Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Biologische bestrijding van wol- en schildluis in de sierteelt onder glas
Kruidhof, H.M. ; Messelink, G.J. ; Leman, A. ; Vijverberg, Roland - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw - 1 p.
tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - biologische bestrijding - sierteelt - cymbidium - rosaceae - planococcus citri - coccoidea - sluipwespen - predatoren - roofinsecten - thrips - coleoptera - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - biological control - ornamental horticulture - parasitoid wasps - predators - predatory insects
Het doel van dit project is om de biologische bestrijding van wol-en schildluis te verbeteren met nieuwe inzetstrategieën van bestaande bestrijders en door opsporing van complementaire nieuwe bestrijders. Poster van het PlantgezondheidEvent 2016.
Tonderzwammen en insecten
Moraal, L.G. - \ 2015
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 12 (2015)120. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 20 - 21.
fomes fomentarius - insecten - bedreigde soorten - soorten - parasieten - coleoptera - gastheer parasiet relaties - insects - endangered species - species - parasites - host parasite relationships
Parasieten op bomen, zijn op hun beurt ook weer een plek waar allerlei soorten voorkomen. Op de zeldzame tonderzwam kunnen zich unieke insectencombinaties ontwikkelen. Nu de tonderzwam aan een opmars bezig is, komen ook deze bijzondere insecten weer terug.
Adaptability of two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae) with potential to control water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Firehun, Y. ; Struik, P.C. ; Lantinga, E.A. ; Taye, T. - \ 2015
Crop Protection 76 (2015). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 75 - 82.
successful biological-control - control agent - life-cycle - curculionidae - coleoptera - crassipes - pontederiaceae - waterhyacinth - dynamics - hustache
Neochetina weevils have potential as biocontrol agents for water hyacinth, an aquatic weed which seriously affects irrigation water supply in sugarcane, vegetables and other horticultural crop production in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. A study was conducted on (i) the adaptability and duration of developmental stages of Neochetina weevils and (ii) the damage they cause to water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The Rift Valley weather conditions appeared to be suitable for the two weevil species studied, enabling them to produce four generations per year. The egg hatching period of Neochetina bruchi ranged from 4 to 10 days, while Neochetinaeichhorniae took 8–12 days. Larvae of N. bruchi took a comparatively shorter period (32–38 days) than N. eichhorniae (52–60 days) to complete their development. N. bruchi laid a maximum of 10.4 eggs female-1 day-1, whereas N. eichhorniae laid 8.2 eggs female-1 day-1. The intrinsic rate of increase of N. bruchi was found to be 0.06 with a generation time of 74.8 days and a population doubling period of 14.3 days. The intrinsic rate of increase of N. eichhorniae was 0.046 accompanied by a generation time of 94.8 days and a doubling period of 18.7 days. Feeding by adult weevils and tunnelling by larvae significantly impacted the vigour and reproduction of water hyacinth plants. N. bruchi and N. eichhorniae affected plants had about 72% (76%) and 66% (58%) reduction in fresh (and dry) weight, respectively. Thus, based on their damage potential and difference in rate of population growth, it is concluded that N. bruchi could be considered as a promising candidate for biological control of water hyacinth under Ethiopian conditions.
Entomofauna van Flevoland : Verslag van de 164e zomerbijeenkomst te Kraggenburg
Cuppen, J.G.M. - \ 2015
Entomologische Berichten 70 (2015)6. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 190 - 212.
heteroptera - coleoptera - isopoda - diploptera - insecten - inventarisaties - ecologische entomologie - natuurgebieden - flevoland - insects - inventories - ecological entomology - natural areas
Op terreinen van Staatsbosbeheer, Natuurmonumenten en Flovolandschap is een inventarisatie uitgevoerd door 36 leden van de NEV. De gebieden die onderzocht zijn: Kuinderbos, Urkerbos, Voorsterbos, Harderbos, Knarbos, Winkelse Zand en Harderbroek. In dit artikel worden gedetailleerd de vindplaatsen geïnventariseerd, met daarnaast uitvoerige beschrijvingen van de gevonden soorten
Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland
Allema, A.B. ; Werf, W. van der; Groot, J.C.J. ; Hemerik, L. ; Gort, G. ; Rossing, W.A.H. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2015
Bulletin of Entomological Research 105 (2015)2. - ISSN 0007-4853 - p. 234 - 244.
inhabiting cereal fields - pterostichus-melanarius - agricultural landscapes - movement patterns - surface-activity - activity-density - ground beetles - coleoptera - dispersal - models
Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We characterize the rate of redistribution using motility µ (L2 T-1), which is a measure for diffusion of a population in space and time that is consistent with ecological diffusion theory and which can be used for upscaling short-term data to longer time frames. Formulas are provided to calculate motility from literature data on movement distances. A field experiment was conducted to measure the redistribution of mass-released carabid, Pterostichus melanarius in a crop field, and derive motility by fitting a Fokker–Planck diffusion model using inverse modelling. Bias in estimates of motility from literature data is elucidated using the data from the field experiment as a case study. The meta-analysis showed that motility is 5.6 times as high in farmland as in woody habitat. Species associated with forested habitats had greater motility than species associated with open field habitats, both in arable land and woody habitat. The meta-analysis did not identify consistent differences in motility at the species level, or between clusters of larger and smaller beetles. The results presented here provide a basis for calculating time-varying distribution patterns of carabids in farmland and woody habitat. The formulas for calculating motility can be used for other taxa.
Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: A procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services
Gilioli, G. ; Schrader, G. ; Baker, R.H.A. ; Ceglarska, E. ; Kertesz, V.K. ; Lovei, G. ; Navajas, M. ; Rossi, V. ; Tramontini, S. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2014
Science of the Total Environment 468-469 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 475 - 486.
anoplophora-malasiaca - functional redundancy - biological invasions - grassland experiment - biodiversity - cerambycidae - coleoptera - diversity - conservation - ecology
The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose. By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant pest on genetic, species and landscape diversity. Functional components are evaluated by estimating how plant pests modify ecosystem services in order to determine the extent to which an IAS changes the functional traits that influence ecosystem services. A scenario study at a defined spatial and temporal resolution is then used to explore how an IAS, as an exogenous driving force, may trigger modifications in the target environment. The method presented here provides a standardized approach to generate comparable and reproducible results for environmental risk assessment as a component of Pest Risk Analysis. The method enables the assessment of overall environmental risk which integrates the impacts on different components of the environment and their probabilities of occurrence. The application of the proposed scheme is illustrated by evaluating the environmental impacts of the invasive citrus long-horn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)
Togbe, C.E. ; Zannou, E. ; Gbehounou, G. ; Kossou, D. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2014
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 34 (2014)4. - ISSN 1742-7584 - p. 248 - 259.
metarhizium-anisopliae - azadirachta-indica - natural enemies - cotton bollworm - compatibility - insecticides - coleoptera - curculionidae - coccinellidae - lepidoptera
In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used separately for different target pests, neem oil mixed with B. bassiana and neem oil mixed with B. thuringiensis) were compared with a calendar-based treatment using synthetic insecticides and a control without insecticides. The bioinsecticide treatments were less effective than the calendar-based treatment at controlling cotton pests. There was no difference in yields and the number of damaged bolls in plots under treatments with the four bioinsecticide formulations, suggesting an absence of synergy between neem oil and B. bassiana and neem oil and B. thuringiensis. The numbers of natural enemies in all the bioinsecticide treatment plots and the control plots were similar and higher than those in the calendar-based treatment plots. The highest yield and profitability were obtained with the calendar-based treatment. Screening the compatibility of plant-based products and biopesticides through bioassays is essential for a successful application of their combinations in any integrated pest management strategy.
Hout- en bastkevers bij jonge eiken
Sluis, B.J. van der - \ 2014
quercus - plantenplagen - houtboorders - coleoptera - maatregelen - plantgezondheid - preventie - openbaar groen - plant pests - wood borers - measures - plant health - prevention - public green areas
Zowel de boomkwekerijsector, als groenbeheerders, ondervinden problemen met stamschade in eik door hout- en bastboorders. Bomen met duidelijke symptomen (gaatjes) zijn grotendeels onverkoopbaar en dit leidt tot aanzienlijke financiële schade in de laanboomsector. Mogelijke oplossingen zijn niet of beperkt ontwikkeld. Doel van dit onderzoek was om de ernst van het hout- en bastboorders probleem bij Quercus in kaart te brengen, zowel op de kwekerijen als bij de eindgebruiker. Bestaande informatie uit de literatuur is verzameld en er is een aanzet voor een beheers strategie gegeven.
Effects of land use and insecticides on natural enemies of aphids in cotton: First evidence from smallholder agriculture in the North China Plain
Zhou, K. ; Huang, J. ; Deng, X. ; Werf, W. van der; Zhang, W. ; Lu, Y. ; Wu, K. ; Wu, F. - \ 2014
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 183 (2014). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 176 - 184.
coccinella-septempunctata - biocontrol services - landscape diversity - bt cotton - coleoptera - management - pest - biodiversity - parasitism - varieties
Studies conducted in the USA and Europe have shown that diverse landscapes in general support greaternatural enemy abundance. No quantitative evidence on the relationship between land use diversity andnatural enemies has been reported from developing countries, where fields and farms are much smallerthan in modernized agriculture in the west, and where insecticide use is often high and indiscriminate.This paper examines the effects of land use and farmers’ insecticide application on natural enemies ofaphids in cotton production, based on a unique dataset that links household and cotton field surveys toa detailed assessment of land uses in the landscapes surrounding the cotton fields in the North ChinaPlain (NCP), a major grain and cotton production region in China. Our results show that, in the NCP wherefarms are small and landscape is dominated by a few crops, Shannon or Simpson land use diversity indexis not a good indicator for explaining the relationship between land use and densities of aphid naturalenemies. Instead, the types and proportions of cropland habitat mattered. Landscapes with more maizeand grassland have higher ladybeetle populations in cotton fields. Farmers’ pest management practicessuch as the amount and timing of insecticide use significantly affect ladybeetle densities. These resultsimply that there is a need to recognize the potential positive role of cropland use in pest managementand call for more judicious insecticide use strategies by smallholder farmers in the North China Plain.
Seasonal phenology of interactions involving short-lived annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp
Fei, M. ; Gols, R. ; Harvey, J.A. - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Ecology 83 (2014)1. - ISSN 0021-8790 - p. 234 - 244.
specialist herbivore - brassica-oleracea - trophic levels - quality - evolution - sequestration - consequences - constraints - parasitoids - coleoptera
Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous throughout the season and that the insects always interact with it. We studied interactions involving three naturally occurring wild species of cruciferous plants, Brassica rapa, Sinapis arvensis and Brassica nigra, that exhibit different seasonal phenologies, and a multivoltine herbivore, the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and its gregarious endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. The three plants have very short life cycles. In central Europe, B. rapa grows in early spring, S. arvensis in late spring and early summer, and B. nigra in mid to late summer. P. brassicae generally has three generations per year, and C. glomerata at least two. This means that different generations of the insects must find and exploit different plant species that may differ in quality and which may be found some distance from one another. Insects were either reared on each of the three plant species for three successive generations or shifted between generations from B. rapa to S. arvensis to B. nigra. Development time from neonate to pupation and pupal fresh mass were determined in P. brassicae and egg-to-adult development time and body mass in C. glomerata. Overall, herbivores performed marginally better on S. arvensis and B. nigra plants than on B. rapa plants. Parasitoids performance was closely tailored with that of the host. Irrespective as to whether the insects were shifted to a new plant in successive generations or not, development time of P. brassicae and C. glomerata decreased dramatically over time. Our results show that there were some differences in insect development on different plant species and when transferred from one species to another. However, all three plants were of generally high quality in terms of insect performance. We discuss ecological and evolutionary constraints on insects that must search in new habitats for different plant species over successive generations.
Habitat functionality for the ecosystem service of pest control: reproduction and feeding sites of pests and natural enemies
Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Schellhorn, N.A. ; Cunningham, S.A. - \ 2013
Agricultural and Forest Entomology 15 (2013)1. - ISSN 1461-9555 - p. 12 - 23.
agricultural landscapes - coccinellidae - agroecosystems - biodiversity - assemblages - coleoptera - density - aphids - sinks
1 Landscape management for enhanced natural pest control requires knowledge of the ecological function of the habitats present in the landscape mosaic. However, little is known about which habitat types in agricultural landscapes function as reproduction habitats for arthropod pests and predators during different times of the year. 2 We studied the arthropod assemblage on six crops and on the seven most abundant native plant species in two landscapes over 1 year in Australia. Densities of immature and adult stages of pests and their predators were assessed using beat sheet sampling. 3 The native plants supported a significantly different arthropod assemblage than crops. Native plants had higher predator densities than crops over the course of the year, whereas crops supported higher pest densities than the native plants in two out of four seasonal sampling periods. Crops had higher densities of immature stages of pests than native plants in three of four seasonal sampling periods, implying that crops are more strongly associated with pest reproduction than native plants. Densities of immature predators, excluding spiders, were not different between native plants and crops. Spiders were, however, generally abundant and densities were higher on native plants than on crops but, because some species disperse when immature, there is less certainty in identifying their reproduction habitat. 4 Because the predator to pest ratio on native plant species showed little variation, and spatial variation in arthropod assemblages was limited, the predator support function of native vegetation may be a general phenomenon. Incentives that maintain and restore native remnant vegetation can increase the predator to pest ratio at the landscape scale, which could enhance pest suppression in crops.
