governance processes, which can be classified according to the scales addressed in the frames, and the nature of the issues framed. In relation to framing the nature of the issue, two archetypical frames can be defined: technical frames and political frames. Frame interactions shape learning processes, but due to the inclusion and exclusion effect of frames they can never be viewed without more conflict-based notions on policymaking. Counterintuitively, technical frames appear to change power positions, but, in the same counterintuitive way, political frames allow for puzzling over roles and responsibilities as well. Therefore, the thesis shows how meaning alters power positions and frame interactions affect substantial and relational outcomes. I show how these insights complicate what I define as the system assessment approach, which is dominant in the climate adaptation governance literature. Frames appear to do things in climate adaptation governance processes, from which I conclude that frames navigate climate adaptation.

In addition to frame interactions as a puzzling and powering interplay, I show how a second interplay might be defined between institutions and frame interactions. Different institutional arrangements yield different frame interactions and outcomes. Institutional arrangements determine the rules of what can be defined as a framing game over wicked problems. Institutions also determine who is playing what framing game and therefore determine player dependencies. Institutions interplay with frame interactions, and may create the preconditions for effectively navigating the wide array of frames in climate adaptation governance. Without institutional demarcation of roles and responsibilities, the framing game might allow for new players and knowledge, but risks becoming gratuitous. In little institutionalised deliberative governance contexts without central coordination, frame interactions are likely to yield a dominant self-referential technical framing which empowers experts and promises technical efficiency solutions to a wicked problem. These contexts might yield the preconditions for what I define as a political bystander effect in deliberative governance. In addition, I show how state traditions play a role in what institutional arrangements yield what type of frame interactions. Therefore, I conclude that institutional arrangements in combination with state traditions play a role in how the variety of climate adaptation frames can be navigated.

These findings point towards my most important recommendations. For future research, I would suggest further investigation of: (1) the possible emergence of a dominant technical framing in deliberative governance; (2) the extent to which this framing might point towards what other scholars have labelled self-reinforcing frames; (3) related political bystander effects in specific combinations of governance arrangements, policy issues, and state traditions. In relation to that, my most important recommendations to policymakers are: (1) be aware of the variety of frames in governance, (2) be aware of state traditions, (3) choose the right institutional arrangement, and (4) be modest in depoliticising wicked problems. In general, my recommendation would be to frame climate adaptation as an ongoing process of dead reckoning, which allows for explaining uncertain events, anticipating changing societal currents, and learning-by-doing.

