Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Integrated assessment of farm level adaptation to climate change in agriculture : an application to Flevoland, The Netherlands
Mandryk, M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Pytrik Reidsma; Bas Arts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576612 - 155 p.
climate adaptation - climatic change - agriculture - farm structure - farming systems - future - klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - landbouw - bedrijfsstructuur in de landbouw - bedrijfssystemen - toekomst
The findings of the thesis allowed assessing plausible futures of agriculture in Flevoland around 2050 with insights in effective adaptation to climate change at different levels. Besides empirical findings, this thesis contributed methodologically to the portfolio of climate change impact and adaptation assessment. Overall, this thesis performed a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account crop, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multi-objective) and participatory assessment. The following features have been elaborated in this thesis to better assess the context of farm level impact and adaptation: analysis of long term farm structural change, assessment of farmers’ multiple objectives, assessment of contribution of crop and farm level adaptation measures to improvement of farm performance on important objectives, and an analysis on institutional feasibility of implementation of adaptation measures.
Succes- en faalfactoren Agrarisch Waterbeheer
Breman, B.C. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Noij, I.G.A.M. ; Vleemingh, M.P.I. ; Ellen, G.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2718) - 37 p.
waterbeheer - waterschappen - kaderrichtlijn water - water - landbouw - klimaatadaptatie - water management - polder boards - water framework directive - agriculture - climate adaptation
Dit rapport is het resultaat van een verkenning naar succes- en faalfactoren van agrarisch waterbeheer. Bij agrarisch waterbeheer nemen agrarisch ondernemers zelfstandig, of in samenwerking met anderen, bovenwettelijke maatregelen op het eigen bedrijf, gericht op de opgaven ten aanzien van waterkwaliteit, waterkwantiteit en/of biodiversiteit. Gezien de aard van de wateropgaven in Nederland is het belangrijk dat dit agrarisch waterbeheer goed van de grond komt. Belangrijke succesfactoren daarbij zijn onder andere dat: (1) agrarisch waterbeheer breed wordt benaderd en dat er ook voldoende aandacht is voor waterkwantiteit en de relatie met het bedrijfssysteem; (2) dat agrarisch waterbeheer wordt benaderd als een gezamenlijke opgave waarin uiteenlopende partijen samen werken en verantwoordelijkheid delen; (3) er gekozen wordt voor een meersporenbenadering met onderscheid tussen een gebiedsgerichte-, collectieve-, thematische- en sectorale benadering en (4) dat het financieel en juridisch instrumentarium (o.a. POP3) beter wordt afgestemd op de praktijk van agrarisch waterbeheer.
Eco-districts : can they accelerate urban climate planning?
Fitzgerald, Joan ; Lenhart, Jennifer - \ 2016
Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 34 (2016)2. - ISSN 0263-774X - p. 364 - 380.
climate adaptation - climate mitigation - environmental governance - environmental policy - local climate action

Despite signing the Mayors Climate Change Agreement, few US cities have made significant progress in either climate mitigation or adaptation. For the most part, European cities have been more effective, albeit with assistance from the European Union and their national governments. Several of the most successful European cities have implemented eco-districts, which have offered many lessons for overall sustainability planning. Using Malmö, Sweden as a case study, we ask how planners and elected officials learned from implementing an eco-district, focusing on experimentation with new technologies and approaches to planning. We identify how “double-loop learning”, a term coined by Argyris and Shön, was at play in changing planning practice. As eco-districts are catching on in North American cities, there is much to be learned from European practice.