Repeated parallel evolution reveals limiting similarity in subterranean diving beetles
Vergnon, R.O.H. ; Leijs, P. ; Nes, E.H. van; Scheffer, M. - \ 2013
American Naturalist 182 (2013)1. - ISSN 0003-0147 - p. 67 - 75.
species-diversity - competition - dytiscidae - patterns - convergence - coexistence - coleoptera - divergence - morphology - community
The theory of limiting similarity predicts that co-occurring species must be sufficiently different to coexist. Although this idea is a staple of community ecology, convincing empirical evidence has been scarce. Here we examine 34 subterranean beetle communities in arid inland Australia that share the same habitat type but have evolved in complete isolation over the past 5 million years. Although these communities come from a range of phylogenetic origins, we find that they have almost invariably evolved to share a similar size structure. The relative positions of coexisting species on the body size axis were significantly more regular across communities than would be expected by chance, with a size ratio, on average, of 1.6 between coexisting species. By contrast, species' absolute body sizes varied substantially from one community to the next. This suggests that self-organized spacing according to limiting-similarity theory, as opposed to evolution toward preexisting fixed niches, shaped the communities. Using a model starting from random sets of founder species, we demonstrate that the patterns are indeed consistent with evolutionary self-organization. For less isolated habitats, the same model predicts the coexistence of multiple species in each regularly spaced functional group. Limiting similarity, therefore, may also be compatible with the coexistence of many redundant species. © 2013 by The University of Chicago.
Comment on "Invasive Harlequin Ladybird Carries Biological Weapons Against Native Competitors"
Jong, P.W. de; Lenteren, J.C. van; Raak-van den Berg, C.L. - \ 2013
Science 341 (2013)6152. - ISSN 0036-8075
intraguild predation - harmonia-axyridis - coccinellidae - coleoptera
We comment on the implications that Vilcinskas et al. (Reports, 17 May 2013, p. 862) attach to the finding that the exotic, invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis carries microsporidia to which this species is insensitive but that is lethal to species that are native to the invaded areas. The authors suggest that these microsporidia might serve as “biological weapons” against the native competitors, but we cast doubt on the importance of this suggestion in the field.
Taxuskevers lokken en bestrijden
Elberse, I.A.M. - \ 2013
ornamental woody plants - plant pests - coleoptera - attractants - trapping - biological control - field tests
Taxuskevers lokken en bestrijden, een nieuwe richting in het onderzoek - Onderzoekers van PRI en PPO werken samen aan een oplossing voor de langere termijn
Elberse, I.A.M. ; Tol, R.W.H.M. van - \ 2013
Boom in business 4 (2013)7. - ISSN 2211-9884 - p. 40 - 43.
houtachtige planten als sierplanten - plantenplagen - coleoptera - lokstoffen - vangmethoden - biologische bestrijding - laboratoriumproeven - landbouwkundig onderzoek - ornamental woody plants - plant pests - attractants - trapping - biological control - laboratory tests - agricultural research
Wegens het beperktee middelenpakket blijft de taxuskever een gevreesde plaag voor veel boomkwekers.Onderzoek naar nieuwe insecticiden heeft weinig nieuwe middelen opgeleverd. PRI en PPO gooien het nu over een andere boeg en werken aan beheersing van de plaag met een val, een lokstof, schimmels en een oud natuurlijk middel uit Amerika.
Extraction and characterisation of protein fractions from five insect species
Yi, L. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Sagis, L.M.C. ; Eisner-Schadler, V.R. ; Huis, A. van; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2013
Food Chemistry 141 (2013)4. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 3341 - 3348.
tenebrio-molitor larvae - nutrient composition - gel formation - midgut - food - invertebrates - phenoloxidase - coleoptera - component - melanin
Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia were evaluated for their potential as a future protein source. Crude protein content ranged from 19% to 22% (Dumas analysis). Essential amino acid levels in all insect species were comparable with soybean proteins, but lower than for casein. After aqueous extraction, next to a fat fraction, a supernatant, pellet, and residue were obtained, containing 17–23%, 33–39%, 31–47% of total protein, respectively. At 3% (w/v), supernatant fractions did not form stable foams and gels at pH 3, 5, 7, and 10, except for gelation for A. domesticus at pH 7. At 30% w/v, gels at pH 7 and pH 10 were formed, but not at pH 3 and pH 5. In conclusion, the insect species studied have potential to be used in foods due to: (1) absolute protein levels; (2) protein quality; (3) ability to form gels.
Carabid Beetle research in Dutch Road Verges
Euwe, R. ; Merien, D. ; Pruijn, N. ; Teheux, C. ; Boer, W.F. de - \ 2013
YouTube
coleoptera - steden - wegen - vegetatie - veldwerk - vergelijkend onderzoek - laboratoria - carabidae - ecologische entomologie - towns - roads - vegetation - field work - comparative research - laboratories - ecological entomology
YouTube filmpje over veldonderzoek en laboratoriumonderzoek naar verschillende soorten carabidae die in het Nederlandse straatbeeld voorkomen.
Bestrijding van de volwassen taxuskever (Otiorhynchus sulcatus): Middelenonderzoek
Elberse, I.A.M. ; Meij, J. van der; Tol, R.W.H.M. van - \ 2013
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving BBF - 57
houtachtige planten als sierplanten - plantenplagen - coleoptera - otiorhynchus sulcatus - bestrijdingsmethoden - gewasbescherming - insectenbestrijding - laboratoriumproeven - landbouwkundig onderzoek - ornamental woody plants - plant pests - control methods - plant protection - insect control - laboratory tests - agricultural research
Taxuskevers vormen al jaren een belangrijke plaag in veel boomkwekerijgewassen. Met name de vraat van de larven aan de wortels zorgt voor problemen. Om de plaag goed te kunnen beheersen wordt aangeraden om zowel de kevers als de larven te bestrijden. Voor de bestrijding van de larven zijn meerdere mogelijkheden (aaltjes, BIO1020, Exemptor), maar voor de bestrijding van de volwassen kevers is alleen Steward beschikbaar (in vaste planten alleen in bedekte teelt, in boomkwekerij zowel in bedekte als onbedekte teelt). Om de kans op resistentieontwikkeling te beperken is het van belang om meerdere middelen beschikbaar te hebben. Het doel van de bestrijding van volwassen taxuskevers is om zo min mogelijk larven te krijgen in de herfst. In dit onderzoek werden hiervoor de volgende subdoelen geformuleerd: 1. Het vinden van een nieuw gewasbeschermingsmiddel tegen de volwassen taxuskever . 2. Het ontwikkelen van een snellere bestrijding (voor dat eileg begint) van de volwassen taxuskever.
Bestrijding van citruswolluis Planococcus citri
Messelink, G.J. ; Leman, A. ; Pijnakker, J. - \ 2013
glastuinbouw - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - plagenbestrijding - planococcus citri - sluipwespen - chrysopidae - coleoptera - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - greenhouse horticulture - biological control agents - pest control - parasitoid wasps - integrated pest management
Het aantal bedrijven dat de afgelopen jaren besmet is geraakt met de citruswolluis, Planococcus citri, is sterk toegenomen. De chemische bestrijding is in veel gevallen niet effectief. Het doel van dit onderzoek is om nieuwe methoden te vinden voor wolluisbestrijding die integreerbaar zijn met biologische bestrijding van andere plagen.
Breaking Haller's rule: brain-body size isometry in a minute parasitic wasp.
Woude, E. van der; Smid, H.M. ; Chittka, L. ; Huigens, M.E. - \ 2013
Brain, behavior and evolution 81 (2013)2. - ISSN 0006-8977 - p. 86 - 92.
trichogramma-brassicae - cotesia-glomerata - miniaturization - allometry - insects - evolution - parthenogenesis - coleoptera - ptiliidae - rubecula
Throughout the animal kingdom, Haller's rule holds that smaller individuals have larger brains relative to their body than larger-bodied individuals. Such brain-body size allometry is documented for all animals studied to date, ranging from small ants to the largest mammals. However, through experimental induction of natural variation in body size, and 3-D reconstruction of brain and body volume, we here show an isometric brain-body size relationship in adults of one of the smallest insect species on Earth, the parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens. The relative brain volume constitutes on average 8.2% of the total body volume. Brain-body size isometry may be typical for the smallest species with a rich behavioural and cognitive repertoire: a further increase in expensive brain tissue relative to body size would be too costly in terms of energy expenditure. This novel brain scaling strategy suggests a hitherto unknown flexibility in neuronal architecture and brain modularity.
Temperature effects on pitfall catches of epigeal arthropods: a model and method for bias correction
Saska, P. ; Werf, W. van der; Hemerik, L. ; Luff, M.L. ; Hatten, T.D. ; Honek, A. - \ 2013
Journal of Applied Ecology 50 (2013)1. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 181 - 189.
carabid beetles - activity patterns - plant pathology - fallow field - coleoptera - metaanalysis - insects - ecology - density - weather
1.Carabids and other epigeal arthropods make important contributions to biodiversity, food webs and biocontrol of invertebrate pests and weeds. Pitfall trapping is widely used for sampling carabid populations, but this technique yields biased estimates of abundance (‘activity-density’) because individual activity – which is affected by climatic factors – affects the rate of catch. To date, the impact of temperature on pitfall catches, while suspected to be large, has not been quantified, and no method is available to account for it. This lack of knowledge and the unavailability of a method for bias correction affect the confidence that can be placed on results of ecological field studies based on pitfall data. 2.Here, we develop a simple model for the effect of temperature, assuming a constant proportional change in the rate of catch per °C change in temperature, r, consistent with an exponential Q10 response to temperature. We fit this model to 38 time series of pitfall catches and accompanying temperature records from the literature, using first differences and other detrending methods to account for seasonality. We use meta-analysis to assess consistency of the estimated parameter r among studies. 3.The mean rate of increase in total catch across data sets was 0·0863 ± 0·0058 per °C of maximum temperature and 0·0497 ± 0·0107 per °C of minimum temperature. Multiple regression analyses of 19 data sets showed that temperature is the key climatic variable affecting total catch. Relationships between temperature and catch were also identified at species level. Correction for temperature bias had substantial effects on seasonal trends of carabid catches. 4.Synthesis and Applications. The effect of temperature on pitfall catches is shown here to be substantial and worthy of consideration when interpreting results of pitfall trapping. The exponential model can be used both for effect estimation and for bias correction of observed data. Correcting for temperature-related trapping bias is straightforward and enables population estimates to be more comparable. It may thus improve data interpretation in ecological, conservation and monitoring studies, and assist in better management and conservation of habitats and ecosystem services. Nevertheless, field ecologists should remain vigilant for other sources of bias.
Monitoring taxuskever met val en lokstof
Tol, R.W.H.M. van; Elberse, I.A.M. ; Bruck, D. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International, onderdeel van Wageningen UR Business Unit Biointeractions & Plant Health - 18
houtachtige planten als sierplanten - plantenplagen - coleoptera - lokstoffen - vangmethoden - biologische bestrijding - landbouwkundig onderzoek - boomkwekerijen - taxus - ornamental woody plants - plant pests - attractants - trapping - biological control - agricultural research - forest nurseries
De taxuskever blijft een groot knelpunt voor boomkwekers omdat er vrijwel geen middelen meer beschikbaar zijn. Het onderzoek naar traditionele insecticiden levert vooralsnog weinig nieuwe middelen op. Een oud middel van natuurlijke herkomst in een nieuw jasje gestoken, een lokstof en een nieuwe val gaan hier hopelijk verandering in brengen
Monitoring taxuskever met val en lokstof
Tol, R.W.H.M. van - \ 2012
houtachtige planten als sierplanten - taxus - plantenplagen - coleoptera - lokstoffen - vangmethoden - landbouwkundig onderzoek - tests - ornamental woody plants - plant pests - attractants - trapping - agricultural research
Beheersing van de taxuskever wordt steeds lastiger omdat er steeds minder middelen beschikbaar zijn. Voor deze plaag ontbreekt tevens een goed waarnemingshulpmiddel om de plaag eerder op te sporen. Dit zou een gerichtere aanpak met minder middel mogelijk maken. Een effectieve lokstof zou in combinatie met biologische of chemische middelen (Lokken & Infecteren/Doden) ook als bestrijding kunnen functioneren. In dit onderzoek wordt een lokstof en een nieuw type val voor de taxuskever getest. Parallel werd dit in de Verenigde Staten ook getest en tevens werd daar een nieuw natuurlijk middel getest op werking tegen de kevers.
Nematode doodt niet alleen de larf, maar ook de taxuskever : taxuskeverprobleem binnenkort opgelost?
Wrede, A. - \ 2012
Boom in business 3 (2012)6. - ISSN 2211-9884 - p. 61 - 63.
houtachtige planten als sierplanten - plantenplagen - taxus - coleoptera - nematoda - plagenbestrijding - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - insectenparasitaire nematoden - landbouwkundig onderzoek - ornamental woody plants - plant pests - pest control - biological control agents - entomophilic nematodes - agricultural research
De gevreesde taxuskever is schadelijk in de tuinbouw, maar voornamelijk op boomkwekerijen. Een onderzoek in het Duitse Ellerhoop laat echter zien dat niet alleen de larven van deze vervelende kever, maar ook de taxuskever zelf bestreden kan worden met nematoden.
Bestrijding van engerlingen in grasland : screening van middelen in lab- en veldproeven ter bestrijding van engerlingen (mei- en rozenkevers) in grasland 2010-2011
Rozen, K. van; Huiting, H.F. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving Wageningen UR, Business Unit PPO-agv - 67
graslanden - coleoptera - larven - insectenplagen - schade - bestrijdingsmethoden - insecticiden - proeven - laboratoriumproeven - nederland - veldproeven - grasslands - larvae - insect pests - damage - control methods - insecticides - trials - laboratory tests - netherlands - field tests
In 2009 werd de veehouderijsector geconfronteerd met sc hade door engerlingen in grasland. Engerlingen van de meikever en de rozenkever vreten aan de wortels van de grasplanten waarbij het contact van de resterende wortels met de ondergrond minder wordt. Bij droog weer verdroogt de zode en sterft de grasmat af, wat de primaire schade wordt genoemd. Het is echter voornamelijk de secundaire schade die zichtbaar wordt, veroorzaakt door zoogdieren en vogels op zoek naar de voedzame engerlingen. Een effectieve manier van bestrijding is het scheuren van de graszode in de nazomer en het najaar, waarna opnieuw gezaaid kan worden. Vanwege uitspoeling mag scheuren op zandgronden alleen in de periode van 1 februari t/m 10 mei. Een vrijstellingsregeling was noodzakelijk om in het najaar te mogen scheuren. Daarnaast brengt het herinzaaien van percelen extra kosten mee voor de veehouder. Dit resulteerde a ansluitend in een onderzoekswens om engerlingen te bestrijden met insecticiden. Op basis van oriënterend labonderzoek, toelatingskansen en overleg met de producthouders kwa men twee insecticiden in aanmerking voor het veldonderzoek. Daarnaast zijn enkele middelen op basis van kruidenextracten en etherische oliën geselecteerd voor proefveldonderzoek die op de particuliere markt en sportvelden worden toegepast tegen engerlingen . Eén middel zit nog in de testfase. In 2010 en 2011 zijn in totaal vier proeven aangelegd op percelen met een populatie engerlingen onder de graszode waaraan schade werd geconstateerd. In het eerste jaar lag de nadruk op het volvelds en bovengronds toepas sen. In het tweede jaar lag de nadruk op het injecteren van de middelen in de bodem. Alle niet toegelaten middelen zijn gecodeerd weergegeven .