The conservation and use of crop genetic resources for food security
Khoury, C.K. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): A. Jarvis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574427 - 302
genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische diversiteit - germplasm - landbouwontwikkeling - klimaatadaptatie - wilde verwanten - ex-situ conservering - voedselzekerheid - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - agricultural development - climate adaptation - wild relatives - ex situ conservation - food security - cum laude
Cum laude graduation
Among the factors hindering the conservation of crop genetic resources is a lack of essential information regarding this diversity. Questions include: (a) what is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?, (b) where can genetic diversity be found that can be useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these vulnerabilities?, (c) is this genetic diversity available in the present and in the long term?, and (d) what steps are needed to improve the ability for researchers to access genetic resources critical for present and future crop improvement? This thesis aims to contribute to the knowledge required to answer these questions through an exploration of the need for, potential of, challenges and constraints regarding, and necessary steps to enhance the conservation and use of crop genetic diversity.
Climate Smart Agriculture: Synthesis of case studies in Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe
Hengsdijk, H. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Report / Plant Research International 624) - 26
stadslandbouw - biologische landbouw - duurzame landbouw - metriek stelsel - ghana - kenya - zimbabwe - engelssprekend afrika - agrarische productiesystemen - klimaatadaptatie - voedselveiligheid - urban agriculture - organic farming - sustainable agriculture - metric system - anglophone africa - agricultural production systems - climate adaptation - food safety
This study contributes to the current debate on climate smart agriculture and development in Africa, specifically in relation to farm size, food security and intensification in rain fed farming areas. Although the different analyses are rough, because of a combination of incomplete knowledge and limited data sets, the results places the prevailing development discussions in the context of CSA: Provides intensification a way out of poverty and contributes intensification to food security under climate change? How affects climate change crop yields and household income? Conflicts intensification with climate mitigation goals? These are some of the questions addressed for diverging case study areas in this study.
Climate change vulnerability and ecosystem-based adaptation measures in the Carpathian region : final report - Integrated assessment of vulnerability of environmental resources and ecosystem-based adaptation measures /
Werners, S.E. ; Bos, E.J. ; Civic, K. ; Hlásny, T. ; Hulea, O. ; Jones-Walters, L.M. ; Kopataki, E. ; Kovbasko, A. ; Moors, E.J. ; Nieuwenhuis, D. ; Velde, I. ; Zingstra, H.L. ; Zsuffa, I.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra report 2572) - 131
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - ecosystemen - climatic change - climate adaptation - ecosystems
Editorial: The governance of adaptation to climate change as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-actor challenge: a European comparative perspective
Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Meijerink, Sander ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 1 - 8.
klimaatadaptatie - hoogwaterbeheersing - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - nederland - verenigd koninkrijk - vlaanderen - duitsland - zweden - climate adaptation - flood control - international comparisons - netherlands - uk - flanders - germany - sweden - environmental-policy integration - framework
There is increasing recognition of the need for society to adapt to the impacts of climate change, especially in the water sector. Adaptation to climatic impacts involves both infrastructural adjustments, such as reinforcing dykes or creating water storage capacity, and broader processes of societal change, such as adjusting land use planning, more efficient water use or agricultural transitions. The aim of this special issue is not to ‘assess’ the current state of play for adaptation strategies and policies in Europe. Our interest is in the many facets of the governance of climate change adaptation, referring to the interactions and arrangements between public and/or private actors that are aimed at purposefully steering collective issues of adaptation to climate change.
Handling adaptation policy choices in Sweden, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands
Massey, E. ; Huitema, D. ; Garrelts, H. ; Grecksch, K. ; Mees, H. ; Rayner, T. ; Storbjörk, S. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Winges, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 9 - 24.
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - milieubeleid - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - zweden - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk - nederland - climate adaptation - regional planning - environmental policy - international comparisons - sweden - germany - uk - netherlands - climate-change adaptation - european-union - scales - interplay
Attention is increasing in academia towards the governance of adaptation, specifically how state and non-state actors are defining the adaptation ‘problematique’ and crafting public policies to address it. Adaptation is the ‘adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities’. The challenge for governments is taking this rather vague concept and turning it into viable and implementable public policies. This implies that they have to make choices as to the types of polices to create, the sectors they should cover, ministerial jurisdictions and funding. This article contributes to the discussion on the adaptation governance by presenting a conceptual framework that outlines policy choices governors need to make, by applying this framework to a number of countries, and starting the debate on which choice or choices were particularly instrumental in shaping adaptation policy in particular countries as a whole. It focuses on four countries traditionally seen to be adaptation leaders: Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Reconciling collaborative action research with existing institutions: insights from Dutch and German climate knowledge programmes
Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Buuren, A. van; Knieling, J. ; Gottschick, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 89 - 103.
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - onderzoeksbeleid - nederland - duitsland - climate adaptation - regional planning - international comparisons - research policy - netherlands - germany - policy - context
Researchers and policymakers increasingly aim to set up collaborative research programmes to address the challenges of adaptation to climate change. This does not only apply for technical knowledge, but for governance knowledge also. Both the Netherlands and Germany have set up large scale collaborative action research (CAR) programmes for the governance of adaptation to climate change. Despite the collaborative designs, the initial enthusiasm, the available resources and the many positive outcomes, both programmes encountered several stubborn difficulties. By comparing both programmes, this paper explores the difficulties researchers encounter, analyses the underlying mechanisms and presents some lessons. It found that many difficulties are related to the tensions that exist between the assumptions underlying the new collaborative trajectories and the logics of the existing policy and research institutions. These institutional misfits are decisive to explain ultimate difficulties and successes. Furthermore, the paper concludes that risk aversion, stereotyping and scale fixation strengthen institutional misfits; and that these misfits persist due to lacking bridging capabilities. We suggest some lessons that can help to resolve the difficulties and reconcile CAR into existing institutions: organize the knowledge arrangement as a collaborative process; construct boundary objects as focal point for collaboration; and invest in bridging capabilities. Key words | action research, climate change, governance, institutions, science–policy interface
Action research for climate change adaptation : Developing and applying knowledge for governance
Buuren, A. van; Eshuis, J. ; Vliet, M. van - \ 2015
London : Routledge (Routledge advances in climate change research ) - ISBN 9781138017603 - 198
klimaatverandering - actieonderzoek - governance - klimaatadaptatie - kennis - politiek - wereld - climatic change - action research - climate adaptation - knowledge - politics - world
Governments all over the world are struggling with the question of how to adapt to climate change. They need information not only about the issue and its possible consequences, but also about feasible governance strategies and instruments to combat it. At the same time, scientists from different social disciplines are trying to understand the dynamics and peculiarities of the governance of climate change adaptation. This book demonstrates how action-oriented research methods can be used to satisfy the need for both policy-relevant information and scientific knowledge. Bringing together eight case studies that show inspiring practices of action research from around the world, including Australia, Denmark, Vietnam and the Netherlands, the book covers a rich variety of action-research applications, running from participatory observation to serious games and role-playing exercises. It explores many adaptation challenges, from flood-risk safety to heat stress and freshwater availability, and draws out valuable lessons about the conditions that make action research successful, demonstrating how scientific and academic knowledge can be used in a practical context to reach useful and applicable insights. The book will be of interest to scholars and students of climate change, environmental policy, politics and governance.
Do state traditions matter? Comparing deliberative governance initiatives for climate change adaptation in Dutch corporatism and British pluralism
Vink, M.J. ; Benson, D. ; Boezeman, D. ; Cook, H.E. ; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 71 - 88.
klimaatadaptatie - waterbeheer - regionale planning - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - nederland - verenigd koninkrijk - climate adaptation - water management - regional planning - international comparisons - netherlands - uk - policy - frames - management - england - context
In the emerging field of climate adaptation, deliberative governance initiatives are proposed to yield better adaptation strategies. However, introducing these network-centred deliberations between public and private players may contrast with traditions of interest intermediation between state and society. This paper shows how state traditions affect newly set up deliberative governance initiatives. Because of the similarities in geographical characteristics and the differences in state tradition we choose qualitative case studies in Dutch and British water management. Our comparison is two-fold. First, we compare deliberative governance initiatives in the different state traditions of the Netherlands and UK. Second, we compare the newly set up deliberative governance initiative to an existing policy regime mainstreaming climate adaptation in a similar state tradition, in our case the Netherlands. We find that: (1) Deliberative governance initiatives in the (neo-)corporatist state tradition of the Netherlands yields learning but shows apathy among politically elected decision-makers compared to deliberative governance initiatives in the pluralist state tradition of the UK where clearly defined rules and responsibilities yields negotiation and action; (2) A typical corporatist policy regime mainstreaming climate adaption in a (neo-)corporatist state tradition yields effective and legitimate policy formation but lacks learning.
Overview of challenges and achievements in the Climate Adaptation of Cities and in the Climate Proof Cities program
Albers, R.A.W. ; Bosch, P.R. ; Blocken, B. ; Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F. van den; Hove, B. van; Split, T.J.M. ; Ven, F. van de; Hooff, T. van; Rovers, V. - \ 2015
Building and Environment 83 (2015). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 1 - 10.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - governance - onderzoeksprojecten - nederland - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - temperature - research projects - netherlands - urban heat-island - building performance simulation - cfd simulation - environment - ventilation - future - generation - benefits
Despite all international, national and local initiatives to mitigate climate change, a certain degree of climate change is unavoidable. Urban environments in particular seem vulnerable to the consequences of climate change. How can cities, which are dynamic systems where most people live and work, prepare for such changes in climate? In the Netherlands, the Climate Proof Cities (CPC) research program (2010-2014) was established, aimed at: “strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vulnerability of the urban system against climate change and to develop strategies and policy instruments for adapting our cities and buildings”. The program has contributed to the knowledge on assessing vulnerability of cities, on adaptation options and their effectiveness, and on governance of adaptation. Important features are the role of green infrastructures in combination with available water, improved building designs and collaboration between urban planners and water managers. Nonetheless, in spite of this effort and many other national and international efforts, research in these fields is still in its infancy, and much remains to be done. The broad scope of the CPC research program incited the establishment of this Special Issue. In addition, also papers from other researchers have been added to this Special Issue, in an attempt to provide a valuable – albeit inexhaustive – view on the challenges and achievements in adaptation of cities to climate change.
Integration in urban climate adaptation: Lessons from Rotterdam on integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge
Groot, A.M.E. ; Bosch, P.R. ; Buijs, S. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Moors, E.J. - \ 2015
Building and Environment 83 (2015). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 177 - 188.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - rotterdam - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - transdisciplinary research - heat-island - boundary - policy - interdisciplinary - sustainability - information - challenges - ecology - science
Based on the experience acquired in the Bergpolder Zuid district in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, this paper presents lessons learned so far on science-policy interactions supporting the adaptation to climate change in an urban district. Two types of integration issues were considered: (1) Integration within science including integration of disciplines, methods, models and data, and (2) integration between science and the local stakeholders' society, involving a synthesis of scientific and practical knowledge, linking sectors, governance arrangements and organisations. At first sight, the issues around integration within science and beyond the science of climate change adaptation in cities resemble those generally observed in science-policy integration. However, the relative newness of urban adaptation to climate change poses specific challenges for both the scientists and the stakeholders involved in the process. The Rotterdam example discusses the use of multiple means of integration for enhancing integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge.
Climate benefits and environmental challenges related to urban food systems
Verzandvoort, S.J.E. ; Mol, G. ; Meulen, Suzanne van der; Oostrom, Niels van - \ 2014
Alterra Wageningen - 29 p.
urban agriculture - mitigation - climatic change - climate - climate adaptation - urban environment - stadslandbouw - mitigatie - klimaatverandering - klimaat - klimaatadaptatie - stadsomgeving
In a short literature review, we have collected available knowledge on the potential benefits of urban agriculture, as part of local food systems, on climate change mitigation and adaptation. The effects of urban agriculture on climate change mitigation and adaptation depend on the type of agricultural practice (e.g. in greenhouses, in soil, in artificial substrates used resources) and the difference with previous land use (e.g. leading to an increase or decrease of sealed soil surface and green areas). Specific types of urban agriculture can alter the urban environment and in this way influence climate adaptation, or contribute to mitigation in case the production can be realized with lower energy inputs due to opportunities offered by the urban system.
Naar een klimaatbestendige Bergpolder Zuid
Groot, A.M.E. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Bosch, P. ; Buijs, S. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 22
klimaatverandering - temperatuur - scenario-analyse - klimaatadaptatie - woonwijken - rotterdam - climatic change - temperature - scenario analysis - climate adaptation - residential areas
Het klimaat verandert. Dit heeft ook voor Rotterdam gevolgen. De temperatuur in de stad zal stijgen waardoor steeds meer mensen last kunnen krijgen van hittestress. Hevige regenbuien komen vaker voor waardoor de kans op wateroverlast in de stad toeneemt. Tegelijkertijd neemt de lengte van droge periodes in de zomer toe, waardoor de grondwaterstand kan dalen. Voor een concrete praktijk case, Bergpolder Zuid, zochten wetenschappers en betrokkenen uit de praktijk samen uit hoe kwetsbaar de wijk is voor klimaatverandering en welke adaptatiemaatregelen de klimaatbestendigheid zouden kunnen vergroten.
Klimaatatelier Rheden
Merrebach, M. van; Bijsterveldt, M.A.J.C. van; Grond, V. - \ 2014
Rheden : Gemeente Rheden - 22
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - gemeenten - veluwe - gelderland - climatic change - climate adaptation - municipalities