Stimuli for municipal responses to climate adaptation: insights from Philadelphia – an early adapter
Uittenbroek, C.J. ; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie ; Runhaar, H.A.C. - \ 2016
International Journal of Climate change Strategies and Management 8 (2016)1. - ISSN 1756-8692 - p. 38 - 56.
climate adaptation - stimuli - governance approaches - Philadelphia - institutional entrepreneurship - political leadership
An in-depth understanding of these stimuli is currently lacking in literature as most research has focussed on overcoming barriers to climate adaptation. The aim of this paper is to identify stimuli for municipal responses to climate adaptation and examine how they influence the governance approach to addressing climate adaptation through explorative case study research. Fort this, an early adapter was selected as case: Philadelphia (USA). By reconstructing the organization of two municipal responses to climate adaptation in this city, we have been able to identify stimuli and gain insight in the city’s governance approach. The reconstruction is based on data triangulation that consists of semi-structured interviews with actors involved in these responses, policy documents and newspaper articles. The research illustrates the importance of stimuli such as strategically framing climate adaptation within wider urban agendas, political leadership and institutional entrepreneurs. Moreover the research reveals that it is the combination of stimuli that influences the governance approach to climate adaptation. Some stimuli will trigger a dedicated approach to climate adaptation, while others initiate a mainstreaming approach. This research is important especially to municipalities to recognize stimuli within their own (policy) context and subsequently, make informed decisions to exploit all or some of these stimuli to initiate a governance approach to climate adaptation.
The role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation : A comparison of adaptation practices initiated by governmental and non-governmental actors
Meijerink, Sander ; Stiller, Sabina ; Keskitalo, E.C.H. ; Scholten, Peter ; Smits, Robert ; Lamoen, Frank van - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 25 - 37.
Adaptation to climate change - Complexity theory - Leadership - Multi-level governance - Water governance - climate adaptation - governance - regional planning - international comparisons - water management - provinces - municipalities - netherlands - germany - uk - klimaatadaptatie - leiderschap - regionale planning - internationale vergelijkingen - waterbeheer - provincies - gemeenten - nederland - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk

This paper aims to better understand the role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation. We first present a framework, which distinguishes five functions of leadership within inter-organizational networks: the connective, enabling, adaptive, political–administrative and dissemination functions. Next, we compare the role of leadership in two examples of regional adaptation practices which were initiated by governmental actors with two examples which were initiated by non-governmental actors. The case studies are located in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Our research question is twofold: to what extent can the five functions of leadership be identified in practices of climate change adaptation, and are there differences in the patterns of leadership between adaptation practices which are initiated by governmental and by non-governmental actors? The study shows that although all leadership functions were fulfilled in all four cases, patterns of leadership were different and the fulfilment of leadership functions posed different challenges to non-governmental actors and governmental actors.

Naar de klimaattop
Kleis, R. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Fresco, L.O. ; Spijkerman, A. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 14 - 15.
conferenties - klimaatverandering - klimaat - klimaatadaptatie - milieuwetenschappen - wetenschappers - studenten - duurzame ontwikkeling - conferences - climatic change - climate - climate adaptation - environmental sciences - scientists - students - sustainable development
In de periferie van de VN-klimaatconferentie, van 30 november tot en met 11 december in Parijs, wemelt het van de bijeenkomsten en side-events. Ook Wageningen UR levert haar bijdrage aan dit marktplein van de klimaatwetenschap. Enkele tientallen wetenschappers en studenten trekken naar Parijs om hun boodschap te verkondigen. Op deze pagina’s een kleine greep.
Adaptation and acclimation of seed performance
Souza Vidigal, D. De - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harro Bouwmeester, co-promotor(en): Leonie Bentsink; Henk Hilhorst. - Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575943 - 156
zaden - zaadkwaliteit - zaadkieming - klimaatverandering - adaptatie - arabidopsis - kiemrust - klimaatadaptatie - seeds - seed quality - seed germination - climatic change - adaptation - seed dormancy - climate adaptation
Wat te doen tegen de toename van overstromingsrisico's in de toekomst? : handelingsperspectieven voor beleid en beheer afgeleid uit het onderzoek naar toekomstbestendige overstromingsrisicobeheersing van Kennis voor Klimaat
Klijn, F. ; Maarse, M. ; Kok, M. ; Loon-Steensma, J.M. van; Moel, H. de; Mulder, J. - \ 2015
Amersfoort : Stowa (STOWA-rapportnummer 2015-33) - ISBN 9789057737213 - 123
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - overstromingen - overstromingstolerantie - hoogwaterbeheersing - waterbeheer - risicovermindering - nederland - climatic change - climate adaptation - floods - flooding tolerance - flood control - water management - risk reduction - netherlands
Het klimaat verandert en de zeespiegel stijgt. Daarover bestaat geen twijfel, hoewel er nog wel onzekerheid bestaat over de snelheid van de veranderingen, en soms over de precieze richting daarvan. Ondanks deze onzekerheden is het verstandig te anticiperen op wat komen gaat. Daar zijn we in Nederland dan ook al volop mee bezig. In de afgelopen jaren is in diverse projecten en programma’s zoals Kennis voor Klimaat, het Deltaprogramma en STOWA/Deltaproof, veel kennis opgedaan over mogelijke strategieën om ons aan te passen aan de veranderende klimatologische omstandigheden. Maar hoe zien dergelijke adaptatiestrategieën er precies uit en hoe kom je tot een concrete invulling? Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van concrete maatregelen die kunnen worden ingezet bij adaptatie in verband met de toenemende overstromingsrisico’s. Het rapport richt zich vooral op wat gemeenten, provincies en waterschappen kunnen doen.
Strategies to adapt to climate change in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: landscape impact assessment for on-farm adaptation
Bitew, A.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Keesstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574625 - 170
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - landschap - impact - ecologische beoordeling - ethiopië - climatic change - climate adaptation - landscape - ecological assessment - ethiopia