Genetic linkage between melanism and winglessness in the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata
Lommen, S.T.E. ; Jong, P.W. de; Koops, K.G. ; Brakefield, P.M. - \ 2012
Genetica 140 (2012)4-6. - ISSN 0016-6707 - p. 229 - 233.
2-spot ladybird - phenotypic plasticity - thermal melanism - geographical variation - harmonia-axyridis - coleoptera - coccinellidae - consequences - polymorphism - evolution
We report a case of genetic linkage between the two major loci underlying different wing traits in the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): melanism and winglessness. The loci are estimated to be 38.8 cM apart on one of the nine autosomes. This linkage is likely to facilitate the unravelling of the genetics of these traits. These traits are of interest in the context of the evolution of intraspecific morphological diversity, and for the application of ladybird beetles in biological control programs.
Intraguild predation behaviour of ladybirds in semi-field experiments explains invasion success of Harmonia axyridis
Raak-van den Berg, C.L. ; Lange, H.J. de; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)7. - ISSN 1932-6203
coccinella-septempunctata l - aphidophagous ladybirds - adalia-bipunctata - searching behavior - larval tracks - coleoptera - cannibalism - beetle - prey - ecology
Harmonia axyridis has been introduced as a biological control agent in Europe and the USA. Since its introduction, it has established and spread, and it is now regarded as an invasive alien species. It has been suggested that intraguild predation is especially important for the invasion success of H. axyridis. The aim of this study was to compare the intraguild predation behaviour of three ladybird species (Coccinella septempunctata, Adalia bipunctata, and H. axyridis). Predation behaviour was investigated in semi-field experiments on small lime trees (Tilia platyphyllos). Two fourth-instar larvae placed on a tree rarely made contact during 3-hour observations. When placed together on a single leaf in 23%–43% of the observations at least one contact was made. Of those contacts 0%–27% resulted in an attack. Harmonia axyridis attacked mostly heterospecifics, while A. bipunctata and C. septempunctata attacked heterospecifics as often as conspecifics. In comparison with A. bipunctata and C. septempunctata, H. axyridis was the most successful intraguild predator as it won 86% and 44% of heterospecific battles against A. bipunctata and C. septempunctata respectively, whilst A. bipunctata won none of the heterospecific battles and C. septempunctata won only the heterospecific battles against A. bipunctata. Coccinella septempunctata dropped from a leaf earlier and more often than the other two species but was in some cases able to return to the tree, especially under cloudy conditions. The frequency with which a species dropped did not depend on the species the larva was paired with. The results of these semi-field experiments confirm that H. axyridis is a strong intraguild predator as a consequence of its aggressiveness and good defence against predation from heterospecific species. The fact that H. axyridis is such a strong intraguild predator helps to explain its successful establishment as invasive alien species in Europe and the USA.
Nieuwe lokstof en oud middel ingezet in strijd tegen taxuskever
Tol, R.W.H.M. van; Bruck, D. ; Elberse, I.A.M. ; Meij, J. van der - \ 2012
De Boomkwekerij 25 (2012)49/50. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 28 - 30.
boomkwekerijen - plantenplagen - coleoptera - bestrijdingsmethoden - vangmethoden - lokstoffen - pesticiden - biologische bestrijding - landbouwkundig onderzoek - forest nurseries - plant pests - control methods - trapping - attractants - pesticides - biological control - agricultural research
De taxuskever blijft een groot knelpunt voor boomkwekers, omdat er vrijwel geen gewasbeschermingsmiddelen meer beschikbaar zijn. Het onderzoek naar traditionele insecticiden levert vooralsnog weinig nieuwe middelen op. Een natuurlijk, oud middel in een nieuw jasje, een lokstof en een nieuwe val gaan hier hopelijk verandering in brengen.
De zuidelijke halmboktor Calamobius filum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) nu ook in Nederland aangetroffen
Belgers, J.D.M. - \ 2012
Entomologische Berichten 72 (2012)4. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 228 - 230.
coleoptera - inventarisaties - habitats - nederland - duitsland - inventories - netherlands - germany
De boktor Calamobius filum wordt nieuw gemeld voor de Nederlandse fauna. De vondst in de provincie Gelderland sluit geografisch aan op het naar het noorden en westen uitbreidende areaal in Duitsland. Calamobius filum is een van de weinige Nederlandse boktorren die zich niet in hout of kruidachtige planten, maar in grassen ontwikkelt. Er wordt ingegaan op het voorkomen in Europa en op de biologie van de soort.
Field attraction of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus to Kairomones
Tol, R.W.H.M. van; Bruck, D.J. ; Griepink, F.C. ; Kogel, W.J. de - \ 2012
Journal of Economic Entomology 105 (2012)1. - ISSN 0022-0493 - p. 169 - 175.
olfactory antennal responses - plant volatiles - host plants - fruit-fly - curculionidae - coleoptera - strawberry - oviposition - pheromone - varieties
Root weevils in the genus Otiorhynchus are cited as one of the most important pests in the major nursery and small fruit production areas throughout the United States, western Canada, and northern Europe. A major problem in combating weevil attack is monitoring and timing of control measures. Because of the night-activity of the adult weevils growers do not observe the emerging weevils in a timely manner and oviposition often starts before effective control measures are taken. Several vine weevil electroantennogram-active plant volatiles were identiÞed from a preferred host plant, Euonymus fortunei. Main compounds evoking antennal responses on the weevilsÕ antennae were (Z)-2-pentenol, (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl benzoate, linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7- nonatriene, methyl eugenol, and (E, E)-_-farnesene. Several of these compounds were tested alone and in mixtures on attractiveness for the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) in Þeld-grown strawberry in Oregon. O. sulcatus were attracted to (Z)-2-pentenol (_3_ more than control) and a 1:1 ratio mixture of (Z)-2-pentenol and methyl eugenol (4.5_ more than control). This is the Þrst report of Þeld-active attractants for O. sulcatus which holds promise for the development of new monitoring strategies for growers in the near future
Zonder de gewone sachembij, Anthohora plumipes (Hymenoptera, Apidae), geen Sitaris muralis (Coleoptera, Meloidae) in Nederland
Belgers, J.D.M. ; Teunissen, A.P.J.A. - \ 2012
Entomologische Berichten 72 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 45 - 49.
anthophora - apidae - nesten - parasieten - coleoptera - nests - parasites
In Nederland komen tien oliekervers (Meloidae) voor. Slechts één daarvan is voor zijn voortbestaan afhankelijk van de gewone sachembij, Anthophora plumipes: Sitaris muralis. Sinds 2006 is er in Nederland sprake van en toename van meldingen van S. muralis. De uitbreiding heeft klimaatverandering als mogelijke oorzaak, maar wellicht ook de toegenomen aandacht voor voor S. muralis en wilde bijen onder natuurliefhebbers
The Beetle Eater
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, ; Louis Bolk, - \ 2011
[S.l.] : YouTube
landbouwtechniek - asparagus - insectenplagen - plagenbestrijding - landbouwwerktuigen - coleoptera - vollegrondsgroenten - agricultural engineering - insect pests - pest control - farm machinery - field vegetables
Video over de Beetle Eater, die aspergekevers uit het gewas blaast en zuigt.
Beetle eater verslindt aspergekever
Broek, R.C.F.M. van den - \ 2011
In: BioKennis innovatie magazine / Wijnands, F.G., van Keulen, H., Dubbeldam, R., - p. 28 - 29.
asparagus - stengelgroenten - vollegrondsteelt - vollegrondsgroenten - coleoptera - insectenplagen - mechanische bestrijding - biologische bestrijding - landbouwtechniek - stem vegetables - outdoor cropping - field vegetables - insect pests - mechanical control - biological control - agricultural engineering
De Beetle eater doet wat haar naam doet vermoeden: kevers verslinden. Deze grote stofzuiger werkt goed bij het bestrijden van aspergekevers op aspergeplanten. Een teler en een onderzoeker hebben de machine daarvoor geoptimaliseerd.
De waterkever Yola bicarinata na meer dan honderderd jaar weer aangetroffen in Nederland
Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Dekkers, T.B.M. ; Cuppen, J.G.M. - \ 2011
Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen 35 (2011). - ISSN 0169-2453 - p. 37 - 43.
coleoptera - macrofauna - plassen - duingebieden - zeeuwse eilanden - ponds - duneland
In een macrofaunamonster afkomstig van een duinplas in de Zeepeduinen, Schouwen-Duiveland, werden twee exemplaren van de waterkever Yola bicarinata aangetroffen. Deze soort, waarvan het zwaartepunt van de verspreiding in het westelijk Middellandse Zeegebied ligt, is eerder slechts op twee vindplaatsen in Nederland vastgesteld en werd voor het laatst gevonden in 1909 bij Bergen op Zoom. Nader onderzoek zal moeten uitwijzen of hier een bestendige populatie aanwezig is
Inzet van de beetle eater succesvol
Hamont, J. van; Broek, R.C.F.M. van den - \ 2011
Ekoland 32 (2011)10. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 8 - 8.
plagenbestrijding - plantenplagen - insectenplagen - mechanische bestrijding - coleoptera - asparagus - stengelgroenten - vollegrondsgroenten - landbouwtechniek - machines - pest control - plant pests - insect pests - mechanical control - stem vegetables - field vegetables - agricultural engineering
In de aspergeteelt is de asperge kever Crioceris asparagi een bekend insect, en dan niet in positieve zin. Een omgebouwde machine maakt korte metten met hem.
Using movement and habitat corridors to improve the connectivity for heathland carabid beetles
Noordijk, J. ; Schaffers, A.P. ; Heijerman, Th. ; Sykora, K.V. - \ 2011
Journal for Nature Conservation 19 (2011)5. - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 276 - 284.
plant-species composition - roadside verges - coleoptera - dispersal - vegetation - conservation - diversity - restoration - netherlands - populations
Heathland areas in the Netherlands are declining in size and quality, and becoming more fragmented. The connectivity of the landscape for threatened insects might be improved by creating networks of corridors.We compared heathy roadside verges and linear forest clearings with heathland nature reserves and forests. The clearings were created in between the roadside verges and the nature reserves. In all four landscape types carabid beetles were inventoried with pitfall and window traps. Principal Component Analyses showed that the carabid species composition in roadside verges differed from that in nature reserves, both before and after the creation of the connecting forest clearings. However, an analysis of data on 31 target species (stenotopic species of drift sand, heathland and other nutrient-poor open habitats) selected from the pitfall trap catches revealed that 21 were present in the roadside verges. In addition, the occurrence of teneral individuals and flightless species indicate the verges provide valuable habitat where reproduction takes place. Forests themselves were barriers for almost all target carabids. In the forest clearings, similar amounts of target carabids were encountered in pitfall traps as in the nature reserves and roadside verges, but only teneral individuals of two species were found. In contrast, flying carabids were very abundant in the forest clearings: more than twice as many as in the nature reserves and the roadside verges. This indicates that dispersing carabids in particular make use of these linear forest clearings. We conclude that roadside verges can act as habitat corridors and that linear forest clearings are particularly used as movement corridors. Thus, both offer simple solutions for increasing the connectivity of fragmented landscapes for a threatened insect group.
Snuitkevers en engerlingen, houd ze onder controle!
Elberse, I.A.M. - \ 2011
woody plants - forest nurseries - melolontha - coleoptera - insects - life cycle - damage - control methods - public green areas - plant protection
Beetle eater: beheersing aspergekever
Broek, R.C.F.M. van den; Rovers, J.A.J.M. ; Willems, J. ; Bax, J. - \ 2011
asparagus - insectenplagen - coleoptera - mechanische bestrijding - vollegrondsteelt - veldproeven - insect pests - mechanical control - outdoor cropping - field tests
Poster met onderzoeksinformatie. Doel van het onderzoek is nagaan of de Beetle eater (grote stofzuiger) kan worden ingezet bij de beheersing van de aspergekever.
Actuele ziekten en plagen : op weg naar een gerichte aanpak
Dalfsen, Pieter van - \ 2010
ornamental woody plants - shrubs - bacterial diseases - cylindrocladium - wilts - coleoptera - plant protection
Oviposition Behaviors in Relation to Rotation Resistance in the Western Corn Rootworm
Knolhoff, L.M. ; Glas, J.J. ; Spencer, J.L. ; Berenbaum, M.R. - \ 2010
Environmental Entomology 39 (2010)6. - ISSN 0046-225X - p. 1922 - 1928.
diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera - east central illinois - larval injury - chrysomelidae - coleoptera - variant - adaptation - spread - maize - pest
Across a large area of the midwestern United States Corn Belt, the western corn rootworm beetle (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) exhibits behavioral resistance to annual crop rotation. Resistant females exhibit increased locomotor activity and frequently lay eggs in soybean (Glycine max L.) fields, although they also lay eggs in fields of corn (Zea mays L.) and other locations. The goals of this study were (1) to determine whether there were any differences in ovipositional behavior and response to plant cues between individual rotationresistant and wild-type females in the laboratory and (2) to examine the roles of, and interaction between, host volatiles, diet, and locomotor behavior as they related to oviposition. Because rootworm females lay eggs in the soil, we also examined the influence of host plant roots on behavior. In the first year of the study, rotation-resistant beetles were significantly more likely to lay eggs in the presence of soybean foliage and to feed on soybean leaf discs than wild-type females, but this difference was not observed in the second year. Oviposition by rotation-resistant females was increased in the presence of soybean roots, but soybean herbivory did not affect ovipositional choice. Conversely, ovipositional choice of wild-type females was not affected by the presence or identity of host plant roots encountered, and wild-type females consuming soybean foliage were more likely to lay eggs.
Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities
Marko, V. ; Bogya, S. ; Kondorosy, E. ; Blommers, L.H.M. - \ 2010
International Journal of Pest Management 56 (2010)3. - ISSN 0967-0874 - p. 189 - 199.
pest-management systems - arthropod - aphid - coccinellidae - insecticide - assemblages - populations - pesticides - coleoptera - hungary
The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abundance and species richness of the communities and also altered their composition and diversity. The treatments disrupted many non-target groups notably mycophagous, predacious and tourist beetles, zoophagous bugs and spiders. Among spiders, wanderer spiders (Thomisidae, Philodromidae) were most affected, whereas web building spiders (Dictynidae) were least affected. After ceasing the applications in July, the between-treatment differences in composition of all communities and diversity of heteropterans and spiders diminished while the differences in abundance and species richness remained for a long time, until the end of September. Many predator species with good colonisation ability recovered slowly after the treatments, mainly due to the scarcity of prey.
Beetle eater beheerst de aspergekever bij de oogst van groene asperges in 2010
Broek, R.C.F.M. van den; Rovers, J.A.J.M. ; Gruppen, R. ; Gubbels, F. - \ 2010
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector AGV - 12
asparagus - insectenplagen - coleoptera - mechanische bestrijding - veldproeven - insect pests - mechanical control - field tests
In 2010 is de "Beetle Eater" getest in groene asperges tegen de aspergekever op een gangbaar bedrijf in Noord-Brabant. Omdat groene asperges bij gunstige weersomstandigheden dagelijks geoogst worden, is het lastig om tegen dit insect gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in te zetten vanwege de veiligheidstermijn. Door de Beetle eater 1 of 2 keer (direct na elkaar) in te zetten worden de aspergekevers met 50 of 74% gereduceerd. Door de Beetle eater regelmatig in te zetten bleven het aantal afgezette eitjes op de stengels beperkt en zijn het gehele seizoen geen groene asperges bij deze teler afgekeurd en geen asperges daardoor aangemerkt als kwaliteit II. Een aandachtspunt is wel dat na iedere behandeling aspergestengels afbreken.
The conservation value of farmland ponds: Predicting water beetle assemblages using vascular plants as a surrogate group
Schaffers, A.P. ; Gioria, M. ; Bacaro, G. ; Feehan, J. - \ 2010
Biological Conservation 143 (2010)5. - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 1125 - 1133.
cross-taxon congruence - species richness - community similarity - comparative biodiversity - agricultural landscape - global patterns - indicator taxa - coleoptera - vegetation - diversity
Ponds are among the most diverse and yet threatened components of freshwater biodiversity. The conservation of ponds would greatly benefit from the identification of surrogate taxa in preliminary assessments aimed at detecting ponds of potentially high biodiversity value. Here, we used predictive co-correspondence analysis (Co-CA) to quantify the strength of plant species composition and plant community types in predicting multivariate patterns in water beetle assemblages, based on data from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. The predictive accuracy of a number of environmental variables as well as that of plant diversity (species richness and evenness) was calculated using predictive canonical correspondence analysis (CCA-PLS). The study ponds supported over 30% of the Irish water beetle fauna (76 species), with five species having some form of IUCN Red List Status in Ireland, as well as 67 wetland plant species, including a nationally rare one. Co-CA showed that plant species composition had a positive predictive accuracy, which was significantly higher compared to that of data at the plant community type level. Although environmental variables showed a higher predictive capacity compared to that of plant species composition, the difference was not significant. Explanatory CCA analyses showed that plants and beetles both responded to the same subset of environmental conditions, which explained approximately 18% of the variation in both plant and beetle species composition. Regional differences as well as permanency, substratum, and grazing intensity affected the composition of both plant and beetle assemblages. These findings have important implications in conservation planning. First, wetland plants can be effectively used as a surrogate taxon in the identification of conservation-priority ponds. Second, conservation strategies aimed at maintaining and enhancing pond biodiversity should be based on considerations on plant species composition
Synergy in efficacy of fungal entomopathogens and permethrin against West African insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes
Farenhorst, M. ; Knols, B.G.J. ; Thomas, M.B. ; Howard, A.F.V. ; Takken, W. ; Rowland, M. ; N'Guessan, R. - \ 2010
PLoS ONE 5 (2010)8. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
metarhizium-anisopliae - culex-quinquefasciatus - malaria mosquitos - pyrethroid resistance - infection - vectors - deuteromycotina - biopesticides - coleoptera - knockdown
Background Increasing incidences of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors are threatening the sustainable use of contemporary chemical vector control measures. Fungal entomopathogens provide a possible additional tool for the control of insecticide-resistant malaria mosquitoes. This study investigated the compatibility of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin and two mosquito-pathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, against a laboratory colony and field population of West African insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. Methodology/Findings A range of fungus-insecticide combinations was used to test effects of timing and sequence of exposure. Both the laboratory-reared and field-collected mosquitoes were highly resistant to permethrin but susceptible to B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection, inducing 100% mortality within nine days. Combinations of insecticide and fungus showed synergistic effects on mosquito survival. Fungal infection increased permethrin-induced mortality rates in wild An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes and reciprocally, exposure to permethrin increased subsequent fungal-induced mortality rates in both colonies. Simultaneous co-exposure induced the highest mortality; up to 70.3±2% for a combined Beauveria and permethrin exposure within a time range of one gonotrophic cycle (4 days). Conclusions/Significance Combining fungi and permethrin induced a higher impact on mosquito survival than the use of these control agents alone. The observed synergism in efficacy shows the potential for integrated fungus-insecticide control measures to dramatically reduce malaria transmission and enable control at more moderate levels of coverage even in areas where insecticide resistance has rendered pyrethroids essentially ineffective.
Designing agricultural landscapes for natural pest control
Steingrover, E.G. ; Geertsema, W. ; Wingerden, W.K.R.E. van - \ 2010
Landscape Ecology 25 (2010). - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 825 - 838.
beneficial insects - biological-control - spatial scales - field - coleoptera - diversity - habitats - context - enemies - nectar
The green–blue network of semi-natural non-crop landscape elements in agricultural landscapes has the potential to enhance natural pest control by providing various resources for the survival of beneficial insects that suppress crop pests. A study was done in the Hoeksche Waard to explore how generic scientific knowledge about the relationship between the spatial structure of the green–blue network and enhancement of natural pest control can be applied by stakeholders. The Hoeksche Waard is an agricultural area in the Netherlands, characterized by arable fields and an extensive network of dikes, creeks, ditches and field margins. Together with stakeholders from the area the research team developed spatial norms and design rules for the design of a green–blue network that supports natural pest control. The stakeholders represented different interests in the area: farmers, nature and landscape conservationists, water managers, and local and regional politicians. Knowledge about the spatial relationship among beneficial insects, pests and landscape structure is incomplete. We conclude that to apply scientific knowledge about natural pest control and the role of green–blue networks to stakeholders so that they can apply it in landscape change, knowledge transfer has to be transparent, area specific, understandable, practical and incorporate local knowledge.
Infestations of the cypress bark beetles Phloeosinus rudis, P. bicolor and P. thujae in The Netherlands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).
Moraal, L.G. - \ 2010
Entomologische Berichten 70 (2010)4. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 140 - 145.
coleoptera - bomen - insectenplagen - droogteresistentie - trees - insect pests - drought resistance
In de zomer van 2004 trad er grote sterfte op bij coniferen in Rotterdam en nabijgelegen steden zoals Ridderkerk, Sleeuwijk, Maassluis, Nieuw-Lekkerland en Dordrecht. De sterfte trad op bij een solitaire 60-jarige Thuja maar ook bij coniferenhagen van Thuja, Chamaecyparis en Juniperus. Na 2004 werd de kever nog maar enkele malen waargenomen. Kleine populaties kunnen echter overleven in verzwakte bomen zoals in 2008 bleek uit de vondst van kevers in een door parasitaire schimmels verzwakte boom (Rotterdam) en gebroken takken (Wageningen en Renkum). Het zijn zwakteparasieten die zich alleen in verzwakte bomen kunnen ontwikkelen. 2003 was een zeer droog jaar met veel droogtestress verzwakte bomen en struiken waardoor de aantastingen konden plaatsvinden.
Één middel beschikbaar tegen volwassen taxuskever
Elberse, I.A.M. ; Tol, R.W.H.M. van - \ 2010
De Boomkwekerij 2010 (2010)3. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 10 - 10.
boomkwekerijen - proeven op proefstations - tests - spuiten - pesticiden - otiorhynchus sulcatus - coleoptera - forest nurseries - station tests - spraying - pesticides
Sinds het wegvallen van acefaat (Orthene en Ypsilon) in 2004 is de bestrijding van volwassen taxuskevers problematisch. Daarom hebben PPO en DLV veel verschillende gewasbeschermingsmiddelen getest op hun werking tegen deze kevers.
Beetle Eater verslindt aspergekevers
Broek, R.C.F.M. van den; Rovers, J.A.J.M. - \ 2010
PPO AGV
asparagus - insectenplagen - coleoptera - larven - fysische gewasbeschermingsmethoden - bestrijdingsmethoden - innovaties - insect pests - larvae - physical control - control methods - innovations
Aspergeteler Johan Bax in Leende is enthousiast over de prestaties van de Beetle Eater. Hoewel niet alle larven en kevers worden gedood, doet de machine wat hij moet doen: aspergekevers opzuigen en verpulveren. De gewasschade blijft binnen de perken en natuurlijke vijanden krijgen weer kans. Johan Bax gaar ermee door
Patterns of habitat occupancy, genetic variation and predicted movement of a flightless bush cricket, Pholidoptera griseoaptera, in an agricultural mosaic landscape
Diekötter, T. ; Baveco, H. ; Arens, P.F.P. ; Rothenbuhler, C. ; Billeter, R. ; Csencsics, D. ; Filippi, R. de; Hendrickx, F. ; Speelmans, M. ; Opdam, P. ; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2010
Landscape Ecology 25 (2010)3. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 449 - 461.
frog rana-arvalis - population differentiation - fragmented populations - inbreeding depression - metrioptera-roeseli - dispersal behavior - ground beetles - metapopulation - extinction - coleoptera
Habitat fragmentation has been generally regarded detrimental to the persistence of many species, especially those with limited dispersal abilities. Yet, when exactly habitat elements become functionally disconnected very much depends on the dispersal ability of a species in combination with the landscape's composition in which it occurs. Surprisingly, for many small and ground-walking generalists knowledge at what spatial scale and to what extent landscape structure affects dispersal is very scarce. Because it is flightless, the bush cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera may be regarded susceptible to fragmentation. We applied habitat occupancy surveys, population genetic analyses and movement modelling to investigate the performance of P. griseoaptera in an agricultural mosaic landscape with suitable habitat patches of varying size and isolation. Despite its presumed dispersal limitation we could show that P. griseoaptera occupied the majority of suitable habitats, including small and isolated patches, showed a very low and non-significant genetic differentiation (F (ST) = 0.0072) and, in the model, managed to colonize around 73% of all suitable habitat patches within one generation under weak and strong landscape-effect scenarios. We conclude that P. griseoaptera possesses the behavioural attributes (frequent inter-patch dispersal) necessary to persist in this landscape characterized by a patchy distribution of habitat elements. Yet, sound recommendations to landscape planning and conservation require more research to determine whether this represents a general behaviour of the species or a behavioural adaptation to this particular landscape.
Nog geen adequate bestrijding meikever-engerlingen
Elberse, I.A.M. - \ 2010
De Boomkwekerij 23 (2010)11. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 12 - 13.
boomkwekerijen - melolontha melolontha - larven - coleoptera - insectenplagen - insecten - plagenbestrijding - forest nurseries - larvae - insect pests - insects - pest control
Engerlingen van de meikever vreten graag aan de wortels van veel boomkwekerijgewassen en richten zo veel schade aan. Met name in het oosten en zuiden van Nederland zjin de problemen groot. Na vier jaar zoeken is er nog geen middel of maatregel gevonden om ze onder controle te houden
Phylogenetic analyses of the leaf beetle genus Galerucella: evidence for host switching at speciation?