De Provincie Gelderland wil vanuit haar klimaatprogramma klimaatbestendigheid stimuleren. Naast aandacht voor klimaatverandering in provinciaal beleid wordt ook actief richting regio’s en gemeenten gewezen op het belang en de meerwaarde van klimaatadaptatie. Dat gebeurt onder andere door het houden van een klimaatatelier. Een van de klimaatateliers is op 25 november 2013 georganiseerd voor de gemeente Rheden. Dit atelier werd goed bezocht en had een primeur: 2 wethouders waren bij het ochtendprogramma aanwezig. Het klimaatatelier bestond uit 3 ‘blokken’: • Doel en kader door vertegenwoordigers van de gemeente en de provincie Gelderland • Toelichtingen op het klimaatbeleid en de gevolgen voor Rheden, én op de situatie van bodem, water en groen in de gemeente. • Aanzet voor een adaptatiestrategie door het schetsen op ruimtelijke mogelijkheden en een discussie over governance, samenwerking en beleid.
Monitoring en evaluatie van adaptatie op regionaal en lokaal niveau
Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Sandt, K.H. van de; Minnen, J. van; Betgen, C.D. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport )
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - plaatselijke planning - indicatoren - hydrologie - waterkwaliteit - monitoring - gemeenten - rotterdam - zuid-holland - climate adaptation - regional planning - local planning - indicators - hydrology - water quality - municipalities
Eindrapport van onderdeel Kennis voor Klimaat met de titel “Monitoren en evalueren van effecten, kwetsbaarheden en adaptatiebeleid als gevolg van klimaatverandering op verschillende ruimtelijke schalen”. Het rapport beschrijft twee casussen waarin monitoren van klimaatadaptatie op de lokale en regionale schaal is onderzocht. De eerste case studie gaat over de Stadsregio Rotterdam en de tweede over de regio Haaglanden. Gebaseerd op deze case studies is een advies geschreven hoe monitoring op lokale en regionale schaal opgestart kan worden. Er zijn tabellen opgesteld met voor het lokale en regionale niveau mogelijk relevante indicatoren van adaptatie.
Klimaatrisico’s en –kansen voor de landbouw
Schaap, B.F. ; Reidsma, P. ; Agricola, H.J. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, PRI, Business Unit Agrosysteemkunde (Rapport / Plant Research International 601) - 74
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - landbouw - tuinbouw - nadelige gevolgen - onbedoelde effecten - scenario-analyse - climatic change - climate adaptation - agriculture - horticulture - adverse effects - nontarget effects - scenario analysis
Deze studie heeft als doel om de effecten van klimaatverandering op de land- en tuinbouw in kaart te brengen, in de huidige situatie en voor de (midden)lange termijn (2050). Op basis daarvan worden de risico’s en kansen voor de sector geïdentificeerd en de adaptatiemaatregelen waarmee risico’s kunnen worden opvangen en kansen worden benut. De doelstelling van deze studie is het actualiseren van kwetsbaarheden, risico’s en kansen voor de Nederlandse land- en tuinbouw gerelateerd aan klimaatverandering. De beoogde uitkomsten zijn: Een concrete aanduiding van de aard en omvang kwetsbaarheid en klimaatrisico’s, Een lijst van mogelijke indicatoren voor kwetsbaarheid.
Climate change impact and adaptation assessment in agriculture requires farming systems analysis and integrated assessment
Reidsma, P. ; Wolf, J. ; Kanellopoulos, A. ; Schaap, B.F. ; Mandryk, M. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2014
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - bedrijfssystemen - landbouw - climatic change - climate adaptation - farming systems - agriculture
Abstract of the oral presentation given at the Global Land Project 2nd Open Science Meeting. The authors argue that farming systems analysis and integrated assessment are needed for climate change impact and adaptation assessments in agriculture, and illustrate this with a case study in the Netherlands.
River flood damage estimation in Jakarta, Indonesia
Wijayanti, P. ; Zhu, X. ; Hellegers, P.J.G.J. ; Budiyono, Y. ; Ierland, E.C. van - \ 2014
klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - overstromingen - kustgebieden - indonesië - climate adaptation - climatic change - floods - coastal areas - indonesia
Flooding is a serious problem in Jakarta. Estimation of flood damages is important to estimate the benefits of implementing flood protection measures.
Developing robust governance strategies for uncertain futures; a combined backcasting and exploratory scenarios methodology
Vliet, Mathijs van - \ 2014
climatic change - climate adaptation - uncertainty analysis - governance
A Best Practices Notebook for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Guidance and Insights for Policy and Practice from the CATALYST Project
Hare, M. ; Bers, C. van; Mysiak, J. ; Calliari, E. ; Haque, A. ; Warner, K. ; Yuzva, K. ; Zissener, M. ; Jaspers, A.M.J. ; Timmerman, J.G. - \ 2014
Trieste, Italy : TWAS The World Academy of Sciences - for the advancement of science in developing countries - 76
climate adaptation - climatic change - risk reduction - disasters - klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - risicovermindering - rampen
This publication, A Best Practices Notebook for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Guidance and Insights for Policy and Practice from the CATALYST Project is one of two main CATALYST knowledge products that focus on the transformative approaches and measures that can support Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA). It is complemented by the Best Practices Papers: Before Disaster Strikes – Transformations in Practice and Policy prepared for each of the four CATALYST regions (South and Southeast Asia, Mediterranean Europe, East and West Africa, and Central America and the Caribbean). While the previous publications present the practices considered by stakeholders to be among the most important in each region, this publication summarises the key results of the entire project from a multi-regional perspective. In doing so, it focuses on some of the most essential themes that have emerged from the CATALYST Think Tank over the last two years: ecosystems-based DRR/CCA; mainstreaming DRR/CCA; urban DRR; drought risk management for agriculture; climate risk insurance; small island developing states, and how the Hyogo Framework for Action should be followed up, as well as how to continue the CATALYST legacy.
Climate proof cities : eindrapport 2010-2014
Rovers, V. ; Bosch, P. ; Albers, R. ; Hove, B. van; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Hartogensis, O.K. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Klemm, W. ; Maat, H.W. ter; Groot, A.M.E. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. - \ 2014
Kennis voor Klimaat - 128
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - gebouwen - monitoring - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - temperature - buildings
Alle steden in Nederland, groot en klein, zijn kwetsbaar voor de effecten van klimaatverandering. De mate van kwetsbaarheid varieert nogal binnen het stedelijk gebied. Dat betekent dat het vergroten van de klimaatbestendigheid van steden het meest efficiënt kan gebeuren door het nemen van veel relatief kleine en lokale maatregelen. Veel daarvan kunnen tegelijkertijd met groot onderhoud of renovaties worden uitgevoerd. Daarvoor is wel samenwerking met veel en diverse partijen nodig.
Salt marshes for flood protection : long-term adaptation by combining functions in flood defences
Loon-Steensma, J.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pier Vellinga; M.J.F. Stive. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570993 - 198
zoutmoerassen - wetlands - wadden - hoogwaterbeheersing - kustbeheer - klimaatadaptatie - innovaties - vegetatie - noord-nederland - salt marshes - tidal flats - flood control - coastal management - climate adaptation - innovations - vegetation - north netherlands
In deze dissertatie die zich vooral richt op het Waddengebied, worden een aantal innovatieve concepten verkend, die functies zoals natuur en landschap combineren met het beschermen tegen overstroming. Er wordt met name gefocust op de rol van kwelders. Deze vormen namelijk een overgangszone tussen zee en land, door een met zouttolerante planten begroeide bodem. Ze vormen zo een natuurlijke waterkering.
Explaining and overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation
Eisenack, K. ; Moser, S.C. ; Hoffmann, E. ; Klein, R.J.T. ; Oberlack, C. ; Pechan, A. ; Rotter, M. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2014
Nature Climate Change 4 (2014). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 867 - 872.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - governance - milieubeleid - climatic change - climate adaptation - environmental policy - adaptive capacity - local-government - water sector - flood risk - policy - framework - limits - organizations - vulnerability
The concept of barriers is increasingly used to describe the obstacles that hinder the planning and implementation of climate change adaptation. The growing literature on barriers to adaptation reveals not only commonly reported barriers, but also conflicting evidence, and few explanations of why barriers exist and change. There is thus a need for research that focuses on the interdependencies between barriers and considers the dynamic ways in which barriers develop and persist. Such research, which would be actor-centred and comparative, would help to explain barriers to adaptation and provide insights into how to overcome them.
Adaptation of livestock systems to climate change: functions of grassland, breeding, health and housing
Hoving, I.E. ; Stienezen, M.W.J. ; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Buisonjé, F.E. de - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 793) - 52
veehouderij - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - broeikasgassen - mitigatie - landbouw en milieu - landbouwproductie - agrarische productiesystemen - duurzame veehouderij - livestock farming - climatic change - climate adaptation - greenhouse gases - mitigation - agriculture and environment - agricultural production - agricultural production systems - sustainable animal husbandry
This report presents the available knowledge and relevant research questions related to 1) grassland based livestock production systems and GHG emissions, and 2) adaptation of livestock systems to climate change, to provide information for prioritization research and other actions on adaptation and mitigation. Solutions can be found through the combination of enabling infrastructure for agricultural development and introducing public-private cooperation into research programmes. The provision of veterinary services, financial services, a knowledge infrastructure and governance of land use are essential for maintaining and improving agricultural productivity.
Klimaatbestendige landbouw Veenkoloniën. Maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse
Kuhlman, T. ; Prins, H. ; Smit, A.B. ; Wijnholds, K.H. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota LEI 14-040) - 28
akkerbouw - duurzaam bodemgebruik - teeltsystemen - landgebruik - organische stof - klimaatadaptatie - kosten-batenanalyse - veenkolonien - arable farming - sustainable land use - cropping systems - land use - organic matter - climate adaptation - cost benefit analysis
Dit rapport gaat over duurzaam bodembeheer in de Veenkoloniën, specifiek in de akkerbouw - verreweg de belangrijkste deelsector in de Veenkoloniale landbouw. Het behandelt de vraag in hoeverre klimaatverandering wijzigingen in het bodembeheer noodzakelijk maakt, en welke maatregelen specifiek voor de akkerbouw in de Veenkoloniën geschikt zijn. Hierbij gaat het enerzijds om maatregelen ter aanpassing aan klimaatverandering (adaptatie), en anderzijds ook om die klimaatverandering te verminderen (mitigatie).
The role of farmers’ objectives in current farm practices and adaptation preferences: a case study in Flevoland, the Netherlands
Mandryk, M. ; Reidsma, P. ; Kanellopoulos, A. ; Groot, J.C.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)4. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 1463 - 1478.
klimaatverandering - akkerbouw - flevoland - klimaatadaptatie - houding van boeren - besluitvorming - climatic change - arable farming - climate adaptation - farmers' attitudes - decision making - vegetable farms - climate-change - south uruguay - land-use - design - agriculture - model - management - options - systems
The diversity in farmers’ objectives and responses to external drivers is usually not considered in integrated assessment studies that investigate impacts and adaptation to climate and socio-economic change. Here, we present an approach to assess how farmers’ stated objectives relate to their currently implemented practices and to preferred adaptation options, and we discuss what this implies for assessments of future changes. We based our approach on a combination of multi-criteria decision-making methods. We consistently assessed the importance of farmers’ objectives and adaptation preferences from what farmers say (based on interviews), from what farmers actually do (by analysing current farm performance) and from what farmers want (through a selected alternative farm plan). Our study was performed for six arable farms in Flevoland, a province in the Netherlands. Based on interviews with farmers, we reduced the long list of possible objectives to the most important ones. The objectives we assessed included maximization of economic result and soil organic matter, and minimization of gross margin variance, working hours and nitrogen balance. In our sample, farmers’ stated preferences in objectives were often not fully reflected in realized farming practices. Adaptation preferences of farmers largely resembled their current performance, but generally involved a trend towards stated preferences. Our results suggest that in Flevoland, although farmers do have more objectives, in practical decision-making they focus on economic result maximization, while for strategic decision-making they account for objectives influencing long-term performance and indicators associated with sustainability, in this case soil organic matter.
CoP in focus : community of practice on metropolitan food clusters, resource use efficiency and climate adaptation
Kranendonk, R.P. ; Hoechstetter, S. ; Castillo, A. ; Smeets, P.J.A.M. ; Mansfeld, M.J.M. van; Eetgerink, F. ; Cserhaty, M. ; Kalas, N. ; Schneider, U. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2497) - 80
landbouw - landgebruik - broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - agroforestry - klimaatadaptatie - monitoring - landen van de europese unie - duitsland - intensieve veehouderij - de peel - agro-industriële ketens - agriculture - land use - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - climate adaptation - european union countries - germany - intensive livestock farming - agro-industrial chains
This Pathfinder project develops a focused EU Community of Practice (CoP) on development of Agro food-clusters that focuses on innovation of high tech, large scale, industrialized and sustainable agriculture and food production for Metropoles. The Metropolitan food clusters significantly contribute to reduction of the carbon and water footprint of metropolitan areas. In the exchange of concepts, this CoP will work out the benefits for climate from MFC in real regional innovation trajectories, towards business cases. The focus will be on co creation in KENGi networks and applyimg the innovation pathways of MFC design.
Klimaatverandering en natuur : ontwikkeling van een provinciaal adaptatieplan
Geertsema, W. ; Vos, C.C. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. - \ 2014
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 31 (2014)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 63 - 72.
klimaatadaptatie - natuurbeheer - bodem-plant relaties - grondwaterstand - ecohydrologie - klimaatverandering - noord-brabant - climate adaptation - nature management - soil plant relationships - groundwater level - ecohydrology - climatic change
Klimaatverandering heeft zowel direct als indirect gevolgen voor planten en dieren. Adaptatiestrategieën versterken ecosystemen zodanig dat ze in staat zijn om veranderingen op te vangen. We hebben een methodiek ontwikkeld om samen met stakeholders ruimtelijke adaptatieplannen voor een provincie te ontwerpen. De methodiek is generiek inzetbaar op provinciale schaal; de toepassing is beschreven voor Noord-Brabant.
De implementatie van adaptatie, Barrières en mogelijkheden voor flexibele governance-arrangementen
Ellen, G.J. ; Breman, B.C. ; Dijk, J.J. van; Franssen, R.J.M. ; Keessen, A.M. ; Kuindersma, W. ; Lamoen, F. van; Buuren, M.W. van; Leeuwen, C.J.W.G. van; Soest, D. van - \ 2014
Kennis voor Klimaat (KvK rapport KvK 114/2014) - ISBN 9789490070809 - 142
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - waterbeheer - governance - climatic change - climate adaptation - water management
Met dit project heeft een consortium samen met partijen uit de beleidspraktijk handvatten ontwikkeld met betrekking tot de vraag op welke manier adaptatie-strategieën flexibel geïmplementeerd kunnen worden en welke rol reflexieve monitoring daarbij kan spelen. Hiervoor is een methodiek ontwikkeld die het keuzeproces ondersteunt richting implementatie van adaptatiestrategieën of maatregelen.
WaterTrust : Using participatory monitoring to build legitimacy and trust in watermanagement : information govenance
Breman, B.C. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Kuindersma, W. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - publieke participatie - climatic change - climate adaptation - public participation
In this project the main research question is: Can the implementation of strategic water management be facilitated by increasing trust and legitimacy through participatory monitoring techniques? Based on four case studies, amongst which the cases of Flexpeil/Loosdrechtse Plassen, Landbouw op Peil and Langsdammen Nijmegen
Climate change, climate variability and adaptation options in smallholder cropping systems of the Sudano - Sahel region in West Africa
Traore, B. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Mark van Wijk; M. Corbeels. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739612 - 163
klimaatverandering - klimaat - klimaatadaptatie - kleine landbouwbedrijven - teeltsystemen - sahel - gewasproductie - west-afrika - climatic change - climate - climate adaptation - small farms - cropping systems - crop production - west africa