PhD Thesis Title: Strategies to adapt to climate change in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: landscape impact assessment for on-farm adaptation


Alemayehu Muluneh Bitew

Agriculture and the economies of Ethiopia are highly sensitive to climatic fluctuations. Rainfall is the most important determinant of Ethiopia’s economic success or failure from year to year. A 10% decrease in seasonal rainfall from the long-term average generally translates into a 4.4% decrease in the country’s food production. Studies indicate that future climate change scenario by 2050 could also cause Ethiopian GDP to be 8-10% smaller than under a no-climate change baseline. The Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia is a potential food producing area and yet one of the most drought prone areas in the country and already face an enormous food security challenge. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to quantify changes in current and future growing season rainfall characteristics including rainfall extremes and to evaluate their impacts with the intension of evaluating and developing potential adaptation options for maize cropping in the drought-prone CRV of Ethiopia. Projections for future climate in the CRV suggested that the Belg rainfall which is already erratic, occurring very late or failing altogether for the current climate will continue to decrease during the rest of this century which makes future Belg crop production very difficult. But, the Kiremt season total rainfall is likely to show an increase. Our field experiment and modelling has proven that for the current climate and future projections supplemental irrigation can avoid total crop failure in drought years and is a viable option to improve food security in the Rift Valley dry lands of Ethiopia. Furthermore, shifting sowing period of maize from the current Belg season (April or May) to the first month of Kiremt season (June) can offset the predicted yield reduction caused by climate change.

Navigating frames : a study of the interplay between meaning and power in policy deliberations over adaptation to climate change
Vink, M.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Art Dewulf. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574694 - 230
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - waterbeleid - governance - beleid - climatic change - climate adaptation - water policy - policy


The PhD thesis is inspired by the rapid rise in political attention on climate change from 2005 onwards, followed by the media hype known as ‘climategate’ and the subsequent fall in attention afterwards. The polarisation in the public debate between so-called activists and deniers shows that climate change is a classroom example of what scholars in policy and planning define as a wicked or unstructured problem. This type of problem is characterised by a wide variety of societal understandings or frames through which new knowledge is interpreted. Governing wicked problems is a tricky process and has a history of policy conflict and controversy. In this thesis, I aim to elucidate the process and outcomes of governing adaptation to climate change. I do so by focusing on the social interactions of public and private players in governance and how they develop meanings and related policy outcomes through their frame interactions.

The thesis starts with the notion that adapting to the long-term and uncertain character of climate change results in a special type of governing, especially in the context of the little institutionalised policy domain and the wide variety of societal frames involved. Governing adaptation to climate change involves careful monitoring of policy direction, speed, and societal current in relation to scientific projections and societal sensemaking of what climate impacts might be ahead. Navigating climate change therefore metaphorically boils down to a form of dead reckoning, a systemised method of monitoring course, speed, and current through which sailors in the 15th century used to navigate their ships into the unknown.

Navigating hierarchically organised ships, however, is different from steering plural democratically organised societies. In policy sciences, this process of governing long-term policy issues in plural societies is traditionally defined as a dynamic process of both puzzling over what the issue means to society and powering to get things done. Puzzling and powering are broadly defined as interrelated; new meanings might alter actors’ positions and corresponding policy outcomes, and changing power positions might alter societal understandings of what is at stake. Processes of puzzling and powering are considered to vary across traditions of state organisation and related institutional arrangements.