Borghuis, A. ; Madsen, O. ; Ouborg, N.J. ; Groenendael, J. van - \ 2009
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (2009)2. - ISSN 1055-7903 - p. 361 - 367.
sympatric speciation - reproductive isolation - race formation - genetic differentiation - quantitative traits - nymphaeae - evolution - chrysomelidae - coleoptera - insects
It is still the subject of lively debate whether sympatric speciation is a general mode of speciation as opposed to allopatric speciation. In herbivorous insects, host switching, i.e. colonization of, and adaptation to, a new host by a herbivore, has been proposed as one of the driving mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Evidence for host switching as a speciation driving mechanism can be inferred from phylogenies of herbivores and host plants: if the host plant phylogeny is randomly distributed over the herbivore phylogeny, this indicates host switching. The Chrysomelid beetle genus Galerucella is a good taxon to study for evidence of host switching, because several closely related Galerucella species form sympatric species complexes associated with various unrelated plant species. Here we present the phylogenetic relationships of 10 species in the genus Galerucella, based on the mitochondrial gene fragments of the NADH-2 (410 bp) and CO-I (659 bp) genes, and analyzed with Bayesian, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods. The resulting molecular phylogenetic tree proved to be largely congruent with morphologically based taxonomy. The host-associated taxa of the Galerucella nymphaeae species complex are not defined as distinct gene pools under the phylogenetic species concept (PSC), however, the species complex as a whole is. Two results indicate the contribution of host switching to the speciation of Galerucella: (1) the host-associated taxa of the G. nymphaeae species complex have diverged very recently and (2) constrained ML analyses showed that host use constraints led to a significantly different Galerucella tree compared to unconstrained analyses. This evidence for host switching, together with the observation that several sister taxa using unrelated host plants live in sympatry, suggests that sympatric speciation by host race formation can be an important mode of speciation in this genus
Development of a wingless morph in the ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata
Lommen, S.T.E. ; Saenko, S.V. ; Tomoyasu, Y. - \ 2009
Evolution & Development 11 (2009)3. - ISSN 1520-541X - p. 278 - 289.
aphid acyrthosiphon-pisum - tribolium-castaneum - coleoptera - evolution - wings - dimorphism - drosophila - flightlessness - polymorphism - polyphenism
Many taxa of winged insects have independently lost the ability to fly and often possess reduced wings. Species exhibiting natural variation in wing morphology provide opportunities to investigate the genetics and developmental processes underlying the evolution of alternative wing morphs. Although many wing dimorphic species of beetles are known, the underlying mechanisms of variation are not well understood in this insect order. Here, we examine wing development of wild type and natural wingless morphs of the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata. We show that both pairs of wings are distally truncated in the wingless adults. A laboratory population of the wingless morph displays heritable variation in the degree of wing truncation, reflecting reduced growth of the larval wing discs. The coexistence of variable wingless morphs supports the idea that typical monomorphic wingless insects may be the result of a gradual evolution of wing loss. Gene expression patterns in wing discs suggest that the conserved gene network controlling wing development in wild-type Adalia is disrupted in the dorsoventral patterning pathway in the wingless morphs. Previous research on several species of ant has revealed that the anteroposterior wing patterning pathway is disrupted in wingless workers. Future investigations should confirm whether interruptions in both taxa are limited to the patterning pathways found thus far, or whether there are also shared interruption points. Nevertheless, our results highlight that diverse mechanisms of development are likely to underlie the evolution of wingless insects.
Beetle eater: het blaast en zuigt insecten uit het gewas
Broek, R.C.F.M. van den; Rovers, J.A.J.M. ; Willemse, J. ; Bax, J. - \ 2009
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 17
biologische landbouw - insectenplagen - coleoptera - fysische gewasbeschermingsmethoden - zuigen - risicobeheersing - stofzuigers - vollegrondsteelt - organic farming - insect pests - physical control - sucking - risk management - vacuum cleaners - outdoor cropping
Uit oriënterend onderzoek is naar voren gekomen dat de Beetle Eater, gemaakt voor het opzuigen van de coloradokever in aardappelen, in niet aangepaste vorm, perspectieven biedt in de koolteelt. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in kader van Telen met toekomst en de Innovatiewerkgroep ziekten en plagen in de biologische Landbouw. Een mooi voorbeeld van een gemeenschappelijk aanpak vanuit de gangbare én biologische landbouw. Mogelijkheden zijn er zeker. Het volledig opzuigen van de plaag zal wellicht niet plaatsvinden, maar een goede beheersing moet zeker lukken. Dat laten de eerste ervaringen met de Beetle Eater in asperge zien.
Otiorhychus meridionalis, een nieuwe invasieve snuitkeversoort voor de fauna van Nederland (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Heijerman, Th. ; Hellingman, S. - \ 2009
Entomologische Berichten 69 (2009)3. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 95 - 100.
coleoptera - curculionidae - otiorhynchus - invasies - ecologie - verspreiding - insectenplagen - schade - invasions - ecology - dispersal - insect pests - damage
Wederom kan een nieuwe invasieve plaagsoort voor Nederland worden gemeld. Weer betreft het een soort uit het snuitkevergenus Otiorhynchus, namelijk O. meridionalis. Dit is de zesde soort van dit in economisch opzicht belangrijke genus die Nederland heeft bereikt. In deze bijdrage worden de nieuwe vondsten gepresenteerd en wordt kort aangegeven hoe deze soort herkend kan worden en wat de verspreiding en voedselvoorkeur zijn van deze soort
Foraging behaviour of predators in heterogeneous landscapes: the role of perceptual ability and diet width
Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Schellhorn, N.A. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2009
Oikos 118 (2009)9. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 1363 - 1372.
spatial-patterns - prey density - lady beetle - aphid prey - responses - coleoptera - coccinellidae - time - strategies - dispersal
Oligophagous and polyphagous predators are confronted with spatially and temporally varying distributions of prey. Their species-specific foraging strategies should be able to cope with this variability. Using an individual based model, we explore how diet breath and the spatial scale at which predators respond to prey affects their capture efficiency in four heterogeneous prey landscapes, and combinations thereof. We interpret the spatial scale of the predator's response as perceptual range, and propose giving-up density as a proxy for diet breadth. Foraging behaviour is evaluated for a total of 121 perceptual range/giving-up density combinations, with four of them reflecting the strategies adopted by real ladybeetle species. Foraging rules of oligophagous ladybeetles were generally not very effective in terms of attained predation rate when foraging in a single prey landscape, but appear to be more effective when foraging in multiple prey landscapes. This finding is compatible with the notion that oligophagous predators do not adopt a foraging strategy that is especially adapted to a specific prey landscape, but to multiple prey landscapes. Simulations further indicated that there was not a `best' foraging rule that resulted in the highest predation rates for a range of spatial prey distributions and prey densities. The findings thus suggest that strategies of four ladybeetle species are effective in generating sufficient prey capture under a broad range of spatial distributions, rather than maximum capture under a narrower set of distributions
A phylogenetic tree of nematodes based on about 1200 full-length small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences
Megen, H.H.B. van; Elsen, S.J.J. van den; Holterman, M.H.M. ; Karssen, G. ; Mooijman, P.J.W. ; Bongers, A.M.T. ; Holovachov, O.V. ; Bakker, J. ; Helder, J. - \ 2009
Nematology 11 (2009)6. - ISSN 1388-5545 - p. 927 - 950.
n.-sp nematoda - molecular phylogeny - species nematoda - 18s rdna - rhabditidae - evolution - dorylaimida - longidoridae - cephalobina - coleoptera
As a result of the scarcity of informative morphological and anatomical characters, nematode systematics have always been volatile. Differences in the appreciation of these characters have resulted in numerous classifications and this greatly confuses scientific communication. An advantage of the use of molecular data is that it allows for an enormous expansion of the number of characters. Here we present a phylogenetic tree based on 1215 small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences (ca 1700 bp each) covering a wide range of nematode taxa. Of the 19 nematode orders mentioned by De Ley et al. (2006) 15 are represented here. Compared with Holterman et al. (2006) the number of taxa analysed has been tripled. This did not result in major changes in the clade subdivision of the phylum, although a decrease in the number of well supported nodes was observed. Especially at the family level and below we observed a considerable congruence between morphology and ribosomal DNA-based nematode systematics and, in case of discrepancies, morphological or anatomical support could be found for the alternative grouping in most instances. The extensiveness of convergent evolution is one of the most striking phenomena observed in the phylogenetic tree presented here - it is hard to find a morphological, ecological or biological characteristic that has not arisen at least twice during nematode evolution. Convergent evolution appears to be an important additional explanation for the seemingly persistent volatility of nematode systematics.
Arthropods in linear elements : occurence, behaviour and conservation management
Noordijk, J. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Karle Sykora, co-promotor(en): Andre Schaffers. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854920 - 188
geleedpotigen - wegbermen - vegetatiebeheer - maaien - coleoptera - araneae - insecten - nederland - conservering - landschapselementen - veluwe - arthropods - roadsides - vegetation management - mowing - insects - netherlands - conservation - landscape elements
Soortenrijke graslanden zijn zeldzaam geworden in Nederland en wegbermen vormen belangrijke wijkplaatsen voor dit biotoop. Om de soortenrijkdom in graslanden in stand te houden moeten ze gemaaid worden, gebeurt dit niet dan verruigt de vegetatie; een proces dat door atmosferische stikstofdepositie aanzienlijk wordt versneld. Dit onderzoek geeft resultaten van twee experimenten in grazige bermen. In een periode van vijf jaar werd met bodemvallen het effect van vijf maairegimes onderzocht op de aanwezigheid van loopkevers, snuitkevers, mieren en grondbewondende spinnen. Uitgaande van gangbare vormen van bermbeheer en verwaarlozing. Het tweede experiment betrof een middel-productieve berm; hier werd het effect van de verschillende beheerstypen op bloembezoekende insecten bestudeerd
Zeer bedreigde goudrandloopkever heeft goed jaar
Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2009
Nature Today 2009 (2009)20-09-2009.
coleoptera - insecten - populatie-ecologie - biologische indicatoren (populatie-ecologie) - natuurbescherming - drenthe - insects - population ecology - biological tags - nature conservation
Dit jaar worden er in Drenthe relatief veel goudrandloopkevers aangetroffen. Deze zeer bedreigde soort van heigebieden lijkt sterk te profiteren van de natuurontwikkeling in het Mantingerzand en het Dwingelderveld. De stijgende temperaturen lijken echter een negatief effect te hebben. Dit blijkt uit de wekelijkse waarnemingen van het loopkeveronderzoek dat al sinds 1959 loopt
Mite-mediated hyperphoretic dispersal of Ophiostoma spp. from the infructescences of South African Protea spp.
Roets, F. ; Crous, P.W. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Dreyer, L.L. - \ 2009
Environmental Entomology 38 (2009)1. - ISSN 0046-225X - p. 143 - 152.
bark beetles - tarsonemus-mites - fungi - coleoptera - scolytidae - acarina
Ophiostomatoid fungi are well known as economically important pathogens and agents of timber degradation. A unique assemblage of these arthropod-associated organisms including species of Gondwanamyces G. J. Marais and M. J. Wingf., and Ophiostoma Syd. and P. Syd. occur in the floral heads (infructescences) of Protea L. species in South Africa. It has recently been discovered that Ophiostoma found in Protea flower-heads are vectored by mites (Acarina) including species of: Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fonzago, Proctolaelaps Berlese, and Trichouropoda Berlese. It is, however, not known how the mites carry the fungi between host plants. In this study, we consider two possible modes of mite dispersal. These include self-dispersal between infructescences and dispersal through insect vectors. Results showed that, as infructescences desiccate, mites self-disperse to fresh moist infructescences. Long-range dispersal is achieved through a phoretic association with three beetle species: Genuchus hottentottus (F.), Trichostetha fascicularis L., and T. capensis L. The long-range, hyperphoretic dispersal of O. splendens G. J. Marais and M. J. Wingf. and O. phasma Roets et al. seemed effective, because their hosts were colonized during the first flowering season 3-4 yr after fire.
Wolfspinnen in een vegetatiegradiënt in de Millingerwaard
Noordijk, J. ; Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Sykora, K.V. - \ 2009
De Levende Natuur 110 (2009)4. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 199 - 205.
insecten - vegetatie - habitatselectie - coleoptera - gelderse poort - insects - vegetation - habitat selection
Over de wisselwerking tussen vegetatietypen en ongewerveldenfauna is nog weinig bekend. In de Millingerwaard zijn wolfspinnen in twaalf vegetatietypen in een transect loodrecht op de Waal onderzocht. Vraag was in hoeverre wolfspinsoorten gebonden zijn aan een bepaald vegetatietype. Voorts biedt dit onderzoek inzicht in het terreingebruik van deze dieren. Wat betekent deze kennis voor het beheer?
Zaailingen rooien en binnenhalen voor onderzoek
Dodde, H. ; PPO Bomen-bollen, - \ 2009
Nieuwe oogst / Magazine gewas 5 (2009)5. - ISSN 1871-093X - p. 4 - 5.
boomkwekerijen - struiken - zaailingen - zaden - waslagen - insectenbestrijding - insecticiden - coleoptera - emissie - gewasbescherming - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - forest nurseries - shrubs - seedlings - seeds - wax coatings - insect control - insecticides - emission - plant protection - surface water quality
De boomkwekerij maakt een snelle ontwikkeling door. Bedrijven zetten in op duurzame ontwikkeling. In dit thema Boomkwekerij een kijkje bij de ondernemers en aandacht voor waterkwaliteit en plaagbestrijding
Hibernation of predatory anthropods in semi-natural habitats
Geiger, F. ; Wäckers, F.L. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. - \ 2009
BioControl 54 (2009)4. - ISSN 1386-6141 - p. 529 - 535.
agricultural landscapes - densities - field - biodiversity - management - diversity - staphylinidae - populations - coleoptera - boundaries
Non-crop habitats provide important resources for natural enemies. Many natural enemies hibernate in non-crop habitats, from which they may colonise arable fields in the spring. Spring colonisation ensures annual repopulation of the crop with natural enemies, allowing them to keep pace with the development of pest populations. The availability of non-crop habitats can, therefore, be crucial to successful conservation biological control. We quantified the density of overwintering natural enemies near organic Brussels sprout crops in five different non-crop habitats (short grassy field margin, herbaceous field margin, herbaceous field margin under a tree line, ditch and forest). Soil and litter samples of non-crop habitats were taken at two sites. One site was located in an open agricultural landscape, the other in a landscape dominated by mixed forest. Insects belonging to Staphylinidae, Araneae, Carabidae, Coccinellidae and Dermaptera were the most abundant. Mean densities of predatory arthropods were higher in the open agricultural landscape (290 predators m¿2) than in the forested landscape (137 predators m¿2). Herbaceous habitat types supported the highest densities of overwintering predators (up to 400 predators m¿2), whereas densities in the forest were lowest (10 predators m¿2). These results indicate that herbaceous non-crop habitats are important refugia for predators and may play a vital role in conservation biological control.