Key words: crop production, maize, millet, sorghum, cotton, fertilizer, rainfall, temperature, APSIM, Mali,

In the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa (SSWA) agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities, providing employment to more than 60 percent of the population and contributing to about 30% of gross domestic product. Smallholder agricultural production is dominated by rain-fed production of millet, sorghum and maize for food consumption and of cotton for the market. Farmers experience low and variable yields resulting in increasing uncertainty about the ability to produce the food needed for their families. Major factors contributing to such uncertainty and low productivity are climate variability, climate change and poor agricultural management. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate through experimentation, modelling and participatory approaches the real and perceived characteristics of climate variability and change and their effects on crop production in order to identify opportunities for enhancing the adaptive capacity of farmers in the Sudano - Sahelian zone.

The general approach was based on, first, understanding the past trend of climate and its effect on the yield of main crops cultivated in southern Mali; second, evaluating together with farmers different adaptation options in the field; third, evaluating climate adaptation options through experimentation on station; and fourth, evaluating the consequences of different adaptation options under different long term scenarios of climate change.

Minimum daily air temperature increased on average by 0.05oC per year during the period from 1965 to 2005 while maximum daily air temperature remained constant. Seasonal rainfall showed large inter-annual variability with no significant change over the 1965 – 2005 period. However, the total number of dry days within the growing season increased significantly indicating a change in rainfall distribution. There was a negative effect of maximum temperature, number of dry days and total seasonal rainfall on cotton yield.

Farmers perceived an increase in annual rainfall variability, an increase in the occurrence of dry spells during the rainy season, and an increase in temperature. Drought tolerant, short maturing crop varieties and appropriate planting dates were the commonly preferred adaptation strategies to deal with climate variability. Use of chemical fertilizer enhances the yield and profitability of maize while the cost of fertilizer prohibits making profit with fertilizer use on millet. Training of farmers on important aspects of weather and its variability, and especially on the onset of the rains, is critical to enhancing adaptive capacity to climate change.

A field experiment (from 2009 to 2011) indicated that for fertilized cereal crops, maize out yielded millet and sorghum by respectively 57% and 45% across the three seasons. Analysis of 40 years of weather data indicated that this finding holds for longer time periods than the length of this trial. Late planting resulted in significant yield decreases for maize, sorghum and cotton, but not for millet. However, a short duration variety of millet was better adapted for late planting. When the rainy season starts late, sorghum planting can be delayed from the beginning of June to early July without substantial reductions in grain yield. Cotton yield at early planting was 28% larger than yield at medium planting and late planting gave the lowest yield with all three varieties. For all four crops the largest stover yields were obtained with early planting and the longer planting was delayed, the less stover was produced.

Analysis of predicted future climate change on cereal production indicated that the temperature will increase over time. Generally stronger increases occur in the rcp8.5 scenario compared to the rcp4.5 scenario. The total annual rainfall is unlikely to change. By mid-century predicted maize grain yield losses were 45% and 47% with farmer’s practice in the rcp4.5 and rcp8.5 scenarios respectively. The recommended fertilizer application did not offset the climate change impact but reduced the yield losses to 38% of the baseline yield with farmer’s practice. For millet median yield loss was 16% and 14% with farmer’s practice in the rcp4.5 and rcp8.5 scenario. If the recommended fertilizer rates are applied to millet, the predicted yield losses with farmer’s practice due to climate change are reversed in both climate scenarios.

Under future climate change, food availability will be reduced for the all farm types, but that large farm will still achieve food self – sufficiency in terms of energy requirement. The medium and small farm types see a further decrease in food self-sufficiency. Addressing smallholder food self-sufficiency depends upon the capacity of each farm type to appropriately choose the planting date while taking into account the acceptable planting date window for each individual crop.

Vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability and change in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe
Rurinda, J. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): P. Mapfumo; Mark van Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739605 - 168
klimaatverandering - kleine landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - klimaatadaptatie - adaptatie - klimaat - gewasopbrengst - zimbabwe - climatic change - small farms - farming systems - climate adaptation - adaptation - climate - crop yield

Keywords: Climate change; Increased climate variability; Vulnerability; Smallholder farmers; Adaptation

Climate change and increased climate variability are currently seen as the major constraints to the already stressed smallholder farming livelihood system in southern Africa. The main objectives of this study were first to understand the nature and sources of vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate variability and change, and second to use this knowledge to evaluate possible farm-level management options that can enhance the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers in the face of increased climate variability and long-term change in climate. The study was conducted in Makoni and Hwedza districts in eastern Zimbabwe. Local famers’ and expert empirical knowledge were combined using research tools that mainly included detailed field observations and surveys, systems analysis and field experimentation, and simulation modelling (the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)). To understand the nature and sources of vulnerability, long term climate data were analysed and farmers were interviewed individually and in groups. On-farm experimentation and simulation modelling were conducted to evaluate the impacts and interactions of adaptation options namely maize cultivar choice, staggered planting dates, and variable fertilizer rates, on maize yield under both short-term climate variability and long-term climate change. Another on-farm experiment was conducted to assess whether small grains (finger millet and sorghum) perform as well as maize under variable soil and rainfall conditions.

The long-term rainfall and temperature analyses closely supports farmers’ perceptions that the total annual rainfall has so far not changed, but variability in the rainfall distribution within seasons has increased. The number of rain days has decreased, and the frequency of dry spells within season increased. The mean daily minimum temperature increased by 0.2°C per decade in Makoni, and by 0.5°C per decade in Hwedza, over the period from 1962 to 2000. The surface air temperature is further projected to increase significantly in Makoni and Hwedza, by 2100. The impacts of rising temperatures and increased rainfall variability among smallholder households were highly differentiated because different households depend on varied farming livelihood sub-systems, which were exposed uniquely to aspects of climatic risk. For example, livestock production was sensitive to drought due to lack of feed, affecting resource-endowed farmers, who often own relatively large herds of cattle. Crop production was more sensitive to increased rainfall variability, affecting especially farmers with intermediate resource endowment. Availability of wild fruits and social safety nets were affected directly and indirectly by extreme temperatures and increased rainfall variability, impacting the livelihoods of poorer farmers. Farmers have also access to different biophysical and socioeconomic resources such as fertilizer and farm labour inputs, and as a result they respond variedly to impacts of a changing climate. Thus, alongside climate variability and change, farmers also faced biophysical and socioeconomic challenges, and these challenges had strong interactions with adaptation options to climate change.