In the climate adaptation governance literature however, the governance process is differently defined. Scholars define governance of adaptation to climate change as a matter of getting the knowledge system right to design the right policies, and getting the institutional system right to enforce the policies. This static approach does not show an interrelated or dynamic understanding of actor-centred processes based on sensemaking and positioning. Other scholars define climate adaptation as a matter of developing the right knowledge, creating legitimacy, or enhancing justness through deliberative or participatory approaches to governing, but seem to neglect the need for power organisation to get things done.

To be able to contribute to both the policy sciences and the climate adaptation governance literature, the thesis opens up the black box of climate adaptation governance by zooming in on the actual policy deliberations in four concrete governance cases in different institutional arrangements and traditions of state organisation. To do so, I propose frame interactions as a means for better understanding the traditionally defined interplay between processes of puzzling over meaning and powering over positions in different institutional contexts. This results in the following central research question:

In what way do frame interactions construct interplaying processes of puzzling over meaning and powering over positions in different institutional arrangements occupied with governing societal adaptation to climate change?

Research design

To investigate and compare the frame interaction processes in different institutional arrangements and state traditions, I started with a distant view towards frame developments in official water policy proposals over time. Using longitudinal frame analysis, I discussed these developments against the backdrop of a rise and fall in societal attention to climate change. Subsequently, I systematically assessed the scholarly approaches in making sense of climate adaptation governance. Inspired by both the developments in official policy framing over time and the different theoretical approaches to governance of adaptation to climate change, I opened the black box of frame developments and frame interactions in concrete governance practices. I adopted explorative case study research to get an in-depth understanding of the governance processes. By participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, and longitudinal frame analysis of policy deliberations in four different case studies, I was able to get in-depth understanding of governance processes in different institutional contexts. Because my research was embedded in the Dutch research programme Knowledge for Climate, which centres on climate adaptation governance challenges in the Dutch context, I took this Dutch context as my point of departure. The lowland delta nature of most of the Dutch territory makes the country potentially vulnerable to climate- related issues. Climate change poses governance challenges to delta regions in general, for which the Dutch delta might be an interesting illustration and an interesting case for academic inspiration and cross-national comparison.

In terms of institutional arrangements, Dutch adaptation to climate change empirically shows continuities as well as discontinuities with the traditional Dutch cornerstone of dealing with collective action problems through poldering. In two selected case studies, climate adaptation is mainstreamed in existing poldering approaches and follows what is traditionally defined as a neo-corporatist state tradition. In neo-corporatism, a limited number of traditionally defined organised interests negotiate with the state in an institutionalised fashion. One selected case study shows signs of discontinuity with this traditional approach, allowing for more ad hoc deliberation with a much wider and less organised array of stakeholders and societal actors, known as deliberative governance. This approach follows the pleas in the contemporary climate adaptation governance literature for more participation. To understand the implications of state traditions for framing processes, I compare the selected case studies with a fourth selected case study of a similar deliberative governance initiative in the pluralist state tradition of the UK. Pluralism entails less state involvement in policymaking, but more central coordination of societally initiated policy actions through national legislation.


From a distant view, I show how policy frames evolve over time as an ongoing long-term conversation between policy proposals. Zooming in on four case studies reveals a wide array of frames in governance processes, which can be classified according to the scales addressed in the frames, and the nature of the issues framed. In relation to framing the nature of the issue, two archetypical frames can be defined: technical frames and political frames. Frame interactions shape learning processes, but due to the inclusion and exclusion effect of frames they can never be viewed without more conflict-based notions on policymaking. Counterintuitively, technical frames appear to change power positions, but, in the same counterintuitive way, political frames allow for puzzling over roles and responsibilities as well. Therefore, the thesis shows how meaning alters power positions and frame interactions affect substantial and relational outcomes. I show how these insights complicate what I define as the system assessment approach, which is dominant in the climate adaptation governance literature. Frames appear to do things in climate adaptation governance processes, from which I conclude that frames navigate climate adaptation.