Impact of anthropogenic disturbances on beetle communities of French Mediterranean coastal dunes
Comor, V.N.R. ; Orgeas, J. ; Ponel, P. ; Rolando, C. ; Delettre, Y.R. - \ 2008
Biodiversity and Conservation 17 (2008)8. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1837 - 1852.
arthropod communities - sandy beach - environmental-factors - surface-activity - adaptations - coleoptera - dynamics - zonation
In coastal dunes, influenced by anthropogenic activities such as tourism, it is important to determine the relative influence of environmental factors at different spatial scales to evaluate the sensitivity of local communities to disturbances. We analyzed beetle communities of 14 dunes of the French Mediterranean coast: four in the relatively preserved Camargue area, and ten in the Var department, where tourism is intensive. Beetle communities were studied three times in early spring using sand sampling. Species-environment relationships were evaluated at the regional, landscape and local scale using redundancy analysis (RDA) and variability partitioning. About 28 species were identified, of which 15 were sand-specialist species, which accounted for more than 93% of total abundance. The beetle communities of Camargue were significantly different from those of the Var department owing to the pullulation of a Tenebrionid species (Trachyscelis aphodioides Latr.) in the Var, except for one restored dune where the community was very similar to those of Camargue. Our results showed no longitudinal gradient between the two regions. Local factors (dune height, preservation and disturbance index) significantly explained most of the variation in the dominance of T. aphodioides, while some other local factors were important for other psammophilous species. This study also suggests that dune beetle communities are strongly affected on beaches intensively managed for tourism, but beetles are still abundant in much disturbed sites.
Ontwormingsmiddel doodt ook kevers
Lahr, J. - \ 2008
Kennis Online 5 (2008)november 2008. - p. 8 - 8.
rundvee - geneesmiddelen - mest - bodemverontreiniging - coleoptera - insecten - natuurbescherming - grote grazers - ecotoxicologie - natuur - cattle - drugs - manures - soil pollution - insects - nature conservation - large herbivores - ecotoxicology - nature
Niet alleen dieren in de veehouderij krijgen medicatie tegen wormen. Ook grote grazers in natuurgebieden krijgen ontwormingsmiddelen om te voorkomen dat ze ziek worden. Alleen komt een deel van de schadelijke medicijnen via hun poep vrij in de natuur, en daar gaan onder meer insecten aan dood. Alterra pleit daarom voor terughoudend gebruik
Darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae as potential vectors for the transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi B variant Java between successive broiler flocks
Hazeleger, W.C. ; Bolder, N.M. ; Beumer, R.R. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. - \ 2008
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74 (2008)22. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 6887 - 6891.
musca-domestica - reservoir competence - tenebrionidae - coleoptera - flies - spp. - colonization - poultry - susceptibility - transmission
Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses.
De snuitkever Pachyrhinus lethierryi nieuw voor Nederland (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Heijerman, Th. - \ 2008
Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen (2008). - ISSN 0169-2453 - p. 266 - 273.
coleoptera - curculionidae - nieuwe soorten - verspreiding - nederland - new species - dispersal - netherlands
Het aantal soorten snuitkevers dat inheems genoemd kan worden, neemt de laatste jaren gestaag toe. Ook nu weer maken we melding van een nieuwe soort, en genus, die zich in ons land heeft weten te vestigen, namelijk Pachyrhinus lethierryi. Of we blij moeten zijn met deze aanwinst is maar de vraag. Het betreft hier hoogstwaarschijnlijk geen natuurlijke uitbreiding. De opmars van de soort naar het noorden van Europa is vrijwel zeker het gevolg van transport van de voedselplanten tussen tuincentra en kwekerijen
Vier nieuwe snuitkevers voor de Nederlandse fauna (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Edzes, H. ; Heijerman, Th. - \ 2008
Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen 29 (2008). - ISSN 0169-2453 - p. 49 - 60.
coleoptera - curculionidae - nieuwe soorten - ecologie - verspreiding - nederland - new species - ecology - dispersal - netherlands
Ieder jaar worden in Nederland nieuwe snuitkevers voor onze fauna verzameld. Het betreft soms soorten die door toedoen van de mens ons land hebben weten te bereiken, anderen hebben hun areaal kennelijk spontaan weten uit te breiden. Daarnaast is er sprake van cryptische soorten, die vroeger niet werden onderscheiden van nauw verwante en sterk gelijkende taxa. De grote regelmaat waarmee nieuwe aanwinsten worden vastgesteld, heeft inmiddels geleid tot een achterstand in de meldingen en onduidelijkheid over hoeveel snuitkeversoorten er nu eigenlijk in Nederland voorkomen. Ook nu voegen we weer vier snuitkevers aan de Nederlandse lijst toe
Enige schorskevers nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
Vorst, O. ; Heijerman, Th. ; Nunen, F. ; Wielink, P. - \ 2008
Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen 61 (2008). - ISSN 0169-2453 - p. 61 - 74.
coleoptera - curculionidae - scolytidae - nieuwe soorten - inventarisaties - populatie-ecologie - new species - inventories - population ecology
Schorskevers zijn gebonden aan bomen, omdat de larven in hout leven. Recentelijk is het onderzoek aan deze groep toegenomen, mede met het oog op op een nieuwe catalogus van de Nederlandse kevers. Hier worden maar liefst negen schorskevers nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna gepresenteerd en één soort wordt van de lijst afgevoerd. Dit brengt het totaal aantal op 72. Een deel van de nieuwe soorten is al;tijd over het hoofd gezien, maar er zijn ook minstens vier echte nieuwkomers
Otiorhynchus armadillo, invasieve snuitkever, gevestigd in Nederland (Coleoptera: Cuculionidae)
Heijerman, Th. ; Hellingman, S. - \ 2008
Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen 29 (2008). - ISSN 0169-2453 - p. 37 - 48.
coleoptera - curculionidae - otiorhynchus - nieuwe soorten - verspreiding - nederland - ecologie - identificatie - new species - dispersal - netherlands - ecology - identification
In 2003 werd de snuitkever Otiorhynchus apenninus voor het eerst voor Nederland gemeld. In die bijdrage werd aan het slot de opmerking gemaakt dat het wachten nu is op de volgende Otiorhynchus soort, namelijk O. armadillo. Het heeft een paar jaar geduurd, maar nu is het dan zover. Ook deze soort heeft zich in Nederland gevestigd en lijkt zo succesvol, dat aangenomen mag worden dat dit ook een blijvertje is. In deze bijdrage wordt een overzicht gegeven van de bekende vangsten tot nog toe en enige informatie over herkenning, voorkomen en ecologie
Ophiostoma gemellus and Sporothrix variecibatus from mites infesting Protea infructescences in South Africa
Roets, F. ; Beer, Z.W. de; Wingfield, M.J. ; Crous, P.W. ; Dreyer, L.L. - \ 2008
Mycologia 100 (2008)3. - ISSN 0027-5514 - p. 496 - 510.
phoretic mites - bark beetles - sp-nov - phylogenetic inference - ceratocystis-minor - ips-typographus - fungi - scolytidae - coleoptera - complex
Ophiostoma (Ophiostomatales) represents a large genus of fungi mainly known from associations with bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) infesting conifers in the northern hemisphere. Few southern hemisphere native species are known, and the five species that consistently occur in the infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa are ecologically unusual. Little is known about the vectors of Ophiostoma spp. from Protea infructescences, however recent studies have considered the possible role of insects and mites in the distribution of these exceptional fungi. In this study we describe a new species of Ophiostoma and a new Sporothrix spp. with affinities to Ophiostoma, both initially isolated from mites associated with Protea spp. They are described as Ophiostoma gemellus sp. nov. and Sporothrix variecibatus sp. nov. based on their morphology and comparisons of DNA sequence data of the 28S ribosomal, ß-tubulin and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) regions. DNA sequences of S. variecibatus were identical to those of a Sporothrix isolate obtained from Eucalyptus leaf litter in the same area in which S. variecibatus occurs in Protea infructescences. Results of this study add evidence to the view that mites are the vectors of Ophiostoma spp. that colonize Protea infructescences. They also show that DNA sequence comparisons are likely to reveal additional cryptic species of Ophiostoma in this unusual niche.
Donus intermedius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) terug van weggeweest?
Heijerman, Th. - \ 2008
Entomologische Berichten 68 (2008)4. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 118 - 120.
coleoptera - curculionidae - nieuwe soorten - verspreiding - gelderland - new species - dispersal
In 1937 verzamelden Reclaire en Van der Wiel vier exemplaren van Donus intermedius in aanspoelsel langs de Rijn. De soort werd daarna niet meer in Nederland waargenomen. In 2007 werd echter een aantal exemplaren van D. intermedius verzameld in de uiterwaarden bij Renkum en Wageningen. Op beide loacties werd de soort geklopt van akkerdistels (Cirsium aruese) en kruldistels (Carduus crispus). Het is waarschijnlijk dat exemplaren van deze soort in het recente verledeen via de Rijn vanuit Duitsland naar Nederland zijn getransporteerd en dat de soort zich nu heeft weten te vestigen.
Effects of changes in plant species richness and community traits on carabid assemblages and feeding guilds
Harvey, J.A. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Turin, H. ; Wagenaar, R. ; Bezemer, T.M. - \ 2008
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 127 (2008)1-2. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 100 - 106.
urban-rural gradient - beetle assemblages - bottom-up - diversity - coleoptera - vegetation - landscape - habitat - grasslands - indicators
Experiments were conducted between 2001 and 2003 in constructed plant communities that were set up in 1996 on abandoned agricultural land. The primary aim of the experiment was to study how different secondary vegetation succession scenarios influence community development of invertebrates in different trophic levels. The succession scenarios were obtained by sowing high diversity or low diversity seed mixtures of mid-successional plant species in 1996 in comparison with unsown plots where agriculture ceased in 1996 or 1999. Carnivorous carabid species generally preferred plots characterized by open vegetation, whereas herbivorous carabids generally favored plots associated with high plant diversity. However, carabid community composition was affected most by sampling year and there was also a dramatic shift over the three years in the relative proportion of the different trophic groups. Irrespective of treatment, the proportion of carnivores in the community declined with time, whereas phytophages increased over the course of the three years. By contrast, the proportion of omnivores peaked during the second year. These long-term changes were, at least to some extent, related to short-term changes in the structure and composition of the plant communities. The importance of local variation and temporal changes in plant species richness on carabids and other insect fauna are discussed.
Bestrijding bramenbladgalmug met nematoden, roofkevers en roofmijten
Wenneker, M. - \ 2007
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Fruit
dasineura - resseliella theobaldi - rubus fruticosus - bramen - rubus idaeus - frambozen - kleinfruit - fruitteelt - biologische bestrijding - roofmijten - coleoptera - nematoda - plantenziektebestrijding - plantenplagen - blackberries - raspberries - small fruits - fruit growing - biological control - predatory mites - plant disease control - plant pests
Doel van dit onderzoek is om de werkzaamheid van drie aaltjespreparaten op de larven van de bramenbladgalmug en de frambozenschorsgalmug te toetsen onder kunstmatige omstandigheden. Daarnaast wordt onderzocht of de larven met roofkevers en roofmijten bestreden kunnen worden.
De invloed van een weg op het loopgedrag van twee loopkeversoorten (Coleoptera: Carabidae)
Noordijk, J. ; Prins, D. ; Jonge, M. de; Vermeulen, R. - \ 2007
[S.l.] : S.n. - 20
coleoptera - diergedrag - wegen - animal behaviour - roads
Onderzoek naar het effect van een weg op het loopgedrag en de looprichting van de loopkeversoorten Poecilus versicolor en Agonum sexpunctatum
The role of comptetitors for Chrysomela lapponica, a north Eurasian willow pest, in pioneering a new host plant
Gross, J. ; Fatouros, N.E. ; Neuvonen, S. ; Hilker, M. - \ 2007
Journal of Pest Science 80 (2007)3. - ISSN 1612-4758 - p. 139 - 143.
defensive secretion - leaf beetles - coleoptera - insects - specialization - performance - quality - europe - larvae
The Palaearctic leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica usually feeds upon willows in the northern region of its occurrence. However, in Central Europe, some populations are known that have specialised on birch. In this study, we investigated the significance of other herbivores occurring together on the same host plants as possible exploitative competitors of C. lapponica. Two populations were studied: a population from Finland specialised on the willow Salix borealis, and a population from the Czech Republic, specialised on the birch Betula pubescens. Abundances of folivorous and suctivorous insects on both host plants were recorded at both population sites. The willow leaf beetle Phratora vitellinae was the most abundant herbivorous insect at both study sites on willow. A field study was conducted to examine the effects of P. vitellinae on the performance of C. lapponica. The presence of P. vitellinae larvae on the same twig upon which C. lapponica larvae were feeding did not affect increase of body weight in C. lapponica larvae. Thus, the high resource availability of both willows and birches suggest that interspecific competition is unlikely to be a selection factor driving the evolution of host shift in C. lapponica.
The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda
Tinzaara, W. ; Gold, C.S. ; Dicke, M. ; Huis, A. van; Nankinga, C.M. ; Kagezi, G.H. ; Ragama, P.E. - \ 2007
Biocontrol Science and Technology 17 (2007)2. - ISSN 0958-3157 - p. 111 - 124.
cosmopolites-sordidus - entomopathogenic fungi - musa spp. - coleoptera - field - autodissemination - curculionidae - formulations - populations - beetle
Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We observed that infected weevils could transmit the fungal pathogen to healthy individuals. Most dead weevils (52%) due to B. bassiana infection were found at the base of banana plants in the leaf sheath or in the soil near banana plants. Significantly more weevils died from the pathogen in plots where B. bassiana was applied in combination with the pheromone than where it was applied alone. Our data demonstrate that C. sordidus aggregation pheromone can be a valuable tool to enhance the dissemination of B. bassiana for the control of C. sordidus.
Het snuitkevergenus Larinus in Nederland, met Larinus turbinatus als nieuwe soort voor de fauna (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).