Experimentation in this studydemonstrated that the maize cultivars currently on the market in Zimbabwe, and in many parts of southern Africa, exhibit narrow differences in maturity time such that they do not respond differently to prolonged dry spells. The yield performance for all three cultivars is projected to be similar in future change in climates, consistent with results from the experiments.In the current cropping system farmers can select any cultivar available on the market without a yield penalty. However, with climate change none of the available cultivars will be able to compensate for the decline in yield. Greater maize grain yields were obtained with both the early (25 October – 20 November) and normal (21 November – 15 December) plantings, with no significant differences between these planting windows(e.g. on average 5 t ha-1 in Makoni, and 3 t ha-1 in Hwedza for the high fertilization rate).Contrary to previous research findings, there is a reasonably wide planting window in which good yields can be obtained if the rains start on time, but if the start of the rains is delayed until after the beginning of December planting should be done as soon as possible. Regardless of the amount of fertilizer applied, yields were reduced strongly when planting was substantially delayed by four weeks after the start of the rainy season. Maize yielded more than finger millet and sorghum even when rainfall was poor in the 2010/2011 season. For example, maize yielded 2.4 t ha-1 compared with 1.6 t ha-1 for finger millet and 0.4 t ha-1 for sorghum in the 2010/2011 rainfall season in Makoni. Finger millet and sorghum failed to emerge unless fertilizer was applied. Application of manure alone failed to address this challenge of poor emergence until fertilizer was added. Sorghum suffered critical yield losses due to bird damage. The better performance of maize over finger millet and sorghum suggested that the recommendation to substitute small grains for maize as a viable adaptation option to a changing climate, will neither be the best option for robust adaptation nor attractive for farmers in southern Africa. Alternatively spreading crops across the farm and in time can be a viable strategy to spread climatic risk as well as improve human nutrition. Poor soil fertility constrained yield more strongly than rainfall and late planting, as demonstrated by the large yield gap (> 1.2 t ha-1) between the unfertilized and fertilized cultivars even in the poor rainfall season (2010/2011).

Fertilization increased yield significantly under both the baseline and future climates particularly when planting before mid-December.The maize response to mineral nitrogen is, however, projected to decline as climate changes, although effects only become substantial towards the end of the 21st Century. Soil fertility management is therefore likely to be a major entry point for increasing the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to climate change and increased climate variability. However, management of factors related to both nutrient resource access and farmers decisions to enhance resource use efficiencies are critical if agriculture is to be used as robust adaptation options to climate change by smallholder in Southern Africa.

Rethinking barriers to adaptation: mechanism-based explanation of impasses in the governance of an innovative adaptation measure
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2014
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 26 (2014). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 108 - 118.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - open ruimten - governance - stedelijke gebieden - rotterdam - stedelijke planning - climatic change - climate adaptation - open spaces - urban areas - urban planning - climate-change adaptation - causal mechanisms - social mechanisms - risk governance - policy - framework - reflections - management - relevance
Many of the possible barriers in the governance of climate change adaptation have already been identified and catalogued in the academic literature. Thus far it has proven to be difficult to provide meaningful recommendations on how to deal with these barriers. In this paper we propose a different perspective, with different epistemological assumptions about cause and effect than most existing barrier studies, to analyze why adaptation is often challenging. Using the mechanismic framework, we study how the idea for an innovative ‘‘Water Plaza’’ was realized in the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Mechanisms are understood as patterns of interaction between actors that bring about change in the governance process that lead to policy impasses. Our analysis reveals three mechanisms that explain the impasses in the first Water Plaza pilot project: the risk-innovation mechanism, the frame polarization mechanism, and the conflict infection mechanism. Only after several substantive changes in the project design, location choice, and process architecture was the project of Water Plaza’s revitalized. We discuss how the short-sighted ideas about cause–effect relationships, reflected in the superficial identification of barriers, may prove to be counterproductive; if there is high uncertainty about the risks of an innovation, the solution of offering more certainty is not very helpful and could, as it happened in the case study, trigger other mechanisms, creating an even tighter deadlock. Our study also suggests that when adaptation is considered as something innovative, the chances will increase that the risk-innovation mechanism will occur. We conclude that unearthing mechanisms offers new opportunities and different types of strategic interventions in practice than most existing studies have offered.
Adapting to an Uncertain Climate: Lessons From Practice
Capela Lourenco, T. ; Rovisco, A. ; Groot, A.M.E. ; Nilsson, C. ; Füssel, H.M. ; Bree, L. van - \ 2014
Switzerland : Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319048765 - 182
klimaatadaptatie - milieuwetenschappen - milieutechniek - aardsysteemkunde - klimaatverandering - milieu - klimaat - climate adaptation - environmental sciences - environmental engineering - earth system science - climatic change - environment - climate
Climate change highlights the challenges for long-term policy making in the face of persistent and irreducible levels of uncertainties. It calls for the development of flexible approaches, innovative governance and other elements that contribute to effective and adaptive decision-making. Exploring these new approaches is also a challenge for those involved in climate research and development of adaptation policy. Targeted specifically at policy developers and advisors, practitioners, climate knowledge brokers, researchers and interested adaptation decision-makers, this book differs from other titles addressing climate change adaptation and uncertainty by using real life cases to address distinct and pertinent uncertainties in actual adaptation situations. The authors introduce the role of uncertainties in informing adaptation decisions, showing why and how this is important, and why decisions do not have to wait until uncertainties are resolved. They explore uncertainty assessments supporting decision-making on climate change adaptation, with sections on variability, uncertainty typology, climate change, and projection of risks. A discussion of national adaptation planning follows with sections on sources and levels of uncertainty, communication of uncertainty, and guidance for adaptation planning under uncertainty. The book provides a dozen real-life examples of adaptation decision making in the form of case studies: · Water supply management in Portugal, England and Wales and Hungary · Flooding, including flood risk in Ireland, coastal flooding and erosion in Southwest France, and flood management in Australia’s Hutt River region · Transport and utilities, including the Austrian Federal railway system, public transit in Dresden, and Québec hydro-electric power · Report examining communication of large numbers of climate scenarios in Dutch climate adaptation workshops The concluding section outlines a new support framework for adaptation decisions under uncertainty, as well as guidance, recommendations and decision support for readers to apply in their own work. In the spirit of the newly adopted EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change, the book aims - as does the CIRCLE-2 project from which it emanates - to assist informed decision-making and to provide added value through increased knowledge sharing.
Leren van landbouw op peil : evaluatie van een experiment met zelfsturing in het waterbeheer
Kuindersma, W. ; Breman, B.C. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2512) - 41
landbouw - peilbeheer - boeren - governance - klimaatadaptatie - participatie - achterhoek - agriculture - water level management - farmers - climate adaptation - participation
Dit rapport gaat over het project Landbouw op Peil. Een project van vier Oostelijke waterschappen waarin op vijftien boerenbedrijven is geëxperimenteerd met klimaatadaptatie. In dit rapport beschrijven we de manier waarop het project is geïmplementeerd, geven we een evaluatie op het proces en kijken we specifiek naar zelfsturing en participatieve monitoring. De conclusies zijn dat: (1) het project heel verschillend is geïmplementeerd door de verschillende waterschappen; (2) de deelnemers en waterschappen heel tevreden zijn over de opzet van het project zelf en de leerervaringen die in het project zijn opgedaan; (3) dat zelfsturing (door boeren) in het waterbeheer lastig is voor waterschappen zodra dit het bedrijfsniveau overstijgt en (4) dat participatieve monitoring moeilijk van de grond kwam vanwege beperkte belangstelling bij de deelnemers en de nadruk in de monitoring op ‘harde’ data.
Learning through collaboration – Knowledge Transfer and Sharing in Climate Change Adaptation. Research between European and developing countries. A CIRCLE-2 research policy brief
Swart, R.J. ; Alberth, J. ; Kuna, B. ; Lillieskold, M. ; Hanzlickova, M. ; Horstmann, B. - \ 2014
Lisbon/Portugal : Foundation of the Faculty of Sciences - 20
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - kennisoverdracht - milieubeleid - ontwikkelingslanden - landen van de europese unie - climatic change - climate adaptation - knowledge transfer - environmental policy - developing countries - european union countries
From 2004-2009, and from 2009-2014, partners of CIRCLE (Climate Impact Research & Response Coordination for a Larger Europe) have collaborated to fund research and share knowledge on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation and the promotion of long-term cooperation among national and regional climate change programmes in Europe.
Productive Science-practice Interactions in Climate Change Adaptation : Lessons from practice. A CIRCLE-2 research policy brief
Groot, A.M.E. ; Hollaender, K. ; Swart, R.J. - \ 2014
Lisbon/Portugal : Foundation of the Faculty of Sciences - 32
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - kennisoverdracht - milieubeleid - climatic change - climate adaptation - knowledge transfer - environmental policy
In the early stage of a project, it is important to account for a diversity of users. Policy makers and practitioners need to be distinguished from politicians, business managers and other actual decision-makers as they might have different information needs.
Climate variability and change in Ethiopia : exploring impacts and adaptation options for cereal production
Kassie, B.T. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): R.P. Rötter; Huib Hengsdijk; S. Asseng. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738370 - 183
zea mays - maïs - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - simulatiemodellen - onzekerheid - ethiopië - maize - climatic change - climate adaptation - simulation models - uncertainty - ethiopia

Key words: Climate change, Adaptation, Crop modelling, Uncertainty, Maize (Zea mays), Central Rift Valley.

Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia have been facing severe climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall and severe droughts that negativelyaffect their livelihoods.Anticipated climate change is expected to aggravate some of the existing challenges and impose new risks beyond the range of current experiences. This study aimed at understanding current climate variability and future climate change and associated impacts, and providing insights on current climate risk management strategies and future adaptation options for adapting agriculture, in particular maize production.The study was conducted in the Central Rift Valley, which represents major cereal-based farming systems of the semi-arid environments of Ethiopia. A second case study area, Kobo Valley was also used for additional analysis in part of the study. Empirical statistical analyses, field survey methods, and a systems analytical approach, using field experimental data in combination with crop-climate simulation modelling were used to achieve the objectives of the study.Crop growth simulation modelling was carried out using two well-accepted crop models, which is an innovative feature of the methodology used in this thesis.

The analysis revealed that rainfall exhibited high inter-annual variability (coefficient of variation 15-40%) during the period 1977-2007 in the CRV. The mean annual temperature significantly increased with 0.12 to 0.54 oC per decade during 1977-2007. Projections for future climate suggested that annual rainfall will change by -40 to +10% and the annual temperature is expected to increase in the range of 1.4 to 4.1 oC by 2080s. Simulated water-limited yields are characterized by high inter-annual variability (coefficient of variation 36%) and about 60% of this variability is explained by the variation in growing season rainfall. Actual yields of maize in the CRV are only 28-30% of the simulated water-limited yield. Analysis of climate change scenarios showed that maize yield will decrease on average by 20% in the 2050s relative to a baseline climate due to an increase in temperature and a decrease in growing season rainfall. The negative impact of climate change is very likely, however, the extent of the negative impact has some uncertainties ranging from -2 to -29% depending on crop model and climate change scenario. From the selection of models used, it was concluded that General Circulation Models to assess future climate are the most important source of uncertainty in this study.

In response to perceived impacts, farm households are implementing various coping and adaptation strategies. The most important current adaptive strategies include crop selection, adjusting planting time, in situ moisture conservation and income diversification. Lack of affordable technologies, high costs for agricultural inputs, lack of reliable information on weather forecasts, and insecure land tenure systems were identified as limiting factors of farmers’ adaptive capacity. The crop model-based evaluation of future adaptation options indicates that increasing nitrogen fertilization, use of irrigation and changes in planting dates can compensate for some of the negative impacts of climate change on maize production. Developing more heat tolerant and high yielding new cultivars is critical to sustain crop production under future climate change. It was clear from the study that enabling strategies targeted at agricultural inputs, credit supply, market access and strengthening of local knowledge and information services need to become an integral part of government policies to assist farmers in adapting to the impacts of current climate variability and future climate change.