In addition to frame interactions as a puzzling and powering interplay, I show how a second interplay might be defined between institutions and frame interactions. Different institutional arrangements yield different frame interactions and outcomes. Institutional arrangements determine the rules of what can be defined as a framing game over wicked problems. Institutions also determine who is playing what framing game and therefore determine player dependencies. Institutions interplay with frame interactions, and may create the preconditions for effectively navigating the wide array of frames in climate adaptation governance. Without institutional demarcation of roles and responsibilities, the framing game might allow for new players and knowledge, but risks becoming gratuitous. In little institutionalised deliberative governance contexts without central coordination, frame interactions are likely to yield a dominant self-referential technical framing which empowers experts and promises technical efficiency solutions to a wicked problem. These contexts might yield the preconditions for what I define as a political bystander effect in deliberative governance. In addition, I show how state traditions play a role in what institutional arrangements yield what type of frame interactions. Therefore, I conclude that institutional arrangements in combination with state traditions play a role in how the variety of climate adaptation frames can be navigated.

These findings point towards my most important recommendations. For future research, I would suggest further investigation of: (1) the possible emergence of a dominant technical framing in deliberative governance; (2) the extent to which this framing might point towards what other scholars have labelled self-reinforcing frames; (3) related political bystander effects in specific combinations of governance arrangements, policy issues, and state traditions. In relation to that, my most important recommendations to policymakers are: (1) be aware of the variety of frames in governance, (2) be aware of state traditions, (3) choose the right institutional arrangement, and (4) be modest in depoliticising wicked problems. In general, my recommendation would be to frame climate adaptation as an ongoing process of dead reckoning, which allows for explaining uncertain events, anticipating changing societal currents, and learning-by-doing.