Heijerman, Th. - \ 2007
Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen 26 (2007). - ISSN 0169-2453 - p. 1 - 16.
larinus - biologische bestrijding - biosystematiek - curculionidae - coleoptera - zoögeografische gebieden - biogeografie - verspreiding - dierecologie - biological control - biosystematics - zoogeographical regions - biogeography - dispersal - animal ecology
Met enige regelmaat worden nieuwe kevers voor de Nederlandse fauna gerapporteerd. In deze bijdrage wordt Larinus turbinatus voor het eerst gemeld. Deze soort werd in 2004 voor het eerst in ons land aangetroffen en is sindsdien op diverse locaties waargenomen en verzameld. Het is verleidelijk om de komst van weer een nieuwe soort te verklaren op grond van het veranderende klimaat. Maar gezien de Europese verspreiding lijkt het in dit geval geen aannemelijke verklaring
Effects of climate change on habitat suitability for stag beetle, European hornet, middle spotted woodpecker and black woodpecker : an application of SMART2-SUMO2-LARCH
Adrichem, M.H.C. van; Pouwels, R. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1533) - 82
klimaatverandering - spechten - picidae - coleoptera - habitats - milieueffect - modellen - dood hout - soorten - dierecologie - climatic change - woodpeckers - environmental impact - models - dead wood - species - animal ecology
The European union's 2010 target: Putting rare species in focus
Fontaine, B. ; Bouchet, P. ; Achterberg, K. van; Bongers, A.M.T. - \ 2007
Biological Conservation 139 (2007)1-2. - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 167 - 185.
ecosystem processes - red list - biodiversity - indicator - alps - coleoptera - progress - density - trends - rarity
The European Union has adopted the ambitious target of halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010. Several indicators have been proposed to assess progress towards the 2010 target, two of them addressing directly the issue of species decline. In Europe, the Fauna Europaea database gives an insight into the patterns of distribution of a total dataset of 130,000 terrestrial and freshwater species without taxonomic bias, and provide a unique opportunity to assess the feasibility of the 2010 target. It shows that the vast majority of European species are rare, in the sense that they have a restricted range. Considering this, the paper discusses whether the 2010 target indicators really cover the species most at risk of extinction. The analysis of a list of 62 globally extinct European taxa shows that most contemporary extinctions have affected narrow-range taxa or taxa with strict ecological requirements. Indeed, most European species listed as threatened in the IUCN Red List are narrow-range species. Conversely, there are as many wide-range species as narrow-range endemics in the list of protected species in Europe (Bird and Habitat Directives). The subset of biodiversity captured by the 2010 target indicators should be representative of the whole biodiversity in terms of patterns of distribution and abundance. Indicators should not overlook a core characteristic of biodiversity, i.e. the large number of narrow-range species and their intrinsic vulnerability. With ill-selected indicator species, the extinction of narrow-range endemics would go unnoticed.
Piecemeal versus one-time harvesting of sweet potato in north-east Uganda with special reference to pest damage
Ebregt, E. ; Struik, P.C. ; Odongo, B. ; Abidin, P.E. - \ 2007
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2007)1. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 75 - 92.
zoete aardappelen - gewasbescherming - cylas - ipomoea batatas - nematoda - curculionidae - uganda - sweet potatoes - plant protection - cylas-formicarius fab - millipede infestation - farmers information - cultural-practices - weevil - coleoptera - yield
In north-eastern Uganda, the sweet potato crop of small subsistence farmers is severely affected by many pests, including (rough) sweet potato weevils, nematodes and millipedes. Field experiments with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were conducted at Arapai Station in Soroti District, north-eastern Uganda in three consecutive seasons to study the differences between the indigenous practice of harvesting piecemeal in combination with storage `in-ground on plants¿ and one-time harvesting after crop senescence, with special reference to damage caused by sweet potato weevils (Cylas spp.), rough sweet potato weevils (Blosyrus spp.), millipedes (Diplopoda) and nematodes. The area has two rainy seasons per calendar year, the first one with long, reliable rains and the second one with short, unreliable rains. Severe sweet potato weevil damage in the vines was responsible for the mortality of 46% of the plants in Experiment 1, which was carried out during the first rainy season. Starting 3 months after planting (MAP), sizable storage roots could be harvested, although their number and weight declined after 4 MAP with piecemeal harvesting. The highest storage-root yield (17.8 Mg ha¿1) was found in Experiment 2 (second rainy season) at the final harvest. The yield of storage roots stored `in-ground on plants¿ during the prolonged dry season (Experiment 3) was very low compared with the yields of Experiment 1 (first rainy season) and Experiment 2 (second rainy season). Sweet potato weevil damage of the storage roots was significantly less with piecemeal harvesting than with one-time harvesting, and piecemeal harvesting also increased the quality of the storage roots for human consumption and commercial purposes. However, with piecemeal harvesting the rough sweet potato weevil (Blosyrus spp.) caused more storage root damage than with one-time harvesting. No statistically significant differences between the two types of harvesting were found for damage caused by nematodes or millipedes. It was concluded that piecemeal harvesting of sweet potato storage roots contributes to the control of sweet potato weevil in both vines and storage roots and hence improves the quality of the harvested roots. As rainfall distribution affects the population dynamics of this weevil this method can only be used during a limited period of the year.
Courtship pheromones in parasitic wasps: comparison of bioactive and inactive hydrocarbon profiles by multivariate statistical methods
Steiner, S. ; Mumm, R. ; Ruther, J. - \ 2007
Journal of Chemical Ecology 33 (2007)4. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 825 - 838.
female sex-pheromone - cuticular hydrocarbons - lariophagus-distinguendus - hymenoptera - pteromalidae - lipids - bethylidae - coleoptera - vespidae - behavior
Cuticular hydrocarbons play a significant role in the regulation of cuticular permeability and also in the chemical communication of insects. In the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), male courtship behavior is mediated by a female-produced sex pheromone. Previous studies have shown that the chemicals involved are already present in the pupal stage of both males and females. However, pheromonal activity in males decreases shortly after emergence. This pheromonal deactivation occurs only in living males, suggesting an active process rather than simple evaporation of bioactive compounds. Here, we present evidence that the sex pheromone of L. distinguendus is composed of a series of cuticular hydrocarbons. Filter paper disks treated with nonpolar fractions of cuticular extracts of freshly emerged males and females, 72-hr-old females, and yellowish pupae caused arrestment and stimulated key elements of courtship behavior in males, whereas fractions of 72-hr-old males did not. Sixty-four hydrocarbons with chain length between C25 and C37 were identified in the fractions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methyl-branched alkanes with one to four methyl groups were major components, along with traces of n-alkanes and monoalkenes. Principal component analysis, based on the relative amounts of the compounds, revealed that cuticular hydrocarbon composition differed among all five groups. By using partial least squares-discriminant analysis, we determined a series of components that differentiate bioactive and bioinactive hydrocarbon profiles, and may be responsible for pheromonal activity of hydrocarbon fractions in L. distinguendus.
Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+
Tinzaara, W. ; Gold, C.S. ; Dicke, M. ; Huis, A. van; Ragama, P.E. - \ 2007
International Journal of Pest Management 53 (2007)2. - ISSN 0967-0874 - p. 127 - 137.
cosmopolites-sordidus - rhynchophorus-palmarum - field activity - coleoptera - curculionidae - attraction - identification - bioassays - beetle
Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana pseudostem tissue was as attractive as pheromone but more attractive than 50 g of fresh pseudostem tissue. In the laboratory, volatiles from pseudostem tissue had an additive effect on attraction of weevils to the pheromone but the effect was not significant in the field. Field trials, however, showed that attractiveness to weevils was positively correlated with the amount of fermented tissue added to the pheromone. The results indicate that fresh or fermented pseudostem tissue may enhance pheromone trap catches but the effect was not large enough to warrant their deployment for the optimisation of the infochemical-based trapping system for the management of C. sordidus.
Het voorkomen van loopkevers binnen een vegetatiegradiënt in de Millingerwaard (Coleoptera, Carabidae)
Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Noordijk, J. ; Sykora, K.V. ; Schaffers, A.P. - \ 2007
Entomologische Berichten 67 (2007)3. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 82 - 91.
habitatselectie - multivariate analyse - stroomvlakten - vegetatie - coleoptera - insecten - gelderse poort - habitat selection - multivariate analysis - floodplains - vegetation - insects
Op basis van een vangpotonderzoek wordt de relatie tussen het voorkomen van loopkeversoorten, abiotische factoren en de vegetatie beschreven. Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd in 2004 in de Millingerwaard. Er kan geconcludeerd worden dat bepaalde loopkeversoorten alleen bij een bepaald type vegetatie voorkomt
Genomic analysis of Oryctes rhinoceros virus reveals genetic relatedness to Heliothis zea virus I
Wang, Y. ; Oers, M.M. van; Crawford, A.M. ; Vlak, J.M. ; Jehle, J.A. - \ 2007
Archives of Virology 152 (2007)3. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 519 - 531.
nuclear polyhedrosis-virus - spot syndrome virus - rhabdionvirus-oryctes - baculovirus genome - dna viruses - psi-blast - sequence - replication - identification - coleoptera
Oryctes rhinoceros virus (OrV) is an unassigned invertebrate dsDNA virus with enveloped and rod-shaped virions. Two cloned PstI fragments, C and D, of OrV DNA have been sequenced, consisting of 19,805 and 17,146¿bp, respectively, and comprising about 30% of the OrV genome. For each of the two fragments, 20 open reading frames (ORFs) of 150 nucleotides or greater with no or minimal overlap were predicted. Ten of the predicted 40 ORFs revealed significant similarities to Heliothis zea virus 1 (HzV-1) ORFs, of which five, lef-4, lef-5, pif-2, dnapol and ac81, are homologues of conserved core genes in the family Baculoviridae, and one is homologous to baculovirus rr1. A baculovirus odv-e66 homologue is also present in OrV. Five ORFs encode proteins homologous to cellular thymidylate synthase (TS), patatin-like phospholipase, mitochondrial carrier protein, Ser/Thr protein phosphatase, and serine protease, respectively. TS is phylogenetically related to those of eukarya and nucleo-cytoplasmic large dsDNA viruses. However, the remaining 25 ORFs have poor or no sequence matches with the current databases. Both the gene content of the sequenced fragments and the phylogenetic analyses of the viral DNA polymerase suggest that OrV is most closely related to HzV-1. These findings and the re-evaluation of the relationship of HzV-1 to baculoviruses suggest that a new virus genus, Nudivirus, should be established, containing OrV and HzV-1, which are genetically related to members of the family Baculoviridae.
The significance of a grassy field boundary for the spatial distribution of carabids within two cereal fields
Saska, P. ; Vodde, M. ; Heijerman, Th. ; Westerman, P.R. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2007
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 122 (2007)4. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 427 - 434.
activity-density - pterostichus melanarius - beetle diversity - strip-management - ground beetles - coleoptera - landscape - biodiversity - arthropods - dispersal
This paper investigated how distance from the field edge affects overall activity-density, species richness and distribution of individual carabid (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species. Carabid beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at six different locations: grassy field boundary, 0 (field edge), 4, 11, 24 and 49 m distance from the field edge, in two fields of winter wheat (Wageningen, the Netherlands) during the spring and early summer of 2004. The assemblage of carabid beetles was highly diverse, consisting of 75 species. Carabid activity-density was low in the boundary compared to the field. Within the field, it was highest at the edge and decreased towards the field centre. Species richness, standardized to the number of individuals, did not differ between sampling locations. Based on the within-field distribution three ecological groups of carabids were distinguished: (i) boundary species; (ii) field-interior species and (iii) field-edge species. Because species within one genus differ in their response to the boundary, the importance of studies at species level is stressed.
Aziatische boktor dreigend gevaar voor bomen
Moraal, L.G. ; Wessels-Berk, B. - \ 2007
Tuin en Landschap 29 (2007)1. - ISSN 0165-3350 - p. 32 - 33.
cerambycidae - plantenplagen - coleoptera - gastheer parasiet relaties - parasieten - parasitologie - parasitisme - insectenbestrijding - insectenplagen - importbeperkingen - geïntegreerde bestrijding - bomen - straatbomen - anoplophora - plant pests - host parasite relationships - parasites - parasitology - parasitism - insect control - insect pests - import controls - integrated control - trees - street trees
Ondanks importcontroles hebben Aziatische boktorren, Anoplophora glabripennis, zich in Europa, maar nog niet in Nederland, weten te vestigen. Voor hun levenscyclus benutten ze allerlei boomsoorten en vormen zo een bedreiging voor bomen in stad en landschap. De boktorren hebben de voorkeur voor esdoorn, populier, wilg en paardenkastanje. Voor tijdige signalering is de Plantenziektekundige Dienst aangewezen op oplettende groenbeheerders. Herkenning van de torren, schadebeeld en symptomen worden behandeld
Echte tonderzwam geeft bijzondere kever volop kansen; dood houtbeleid stimuleert "dubbelafhankelijke soorten"
Moraal, L.G. ; Veerkamp, M.T. ; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Cuppen, J.G.M. ; Heijerman, Th. - \ 2007
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 4 (2007)2. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 20 - 21.
bomen - rottingsschimmels - waardplanten - insecten - coleoptera - zoögeografie - trees - decay fungi - host plants - insects - zoogeography
De tonderzwam is een zwakteparasiet, die groeit op verzwakte berken en beuken. Voor Europa zijn 21 soorten schimmels vastgesteld als indicatorsoorten voor natuurlijke beukenbossen; in Nederland komt de soort steeds vaker voor, doordat zwakke oude bomen minder snel verwijderd worden. Onderzocht is, of bijbehorende insecten de zwammen wel kan vinden, in verband met de ruimelijke spreiding van de zwam. Alterra doet verslag van onderzoek, in opdracht van LNV
Het genus Melanophthalma (Coleoptera: Latridiidae) in Nederland
Cuppen, J.G.M. ; Vorst, O.F.J. - \ 2006
Entomologische Berichten 66 (2006)4. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 114 - 117.
cryptophagidae - coleoptera - insecten - insects
Dwergschimmelkevers (Melanophthalma curticollis en M. suturalis) zijn niet gemakkelijk te onderscheiden. Aandacht voor determinatie, verspreiding, fenologie en biotoop van beide soorten
Quality change and mass loss of paddy during airtight storage in a ferro-cement bin in Sri Lanka
Adhikarinayake, T.B. ; Palipane, K.B. ; Müller, J. - \ 2006
Journal of Stored Products Research 42 (2006)3. - ISSN 0022-474X - p. 377 - 390.
carbon-dioxide - walker lepidoptera - moisture-content - grain - respiration - phycitidae - coleoptera - concrete - maize - wheat
In Sri Lanka, prices for paddy fluctuate severely showing a minimum price at harvest. To benefit from higher prices, farmers strive to store paddy, but lack of facilities and poor storage management cause quantitative and qualitative losses by rodents, insects and microbial deterioration. To overcome these problems an airtight storage system, based on a ferro-cement bin, has been developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the storage system in terms of paddy quality and mass loss. Before and after storage, samples were drawn from this bin and a control to analyse moisture content, thousand-grain mass, insect infestation, mould, germination rate and head rice yield. Additional samples were taken from different regions in the bin. Oxygen concentration dropped to 2.7% within 30 days and carbon dioxide rose to 9.1%. The change in gas composition was caused mainly by insect respiration. Ephestia cautella were found on the top layer in the bin and Sitophilus spp. and Rhyzopertha dominica in the bottom layer. The average infestation rate was 4.8 insects/kg. Most of the insects were dead at unloading. After 6 months storage, mass loss was 0.4% in the bin and 2.1% in the control. Head rice yield was 35.8% in the bin and 27.3% in the control. A significant amount of mould was found only in the control (0.85%). Germination rate, however, decreased from 85% to 0% in the airtight bin, whereas it was still 38% in the control. The study has shown that airtight ferro-cement bins provide a safe and convenient method for farmers in the tropics to preserve their harvest for later sale at a higher price. Further work is necessary to develop strategies for avoiding the decrease in germination capacity.