Challenging barriers in the governance of climate change adaptation
Biesbroek, G.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pavel Kabat; Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Judith Klostermann. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738318 - 224
klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - governance - milieubeleid - climate adaptation - climatic change - environmental policy
Adaptation is considered to be a necessary response to manage the unavoidable impacts of climate change. Even though societies have always adapted to socioecological changes, climate change is expected to require additional adaptation efforts. Examples from policy practice demonstrate that adaptation is not a straightforward, barrier-free process. Removing these barriers is considered a precondition to ensure successful societal adaptation. The burgeoning literature on climate change adaptation has been unable to move beyond itemizing the barriers to adaptation and has developed static and linear views on how to overcome them. This thesis seeks to openup the black box of barriers in the governance of climate change adaptation by cycling between the empirical manifestation of barriers and the conceptual understanding of barriers so as to develop a meaningful way to analyse them. To this end, a combination of theories is used in a mixed method research design allowing for a robust and diverse exploration of the barriers to adaptation.
Population dynamics of Great Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) in the Netherlands: interaction effects of winter weather and habitat fragmentation
Cormont, A. ; Vos, C.C. ; Verboom-Vasiljev, J. ; Turnhout, C.A.M. van; Foppen, R.P.B. ; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 943 - 952.
ardeidae - fauna - populatiedynamica - klimaatverandering - winter - weersgegevens - habitatfragmentatie - klimaatadaptatie - nederland - population dynamics - climatic change - weather data - habitat fragmentation - climate adaptation - netherlands - climate-change - britain - variability - models - trends
The increased variability in weather as a manifestation of climate change is expected to have negative impacts on population survival in wildlife species, because it will likely lead to increased variation in vital demographic rates (mortality and reproduction) in these populations. For the effective protection of biodiversity, adaptation measures are needed to compensate for the expected increase in weather variability and the negative interaction with habitat fragmentation. As a case study, we studied the fluctuations in Great Bittern numbers (Botaurus stellaris) from 28 monitoring plots scattered over the Netherlands to explore the interaction between the effect of weather and possible remediating effects of the landscape structure. Great Bittern habitat surrounding these plots differs with respect to area, quality, and degree of isolation of this habitat. In western Europe, Great Bitterns are found to be susceptible to continuous loss of suitable habitat due to vegetation succession and fragmentation. Moreover, year-to-year fluctuations in local Great Bittern populations can be caused by severe winter weather or other weather extremes. Our results show that severe winter weather has indeed a significant negative impact on Great Bittern population growth rates. Furthermore, we found that an increased carrying capacity and spatial cohesion (i.e. inverse of habitat fragmentation) contribute to an increase in mean growth rates over the years. As growth rates are higher in large, well-connected habitats, we argue that recovery from negative effects of, e.g. severe winters on Great Bittern population numbers is enhanced in these less-fragmented habitats. We derived generic adaptation measures for enhancing the recovery rate of populations of species in general: one should invest in more large, well-connected nature areas, not only to diminish the negative effects of habitat fragmentation on wildlife populations, but additionally to reduce the impacts of climatic variability.
Analytical lenses on barriers in the governance of climate change adaptation
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2014
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 19 (2014)7. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 1011 - 1032.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - governance - opinies - climatic change - climate adaptation - opinions - decision-making - complexity theory - policy processes - wicked problems - value conflict - management - values - vulnerability - institutions - framework
Barriers to adaptation have become an important concept in scientific and political discussions in the governance of climate change adaptation. Over the past years, these discussions have been dominated by one analytical lens in examining barriers and proposing ways to overcome them: the problem solving lens. In this paper, we aim to demonstrate theoretically and empirically that the choice of analytical lens influences how barriers to adaptation are constructed and the intervention strategies proposed. Drawing from recent governance literature, we explore the rationale of three dominant philosophies in the study of governance: the optimist, the realist, and the pessimist philosophy. Next, we demonstrate how these philosophies are operationalized and guide scientific inquiry on barriers to adaptation through four empirically rooted analytical lenses: i) governance as problem solving, ii) governance as competing values and interests, iii) governance as institutional interaction, and iv) governance as dealing with structural constraints. We investigate the Dutch government’s Spatial Adaptation to Climate Change programme through each of the four lenses. We discuss how each analytical lens frames barriers in a specific way, identifies different causes of barriers, leads to competing interpretations of key events, and presents other types of interventions to overcome barriers. We conclude that it is necessary to increase analytical variety in order to critically engage in theoretical debates about barriers and to empower policy practitioners in their search for successful intervention strategies to implement adaptation measures
Climate-proof planning for flood-prone areas: assessing the adaptive capacity of planning institutions in the Netherlands
Brink, M.A. van den; Meijerink, S. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Gupta, J. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 981 - 995.
klimaatverandering - regionale planning - klimaatadaptatie - methodologie - zuid-holland - climatic change - regional planning - climate adaptation - methodology - water management - adaptation - vulnerability - leadership - assessments - resources
It is generally acknowledged that adapting lowlying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses problems for existing institutional and administrative structures, which are the product of times in which climate issues were of little importance. This paper assesses the capacity of the historically grown Dutch planning institutions to promote climate-proof planning for flood-prone areas. The Adaptive Capacity Wheel provides the methodological framework. The analysis focuses on two planning projects in the west of the Netherlands: the Zuidplas Polder project at the regional level and the Westergouwe project at the local level. It is shown that the planning institutions involved in these projects enable climate-proof planning, but to a limited extent. They face five institutional weaknesses that may cause risks on the long term. To climate-proof urban developments in flood-prone areas, it is necessary to break through the strong path–dependent development of planning institutions and to build in more flexibility in existing rules and procedures.
Participatory design of farm level adaptation to climate risks in an arable region in The Netherlands
Schaap, Ben - \ 2013
arable farming - climatic change - climate adaptation - crop yield - farming systems - farmers - participation - flevoland
Green infrastructure as a regional climate change adaptation strategy for dispersal-limited species
Hilbers, J.P. ; Vos, C.C. ; Teeffelen, A.J.A. van - \ 2013
klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - groene infrastructuur - biodiversiteit - plattelandsplanning - landschapsplanning - nederland - climate adaptation - climatic change - green infrastructure - biodiversity - rural planning - landscape planning - netherlands
Poster presented at the European Climate Change Adaptation Conference 18-20 March 2013, Hamburg, Germany.
Framework for guiding monitoring and evaluation of climate adaptation policies and projects
Sandt, K.H. van de; Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Minnen, J. van; Pieterse, N. ; Bree, L. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Alterra - 58
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - besluitvorming - climate adaptation - regional planning - decision making
In this report we present a detailed framework of what could become a generally applicable monitoring and evaluation method to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of climate adaptation policies.
Verslag workshops Friese Veenweidevisie
Janssen, R. ; Eikelboom, T. ; Brouns, K. ; Jansen, P. ; Kwakernaak, C. ; Verhoeven, J. - \ 2013
Utrecht : Kennis voor Klimaat - 140
veenweiden - veengronden - bodemdaling - klimaatadaptatie - waterkwaliteit - landgebruik - scenario-analyse - friesland - peat grasslands - peat soils - subsidence - climate adaptation - water quality - land use - scenario analysis
Waterschap en provincie werken aan een Veenweidevisie voor Friesland. In de Veenweidevisie vormt de zorg over de toenemende snelheid van de maaivelddaling en het verlies van de veenbodem een centraal aandachtspunt. Voor het verkennen van de problemen en oplossingen zijn streekbijeenkomsten georganiseerd. Drie scenario’s zijn voor de toekomst van de veenweiden in Friesland beschreven. Deze drie scenario’s zijn voor drie voorbeeldgebieden, Hommerts, Grote Veenpolder en het Buitenveld, uitgewerkt in drie workshops.
Kennis voor Regionale Adaptatiestrategieën in veenweidegebieden - een digitale handleiding
Kwakernaak, Cees - \ 2013
peat grasslands - peat soils - climate adaptation - knowledge transfer - internet - friesland - groene hart
Regionale adaptatiestrategieën in Friese veenweidegebieden
Janssen, R. ; Kwakernaak, C. ; Verhoeven, J.T.A. - \ 2013
[Utrecht] : Kennis voor Klimaat - 136
veenweiden - veengronden - bodemdaling - klimaatadaptatie - waterkwaliteit - landgebruik - waterbeheer - friesland - scenario-analyse - peat grasslands - peat soils - subsidence - climate adaptation - water quality - land use - water management - scenario analysis
Op basis van berekende (verlaagde) maaiveldhoogten in 2050 en 2100 heeft het waterschap berekend, met het grondwatermodel MIPWA, wat het effect zal zijn van de maaivelddaling op de grondwaterstanden in het veenweidegebied en de omgeving. Vooral in de zandgronden van de Friese Wouden zal de maaivelddaling kunnen leiden tot een forse grondwaterstandsdaling en dus verdroging. Daarnaast is in samenwerking met het waterschap een notitie gemaakt over de effecten van klimaatverandering en mogelijke adaptatiemaatregelen op de waterkwaliteit van het oppervlaktewater in Friesland.
Participatory monitoring as a tool for climate adaptation policy
Kuindersma, Wiebren - \ 2013
climatic change - climate adaptation - governance - monitoring
Linking good agricultural practices and climate smart agriculture
Verhagen, A. ; Hengsdijk, H. ; Bezlepkina, I. ; Groenestein, K. ; Klooster, K. van 't - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Report / Plant Research International 536) - 42
klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - landbouw - voedselproductie - duurzame landbouw - voedselveiligheid - certificering - climate adaptation - climatic change - agriculture - food production - sustainable agriculture - food safety - certification
Recently, the concept of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) was introduced to position agriculture and food security in relation to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) with the aim to create cleaner and safer production systems and products has been around for a while. Because the goals of CSA and GAP ultimately need to be achieved by farmers it is logical to link and integrate CSA goals with Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). This report provides some insight in how this can be done and uses cases to illustrate some of the issues.
Planning by surprise: Designing for climate adaptation : plannning for the unthinkable
Timmermans, W. ; Koolen, A. ; Dorp, D. van; Branderhorst, A. - \ 2013
Velp : Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences (Planning by surprise ) - ISBN 9789068240399 - 48
ruimtelijke ordening - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - regionale planning - physical planning - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - regional planning
Climate change adaptation measures in the sectors of agriculture, water and nature management - A review for cool temperate regions
Karali, E. ; Vos, C.C. ; Rounsevell, M.D.A. ; Reidsma, P. - \ 2013
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - landbouw - waterbeheer - natuurbeheer - gematigde klimaatzones - climatic change - climate adaptation - agriculture - water management - nature management - temperate zones
Abstract about the authors' review of literature about climate adaptation measures applied in cool temperate regions.
Mediation and the Adaptation Challenge: Identifying appropriate methods and tools
Swart, R.J. ; Singh, T. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra
klimaatadaptatie - beleidsprocessen - beleidsondersteuning - climate adaptation - policy processes - policy support
The MEDIATION project guides researchers, policy advisors and experts to suitable climate change adaptation methods and tools for a wide range of questions and from various disciplines and perspectives. The project involves 11 partners and 11 case studies. Summaries of five of these case studies can be found in the present publication.
The role of knowledge and power in climate change adaptation governance: a systematic literature review
Vink, M.J. ; Dewulf, A. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2013
Ecology and Society 18 (2013)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - governance - overheidsbeleid - climatic change - climate adaptation - government policy - adaptive capacity - cayman islands - policy - vulnerability - africa - future
The long-term character of climate change and the high costs of adaptation measures, in combination with their uncertain effects, turn climate adaptation governance into a torturous process. We systematically review the literature on climate adaptation governance to analyze the scholarly understanding of these complexities. Building on governance literature about long-term and complex policy problems, we develop a conceptual matrix based on the dimensions knowledge and power to systematically study the peer-reviewed literature on climate adaptation governance. We find that about a quarter of the reviewed journal articles do not address the knowledge or power dimension of the governance of climate change adaptation, about half of the articles discuss either the knowledge or the power dimension, and another quarter discuss both knowledge and power. The articles that do address both knowledge and power (1) conceptualize the governance of climate adaptation mainly as a complex system of regulatory frameworks and technical knowledge, (2) assume that regulatory systems can be easily adapted to new knowledge, (3) pay little attention to fluid or unorganized forms of power, e.g., negotiation, and knowledge, e.g., learning, and (4) largely neglect the interplay between the two. We argue that more research on this interplay is needed, and we discuss how puzzling and powering are a promising pair of concepts to study this.
Klimaatverandering, bosbeheer en natuurbranden
Schelhaas, Mart-Jan - \ 2013
climatic change - precipitation - temperature - forest administration - climate adaptation - wildfires
A spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity to global change in Europe
Acosta, L. ; Klein, R.J.T. ; Reidsma, P. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Rounsevell, M.D.A. ; Leemans, R. - \ 2013
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 23 (2013)5. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 1211 - 1224.