The conservation and use of crop genetic resources for food security
Khoury, C.K. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): A. Jarvis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574427 - 302
genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische diversiteit - germplasm - landbouwontwikkeling - klimaatadaptatie - wilde verwanten - ex-situ conservering - voedselzekerheid - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - agricultural development - climate adaptation - wild relatives - ex situ conservation - food security - cum laude
Cum laude graduation
Among the factors hindering the conservation of crop genetic resources is a lack of essential information regarding this diversity. Questions include: (a) what is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?, (b) where can genetic diversity be found that can be useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these vulnerabilities?, (c) is this genetic diversity available in the present and in the long term?, and (d) what steps are needed to improve the ability for researchers to access genetic resources critical for present and future crop improvement? This thesis aims to contribute to the knowledge required to answer these questions through an exploration of the need for, potential of, challenges and constraints regarding, and necessary steps to enhance the conservation and use of crop genetic diversity.
Climate Smart Agriculture: Synthesis of case studies in Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe
Hengsdijk, H. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Report / Plant Research International 624) - 26
stadslandbouw - biologische landbouw - duurzame landbouw - metriek stelsel - ghana - kenya - zimbabwe - engelssprekend afrika - agrarische productiesystemen - klimaatadaptatie - voedselveiligheid - urban agriculture - organic farming - sustainable agriculture - metric system - anglophone africa - agricultural production systems - climate adaptation - food safety
This study contributes to the current debate on climate smart agriculture and development in Africa, specifically in relation to farm size, food security and intensification in rain fed farming areas. Although the different analyses are rough, because of a combination of incomplete knowledge and limited data sets, the results places the prevailing development discussions in the context of CSA: Provides intensification a way out of poverty and contributes intensification to food security under climate change? How affects climate change crop yields and household income? Conflicts intensification with climate mitigation goals? These are some of the questions addressed for diverging case study areas in this study.
Climate change vulnerability and ecosystem-based adaptation measures in the Carpathian region : final report - Integrated assessment of vulnerability of environmental resources and ecosystem-based adaptation measures /
Werners, S.E. ; Bos, E.J. ; Civic, K. ; Hlásny, T. ; Hulea, O. ; Jones-Walters, L.M. ; Kopataki, E. ; Kovbasko, A. ; Moors, E.J. ; Nieuwenhuis, D. ; Velde, I. ; Zingstra, H.L. ; Zsuffa, I.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra report 2572) - 131
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - ecosystemen - climatic change - climate adaptation - ecosystems
Editorial: The governance of adaptation to climate change as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-actor challenge: a European comparative perspective
Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Meijerink, Sander ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 1 - 8.
klimaatadaptatie - hoogwaterbeheersing - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - nederland - verenigd koninkrijk - vlaanderen - duitsland - zweden - climate adaptation - flood control - international comparisons - netherlands - uk - flanders - germany - sweden - environmental-policy integration - framework
There is increasing recognition of the need for society to adapt to the impacts of climate change, especially in the water sector. Adaptation to climatic impacts involves both infrastructural adjustments, such as reinforcing dykes or creating water storage capacity, and broader processes of societal change, such as adjusting land use planning, more efficient water use or agricultural transitions. The aim of this special issue is not to ‘assess’ the current state of play for adaptation strategies and policies in Europe. Our interest is in the many facets of the governance of climate change adaptation, referring to the interactions and arrangements between public and/or private actors that are aimed at purposefully steering collective issues of adaptation to climate change.
Handling adaptation policy choices in Sweden, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands
Massey, E. ; Huitema, D. ; Garrelts, H. ; Grecksch, K. ; Mees, H. ; Rayner, T. ; Storbjörk, S. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Winges, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 9 - 24.
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - milieubeleid - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - zweden - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk - nederland - climate adaptation - regional planning - environmental policy - international comparisons - sweden - germany - uk - netherlands - climate-change adaptation - european-union - scales - interplay
Attention is increasing in academia towards the governance of adaptation, specifically how state and non-state actors are defining the adaptation ‘problematique’ and crafting public policies to address it. Adaptation is the ‘adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities’. The challenge for governments is taking this rather vague concept and turning it into viable and implementable public policies. This implies that they have to make choices as to the types of polices to create, the sectors they should cover, ministerial jurisdictions and funding. This article contributes to the discussion on the adaptation governance by presenting a conceptual framework that outlines policy choices governors need to make, by applying this framework to a number of countries, and starting the debate on which choice or choices were particularly instrumental in shaping adaptation policy in particular countries as a whole. It focuses on four countries traditionally seen to be adaptation leaders: Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Reconciling collaborative action research with existing institutions: insights from Dutch and German climate knowledge programmes
Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Buuren, A. van; Knieling, J. ; Gottschick, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 89 - 103.
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - onderzoeksbeleid - nederland - duitsland - climate adaptation - regional planning - international comparisons - research policy - netherlands - germany - policy - context
Researchers and policymakers increasingly aim to set up collaborative research programmes to address the challenges of adaptation to climate change. This does not only apply for technical knowledge, but for governance knowledge also. Both the Netherlands and Germany have set up large scale collaborative action research (CAR) programmes for the governance of adaptation to climate change. Despite the collaborative designs, the initial enthusiasm, the available resources and the many positive outcomes, both programmes encountered several stubborn difficulties. By comparing both programmes, this paper explores the difficulties researchers encounter, analyses the underlying mechanisms and presents some lessons. It found that many difficulties are related to the tensions that exist between the assumptions underlying the new collaborative trajectories and the logics of the existing policy and research institutions. These institutional misfits are decisive to explain ultimate difficulties and successes. Furthermore, the paper concludes that risk aversion, stereotyping and scale fixation strengthen institutional misfits; and that these misfits persist due to lacking bridging capabilities. We suggest some lessons that can help to resolve the difficulties and reconcile CAR into existing institutions: organize the knowledge arrangement as a collaborative process; construct boundary objects as focal point for collaboration; and invest in bridging capabilities. Key words | action research, climate change, governance, institutions, science–policy interface