Inventarisatie bestrijdingsmogelijkheden roestbruine bladsprietkever, Serica brunnea, in trekheesters: Consultancy
Bloemhard, C.M.J. ; Kromwijk, A. - \ 2006
2006 : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. Glastuinbouw (PPO projectnr. 324200010)
struiken - coleoptera - insectenplagen - plagenbestrijding - shrubs - insect pests - pest control
Gulzige vreters en irriterende brandharen
Moraal, L.G. - \ 2006
Tuin en Landschap 28 (2006)161. - ISSN 0165-3350 - p. 36 - 39.
bomen - insectenplagen - bosplagen - bosschade - verspreiding - vespidae - coleoptera - thaumetopoea processionea - rupsen - trees - insect pests - forest pests - forest damage - dispersal - caterpillars
Hoewel de eikenprocessierupsen vaak als eerste het nieuws halen, veroorzaakt een voorjaarstrio van groene eikenbladroller en de kleine en de grote wintervlinder de meeste schade bij Nederlandse bomen. Een overzicht van opvallende vreters en irriterende brandharen
Effecten van de Hoogeveenseweg op loopkevers
Prins, D. ; Jonge, M. de; Noordijk, J. ; Vermeulen, R. - \ 2006
De Levende Natuur 107 (2006)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 218 - 222.
heidegebieden - natuurbescherming - coleoptera - habitats - drenthe - ecologische hoofdstructuur - heathlands - nature conservation - ecological network
Wegen doorsnijden vaak allerlei gebieden, waaronder natuurgebieden. Hierdoor kunnen er geïsoleerde populaties aan beide zijden van een weg ontstaan. Wanneer deze populaties te klein zijn, dreigt genetische verarming en tenslotte uitsterven. De barrièrewerking van een weg is echter niet voor alle diersoorten gelijk. Zo willen of kunnen bepaalde, vaak kleinere diersoorten de verharde weg niet betreden of worden bij toch oversteken doodgereden. In dit onderzoek worden de effecten van de Hoogeveenseweg, die midden door het natuurontwikkelingsgebied in Mantingerveld loopt, besproken
Multi-gene phylogeny for Ophiostoma spp. reveals two new species from Protea infructescences
Roets, F. ; Beer, Z.W. de; Dreyer, L.L. ; Zipfel, R. ; Crous, P.W. ; Wingfield, M.J. - \ 2006
Studies in Mycology 55 (2006). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 199 - 212.
mycangial fungi - bark beetles - south-africa - sp-nov - complex - scolytidae - coleoptera - symbiosis - survival - genus
Ophiostoma represents a genus of fungi that are mostly arthropod-dispersed and have a wide global distribution. The best known of these fungi are carried by scolytine bark beetles that infest trees, but an interesting guild of Ophiostoma spp. occurs in the infructescences of Protea spp. native to South Africa. Phylogenetic relationships between Ophiostoma spp. from Protea infructescences were studied using DNA sequence data from the P-tubulin, 5.8S ITS (including the flanking internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2) and the large subunit DNA regions. Two new species, O. phasma sp. nov. and O. paimiculminatum sp. nov. are described and compared with other Ophiostoma spp. occurring in the same niche. Results of this study have raised the number of Ophiostoma species from the infructescences of serotinous Protea spp. in South Africa to five. Molecular data also suggest that adaptation to the Protea infructescence niche by Ophiostoma spp. has occurred independently more than once.
Beheersing van de iepenziekte in bossen met een natuurdoelstelling. Verslag van een onderzoek, uigevoerd in het Lauwersmeergebied
Kopinga, J. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1323) - 47
ulmaceae - ulmus - ophiostoma - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - plantenziektebestrijding - ringen van planten (ringing) - verjonging - feromonen - coleoptera - nederland - lauwersmeergebied - plant pathogenic fungi - plant disease control - ringing - regeneration - pheromones - netherlands
Regeneratie van de gevelde iepen uit de opslag van wortels of stobben is vaak een probleem om iepen definitief uit een gemengde beplanting te verwijderen. Tenzij gebruik wordt gemaakt van chemische middelen, maar dat is in beplantingen met een natuurdoelstelling ongewenst. Een mogelijk alternatieve methode is dan het ringen van de bomen waarbij ingegrepen wordt op de opslag van reservestoffen die de boom benut bij de vorming van opslag. Van de werking van deze methode bij iep is nog weinig bekend . Dit rapport beschrijft de opzet, uitvoering en eerste resultaten van praktijkonderzoek. Bij dit onderzoek speelde tevens de vraag in hoeverre en hoelang een beplanting met zieke iepen als potentiële besmettingshaard een bedreiging kan vormen voor nog gezonde iepenbeplantingen in de wijdere omgeving. Dit aspect is onderzocht aan de hand van een netwerk van rond een besmet haardgebied geplaatste feromoonvallen voor de iepenspintkever. Door het ringen wordt de natuurlijke regeneratie geremd, maar de resultaten na ruim een jaar onderzoek laten nog niet toe om hierover meer gedefinieerde en gekwantificeerde uitspraken te doen. Bij betrekkelijk geringe populatiedichtheden van de iepenspintkever, zoals die zich voordoen in het Lauwersmeergebied, zijn significante verhogingen daarvan vooralsnog alleen merkbaar c.q. meetbaar binnen afstanden van slechts enkele kilometers van een haardgebied
Voorkom ritnaaldschade door doelgerichte bestrijding van kniptor
Rozen, K. van - \ 2005
Kennisakker.nl 2005 (2005)15 april. - 2005
elateridae - coleoptera - larven - bodeminsecten - vallen - vangmethoden - plagenbestrijding - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - biologische bestrijding - aardappelen - wintertarwe - akkerbouw - larvae - soil insects - traps - trapping - pest control - integrated pest management - biological control - potatoes - winter wheat - arable farming
In dit artikel wordt uiteengezet hoe u de schade door ritnaalden kunt voorkomen door monitoring. In bouwplannen met graszaad, wintertarwe, aardappelen kan ritnaaldschade optreden. Doordat de levenscycles van de ritnaald 4 jaar duurt, is het moeilijk om in te schatten of er in het jaar dat er aardappelen geteeld worden ook ritnaalden zijn. In 2004 is een nieuwe methode op de markt verschenen voor monitoring van kniptoren. Bij deze methode kan voorafgaand aan de aardappelteelt een inschatting gemaakt worden van de hoeveelheden ritnaalden in het jaar van de aardappelteelt. Een bestrijding kan dan voortijdig worden uitgevoerd. Deze methode biedt nieuwe mogelijkheden om ritnaaldschade drastisch te beperken met geringe kosten.
Ritnaalden kunnen onverwachts veel opbrengstderving in aardappelen veroorzaken
Ester, A. ; Bus, C.B. - \ 2005
Kennisakker.nl 2005 (2005)15 feb.
aardappelen - pootknollen - coleoptera - bodeminsecten - oogstschade - plagenbestrijding - bestrijdingsmethoden - insecticiden - gewasbescherming - akkerbouw - potatoes - seed tubers - soil insects - crop damage - pest control - control methods - insecticides - plant protection - arable farming
In de zomer van 1996 trad in aardappelen schade op veroorzaakt door ritnaalden. Deze aantasting werd vanuit verschillende gebieden gemeld, kwam plaatselijk voor en was soms vrij groot. Ritnaaldenschade bestaat uit het aanvreten van stengels en poters, waardoor het aantal stengels minder groot is en er soms een te geringe stand overblijft. Belangrijker is de schade aan de nieuwe knollen. Door vreterij ontstaan gaatjes in de knollen, soms tot meer dan één cm diep, waardoor de knollen sterk in waarde teruglopen en partijen kunnen worden afgekeurd. Na het scheuren van grasland, maar ook na enkele jaren gazongras, is schade te verwachten. Deze schade zal dan meestal vanaf het tweede jaar na de genoemde voorvrucht plaats vinden. Wanneer uit een test blijkt dat de kans op schade groot is, kan voor het poten een bestrijding worden uitgevoerd met volvelds 20 kg Mocap 20GS per hectare. Dit middel heeft een brede nevenwerking tegen andere bodeminsecten en wordt ook ingezet tegen aardappelcysteaaltjes. Toepassing van Mocap over de pootrug voor het frezen wordt afgeraden. In gevallen waar ritnaalden vooral in perceelsranden voorkomen, zal een bestrijding over de breedte van een spuitbaan mogelijk voldoende zijn.
Bisexual populations of Otiorhynchus rugifrons (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)
Heijerman, Th. ; Hodge, P.J. - \ 2005
Entomologische Berichten 65 (2005)3. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 66 - 69.
otiorhynchus - coleoptera - curculionidae - biseksualiteit - biologische indicatoren (populatie-ecologie) - verspreiding - populatie-ecologie - populatiebiologie - bisexuality - biological tags - dispersal - population ecology - population biology
Vooral binnen het snuitkevergenus Otiorhynchus komen veel soorten voor die zich parthenogenetisch voortplanten. Sommige van deze soorten hebben in een beperkt deel van het areaal toch mannetjes. Voorbeelden hiervan zijn O, raucus, O. nodosus, O. rugosostriatus, O. scaber, O. veterator, O. sulcatus, O.fullo en O. ligustici. Het is gebleken dat exemplaren van bisexuele soorten 11 chromosomen bezitten, terwijl parthenogenetische soorten polyploïd zijn. De meeste parthenogenetische soorten zijn triloïd, maar er zijn ook soorten met zowel diploïde als tetraploïde xemplaren. Otiorhynchus rugifrons staat in de literatuur bekend als een triploïde soort. Volgens de literatuur zouden er ook mannetjes bestaan, maar waar deze voorkomen is onbekend. In deze bijdrage wordt het voorkomen van bisexuele populaties van O. rugifrons in Frankrijk (Bretagne) en Groot-Brittanië (Engeland en Wales) vermeld. Een korte beschrijving van het mannetje wordt gegeven en afbeeldingen van zowel het manlijke als het vrouwelijke genitaal worden gepresenteerd. Daarnaast wordt de verspreiding in Europa en de ecologie van de soort besproken
Wat je niet kent, dat zie je niet
Linden, A. van der - \ 2005
De Boomkwekerij 2005 (2005)15. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 10 - 11.
boomteelt - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - ziektebestrijding - insectenbestrijding - gewasbescherming - predatoren van schadelijke insecten - biologische bestrijding - parthenolecanium corni - parthenolecanium - pulvinaria - coleoptera - braconidae - arboriculture - ornamental woody plants - disease control - insect control - plant protection - predators of insect pests - biological control
Over de dopluis en de bestrijding ervan, biologisch en chemisch
Met lokstofval rozenkevers vangen
Ruther, J. ; Deventer, P. van; Griepink, F.C. - \ 2005
Groen & Golf : vakblad voor golf, natuur en greenkeeping 3 (2005)2. - ISSN 1573-529X - p. 18 - 19.
sportterreinen - sportveldgronden - gazon - coleoptera - insecten - rozen - rosaceae - insectenlokstoffen - vangmethoden - sports grounds - sports turf soils - lawns and turf - insects - roses - insect attractants - trapping
De Universiteit van Berlijn heeft een lokstof en een val ontwikkeld om rozenkevers te vangen. Hiermee kun je de aanwezigheid en de grootte van de populatie tijdig vaststellen en grote schade beperken
Factors influencing pheromone trap effectiveness in attracting the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus
Tinzaara, W. ; Gold, C.S. ; Dicke, M. ; Huis, A. van; Ragama, P.E. - \ 2005
International Journal of Pest Management 51 (2005)4. - ISSN 0967-0874 - p. 281 - 288.
aggregation pheromone - sampling range - curculionidae - coleoptera - semiochemicals - radius
Studies were conducted in Uganda to evaluate the influence of distance, environmental factors, trap location and trap type on catches of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in pheromone-baited traps. Marked weevils were released at recorded locations within plots. Trap efficiency was low and decreased with distance from the pheromone trap. When weevils were released in close vicinity to the trap, significantly more weevils were recaptured from 0.5 m compared to those recaptured from 4 m within 30 days of trap placement. Relative humidity showed a significant positive relationship to C. sordidus catches, while wind speed, temperature and rainfall had no effect. Covering pheromone-baited traps with banana leaves increased capture rates. In one experiment, more weevils were captured in pheromone-baited traps placed in alleys than at the base of mats, while no differences were found in the second. This study provides information on how various factors influence the effectiveness of pheromone-baited traps that will assist in designing a pheromone-based mass trapping strategy for the control of C. sordidus.
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