klimaatverandering - scenario-analyse - modellen - klimaatadaptatie - europa - climatic change - scenario analysis - models - climate adaptation - europe - quantitative vulnerability assessment - fuzzy-set-theory - land-use change - climate-change - environmental-change - adaptation - indicators - growth - susceptibility - uncertainty
Traditional impact models combine exposure in the form of scenarios and sensitivity in the form of parameters, providing potential impacts of global change as model outputs. However, adaptive capacity is rarely addressed in these models. This paper presents the first spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity, which can be combined with impact models to support quantitative vulnerability assessment. The adaptive capacity model is based on twelve socio-economic indicators, each of which is projected into the future using four global environmental change scenarios, and then aggregated into an adaptive capacity index in a stepwise approach using fuzzy set theory
Klimaattoets herijking EHS Gelderland
Geertsema, W. ; Vos, C.C. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Eupen, M. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2424) - 88
ecologische hoofdstructuur - klimaatverandering - oppervlaktewater - klimaatadaptatie - bodemkwaliteit - gelderland - ecological network - climatic change - surface water - climate adaptation - soil quality
De herijkte EHS in de provincie Gelderland is getoetst op klimaatbestendigheid. De kwetsbaarheid van abiotische, biotische en ruimtelijke criteria zijn kwalitatief beoordeeld. Per regio zijn aanbevelingen voor adaptatiemaatregelen geformuleerd. Voortvarende uitvoering bestaand beleid voor verbetering van abiotische condities en inzetten op integrale aanpak binnen klimaatcorridors verdienen aanbeveling. Daarnaast is verdere uitwerking binnen een aantal regio’s en grensoverschrijdend met Duitsland aan te bevelen.
facing the challenges of climate change and food security : the role of research, extension and communication for development
Leeuwis, C. ; Hall, A. ; Weperen, W. van; Preissing, J. - \ 2013
[Rome] : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Occasional papers on Innovation in Family Farming ) - ISBN 9789251077382 - 38
klimaatverandering - voedselzekerheid - innovaties - klimaatadaptatie - climatic change - food security - innovations - climate adaptation
In line with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) this study defines climate change as any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. This report is a shortened version of the final study report, produced on request of FAO. The purpose of the shortened report is twofold: (1) to serve as a planning document to sharpen the climate change focus of research, extension and communication for development institutions (including FAO’s) in developing effective and relevant support activities for their partners and (2) to communicate the climate change support activities implemented by FAO in this field to potential partners and inform them about possible strategies and specific approaches that will enhance the role of extension, research and communication institutions and services for climate change adaptation (CCA). Besides introduction into the topic (section 1) the report discusses the context of climate change adaptation and its linkages with food security (section 2) and the analytical framework which has been used for the study (section 3). Subsequently, lessons learned from the case studies (section 4) are presented. A sketch of a new-style role for agriculture innovation support service agencies, including FAO (section 5) is provided. Finally, Annex 1 provides a more detailed conceptual framework linking agriculture innovation to the work of research, extension and communication for development.
Trade-offs between biodiversity and flood protection services of coastal salt marshes
Loon-Steensma, J.M. van; Vellinga, P. - \ 2013
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5 (2013)3-4. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 320 - 326.
zoutmoerassen - kustgebieden - herstelbeheer - ecosysteemdiensten - hoogwaterbeheersing - klimaatadaptatie - biodiversiteit - natuurbeheer - salt marshes - coastal areas - restoration management - ecosystem services - flood control - climate adaptation - biodiversity - nature management - sea-level rise - vegetation - ecosystems - wetlands - sedimentation - restoration - attenuation - management - dynamics - systems
Coastal salt marshes provide a range of ecosystem services. However, their area is steadily diminishing as a result of human-made modifications to the coastal zone. The accelerated rise of sea level is another challenge to the self-generating capacity of coastal salt marshes. This is a subject of extensive research, leading to conservation and restoration strategies. The value of salt marshes as a natural sea defense is an area of growing interest as well. This article reviews salt-marsh restoration options described in the literature, including the idea of sediment nourishment on the scale of the estuary or lagoon as a whole. It then considers trade-offs between enhancement of salt marshes’ flood protection service and the ecological quality of the ecosystem
Thresholds, tipping and turning points for sustainability under climate change
Werners, S.E. ; Pfenninger, S. ; Slobbe, E.J.J. van; Haasnoot, M. ; kwakkel, J.H. ; Swart, R.J. - \ 2013
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5 (2013)3-4. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 334 - 340.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - onzekerheidsanalyse - climatic change - climate adaptation - uncertainty analysis - social-ecological systems - decision-making - policy-makers - adaptation - science - uncertainty - information - world - transitions - 4-degrees-c
We review four bodies of literature that suggest that thresholds, tipping and turning points are important focal points for sustainability under climate change that can help bridge the science–policy interface. For decision-makers a critical threshold is reached, the moment that climate change renders policy untenable and alternative strategies must be considered.
We review four bodies of literature that suggest that thresholds, tipping and turning points are important focal points for sustainability under climate change that can help bridge the science-policy interface. For decision-makers a critical threshold is reached, the moment that climate change renders policy untenable and alternative strategies must be considered. A focus on thresholds and tipping points allows for a salient and credible dialogue between decision-makers and scientists about the amount of acceptable change, when unacceptable conditions could occur, how likely these conditions are and what adaptation pathways to consider. Uncertainty can be communicated as the time range in which a critical threshold is likely to be exceeded.
Contrasting frames in policy debates on climate change adaptation
Dewulf, A. - \ 2013
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 4 (2013)4. - ISSN 1757-7780 - p. 321 - 330.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - governance - climatic change - climate adaptation - environmental security - scale frames - discourse - vulnerability - impacts - connection - management - attention - conflict
The process by which issues, decisions, or events acquire different meanings from different perspectives has been studied as framing. In policy debates about climate change adaptation, framing the adaptation issue is a challenge with potentially farreaching implications for the shape and success of adaptation projects. From the available literature on howthemeaning of climate change adaptation is constructed and debated, three key dimensions of frame differences were identified: (1) the tension between adaptation and mitigation as two contrasting but interrelated perspectives on climate change; (2) the contrast between framing climate change adaptation as a tame technical problem, and framing climate change as a wicked problem of governance; and (3) the framing of climate change adaptation as a security issue, contrasting state security frames with human security frames. It is argued that the study of how climate change adaptation gets framed could be enriched by connecting these dimensions more closely with the following themes in framing research: (1) how decision-making biases that to framing issues as structured technical problems; (2) the process of scale framing by which issues are situated at a particular scale level; and (3) the challenge of dealing with the variety of frames in adaptation processes
Regelbare drainage als schakel in toekomstbestendig waterbeheer : bundeling van resultaten van onderzoek, ervaringen en indrukken, opgedaan in binnen- en buitenland
Stuyt, L.C.P.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen [etc.] : Alterra [etc.] (Alterra-rapport 2370) - 4188
drainage - ontwateren - grondwaterstand - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - peilbeheer - klimaatadaptatie - nutriëntenuitspoeling - infiltratie - natuurgebieden - dewatering - groundwater level - farm management - water level management - climate adaptation - nutrient leaching - infiltration - natural areas
De sinds 1950 ontwikkelde kennis over de functionaliteit van (samengestelde) regelbare drainagesystemen, uitgedrukt in effecten op de gewasopbrengst en de lokale en regionale water- en stoffenbalans, wordt gerapporteerd, met de nadruk op enkele recente Nederlandse projecten.
Governance of wicked climate adaptation problems
Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Dewulf, A. ; Breeman, G.E. - \ 2013
In: Climate Change Governance / Knieling, J., Filho, W.L., Berlin : Springer (Climate change management ) - ISBN 9783642298301 - p. 27 - 39.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - probleemanalyse - governance - climatic change - climate adaptation - problem analysis
Climate change adaptation has been called a “wicked problem par excellence.” Wicked problems are hard to define because ‘the formulation of the problem is the problem; they are considered a symptom of another problem; they are highly resistant to solutions and extremely interconnected with other problems. Climate change problems are even more complex because they lack a well-structured policy domain, and knowledge about climate change is uncertain and contested. Given the wicked characteristics of the climate issue and its particular challenges, the question is which theories are useful starting points for the governance of climate adaptation? The chapter distinguishes between theories and concepts that focus on reflexivity, on resilience, on responsiveness and on revitalisation. Instead of integrating these theories in one overarching governance approach, the chapter suggests an approach of theoretical multiplicity. It proposes that exploiting the variety of concepts and strategies based on the different theories can increase the governance capacity to deal with climate change. Finally, it addresses the moral dimension of wicked problems, which suggests that it is unacceptable to treat a wicked problem as though it were a tame one. Governance scholars nowadays risk raising expectations far beyond their ability to deliver, and thus enhance confusions over whether wicked problems are in fact tame ones.
Climate change adaptation in agriculture: an integrated assessment
Reidsma, P. ; Schaap, B.F. ; Kanellopoulos, A. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2012
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - landbouw - gewasopbrengst - bedrijfssystemen - milieufactoren - beoordeling - nederland - climatic change - climate adaptation - agriculture - crop yield - farming systems - environmental factors - assessment - netherlands
Poster presented at the Knowledge for Climate Midterm Assessment, 4 October 2012, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Climate change adaptation in agriculture: multi-scale modelling and stakeholder participation in the Netherlands
Schaap, B.F. ; Reidsma, P. ; Ewert, F. ; Kanellopoulos, A. ; Mandryk, M. ; Verhagen, A. ; Wolf, J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2012
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - landbouw - multi-stakeholder processen - participatie - nederland - climatic change - climate adaptation - agriculture - multi-stakeholder processes - participation - netherlands
Poster presented at the Knowledge for Climate Midterm Assessment, 4 October 2012, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Climate Adaptation for Rural Areas
Brink, A. van den - \ 2012
Programme Office Knowledge for Climate (Knowledge for Climate 59)
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - platteland - onderzoek - nederland - climatic change - climate adaptation - rural areas - research - netherlands
Powerpoint presentation on KfC 59/2012
Reconciling innovative knowledge partnerships with existing institutions: the Dutch Knowledge for Climate program
Termeer, Katrien - \ 2012
climatic change - climate adaptation
Handling adaptation governance choices in Sweden, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands
Huitema, D. ; Mees, H. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Storbjörk, S. ; Garrelts, H. ; Grecksch, K. ; Winges, M. ; Rayner, T. - \ 2012
Amsterdam : Institute for Environmental Studies - 62
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - milieubeleid - nederland - duitsland - zweden - verenigd koninkrijk - climatic change - climate adaptation - environmental policy - netherlands - germany - sweden - uk
This document presents an overview of climate adaptation policies in four countries: Sweden, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands. The present report presents a collection of the papers that were discussed during a workshop with the international partners
Visualising complex climate information for spatial adaptation planning : towards a guiding information visualisation framework
Groot, M.A.M. de - \ 2012
Kennis voor Klimaat
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - beslissingsmodellen - visualisatie - climate adaptation - regional planning - decision models - visualization
This research investigates how visualizations can contribute to information supply for the design phase of the adaptation planning process. The main research question reads: How can we improve visualizations in order to make given spatial information on climate change impacts more relevant for policy makers in the design phase of the adaptation planning process?
Decision support tools : midterm review report Knowledge for Climate Theme 8
Ierland, E.C. van - \ 2012
Wageningen : Knowledge for Climate - 53
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - scenario-analyse - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - climatic change - climate adaptation - scenario analysis - decision support systems
The KfC program Decision Support Tools aims at improving tools for design and evaluation of adaptation strategies with a special focus on spatial planning and cross cutting issues. The program focuses on three core elements 1. tools for formulation of the adaptation task, based on climate scenarios and economic development 2. tools for development and visualization of adaptation strategies in general and in particular related to hotspots and case study areas of KfC; and 3. evaluation and monitoring tools for assessing adaptation strategies in terms of various indicators such as costs and benefits; side effects; equity issues; efficiency and temporal and spatial scales.
Hotspot Mainport Schiphol : midterm review report
Döpp, S. ; Brink, P. van den; Hartogensis, O.K. ; Jacobs, A. ; Homan, C. ; Sondij, J. - \ 2012
Utrecht : Knowledge for Climate Programme Office - 21
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - luchthavens - klimaatfactoren - windsnelheid - haarlemmermeer - climatic change - climate adaptation - airports - climatic factors - wind speed
The focus of Knowledge for Climate (KfC) research in Hotspot Schiphol Mainport is to optimize the contribution of meteorological services to a sustainable operation and reliable operation of Schiphol airport. Three research projects have been carried out in the first tranche of the Knowledge for Climate programme on climate change and local critical weather conditions at Mainport Schiphol. Two projects (IMPACT and WindVisions) will be continued in the second tranche of the programme, in the Knowledge for Climate consortium High-Quality Climate Projections (Theme 6). This report presents a summary of the main results of the first tranche projects, and an outlook on the expected end results of the second tranche research at the end of the programme in 2014.
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