Action research for climate change adaptation : Developing and applying knowledge for governance
Buuren, A. van; Eshuis, J. ; Vliet, M. van - \ 2015
London : Routledge (Routledge advances in climate change research ) - ISBN 9781138017603 - 198
klimaatverandering - actieonderzoek - governance - klimaatadaptatie - kennis - politiek - wereld - climatic change - action research - climate adaptation - knowledge - politics - world
Governments all over the world are struggling with the question of how to adapt to climate change. They need information not only about the issue and its possible consequences, but also about feasible governance strategies and instruments to combat it. At the same time, scientists from different social disciplines are trying to understand the dynamics and peculiarities of the governance of climate change adaptation. This book demonstrates how action-oriented research methods can be used to satisfy the need for both policy-relevant information and scientific knowledge. Bringing together eight case studies that show inspiring practices of action research from around the world, including Australia, Denmark, Vietnam and the Netherlands, the book covers a rich variety of action-research applications, running from participatory observation to serious games and role-playing exercises. It explores many adaptation challenges, from flood-risk safety to heat stress and freshwater availability, and draws out valuable lessons about the conditions that make action research successful, demonstrating how scientific and academic knowledge can be used in a practical context to reach useful and applicable insights. The book will be of interest to scholars and students of climate change, environmental policy, politics and governance.
Do state traditions matter? Comparing deliberative governance initiatives for climate change adaptation in Dutch corporatism and British pluralism
Vink, M.J. ; Benson, D. ; Boezeman, D. ; Cook, H.E. ; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 71 - 88.
klimaatadaptatie - waterbeheer - regionale planning - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - nederland - verenigd koninkrijk - climate adaptation - water management - regional planning - international comparisons - netherlands - uk - policy - frames - management - england - context
In the emerging field of climate adaptation, deliberative governance initiatives are proposed to yield better adaptation strategies. However, introducing these network-centred deliberations between public and private players may contrast with traditions of interest intermediation between state and society. This paper shows how state traditions affect newly set up deliberative governance initiatives. Because of the similarities in geographical characteristics and the differences in state tradition we choose qualitative case studies in Dutch and British water management. Our comparison is two-fold. First, we compare deliberative governance initiatives in the different state traditions of the Netherlands and UK. Second, we compare the newly set up deliberative governance initiative to an existing policy regime mainstreaming climate adaptation in a similar state tradition, in our case the Netherlands. We find that: (1) Deliberative governance initiatives in the (neo-)corporatist state tradition of the Netherlands yields learning but shows apathy among politically elected decision-makers compared to deliberative governance initiatives in the pluralist state tradition of the UK where clearly defined rules and responsibilities yields negotiation and action; (2) A typical corporatist policy regime mainstreaming climate adaption in a (neo-)corporatist state tradition yields effective and legitimate policy formation but lacks learning.
Overview of challenges and achievements in the Climate Adaptation of Cities and in the Climate Proof Cities program
Albers, R.A.W. ; Bosch, P.R. ; Blocken, B. ; Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F. van den; Hove, B. van; Split, T.J.M. ; Ven, F. van de; Hooff, T. van; Rovers, V. - \ 2015
Building and Environment 83 (2015). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 1 - 10.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - governance - onderzoeksprojecten - nederland - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - temperature - research projects - netherlands - urban heat-island - building performance simulation - cfd simulation - environment - ventilation - future - generation - benefits
Despite all international, national and local initiatives to mitigate climate change, a certain degree of climate change is unavoidable. Urban environments in particular seem vulnerable to the consequences of climate change. How can cities, which are dynamic systems where most people live and work, prepare for such changes in climate? In the Netherlands, the Climate Proof Cities (CPC) research program (2010-2014) was established, aimed at: “strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vulnerability of the urban system against climate change and to develop strategies and policy instruments for adapting our cities and buildings”. The program has contributed to the knowledge on assessing vulnerability of cities, on adaptation options and their effectiveness, and on governance of adaptation. Important features are the role of green infrastructures in combination with available water, improved building designs and collaboration between urban planners and water managers. Nonetheless, in spite of this effort and many other national and international efforts, research in these fields is still in its infancy, and much remains to be done. The broad scope of the CPC research program incited the establishment of this Special Issue. In addition, also papers from other researchers have been added to this Special Issue, in an attempt to provide a valuable – albeit inexhaustive – view on the challenges and achievements in adaptation of cities to climate change.
Integration in urban climate adaptation: Lessons from Rotterdam on integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge
Groot, A.M.E. ; Bosch, P.R. ; Buijs, S. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Moors, E.J. - \ 2015
Building and Environment 83 (2015). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 177 - 188.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - rotterdam - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - transdisciplinary research - heat-island - boundary - policy - interdisciplinary - sustainability - information - challenges - ecology - science
Based on the experience acquired in the Bergpolder Zuid district in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, this paper presents lessons learned so far on science-policy interactions supporting the adaptation to climate change in an urban district. Two types of integration issues were considered: (1) Integration within science including integration of disciplines, methods, models and data, and (2) integration between science and the local stakeholders' society, involving a synthesis of scientific and practical knowledge, linking sectors, governance arrangements and organisations. At first sight, the issues around integration within science and beyond the science of climate change adaptation in cities resemble those generally observed in science-policy integration. However, the relative newness of urban adaptation to climate change poses specific challenges for both the scientists and the stakeholders involved in the process. The Rotterdam example discusses the use of multiple means of integration for enhancing integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge.
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