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Ethnobotany : linking traditional plant use to health, history and heritage
Andel, Tinde van - \ 2016
Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573741 - 16 p.
ethnobotany - economic botany - health - wild plants - medicinal plants - etnobotanie - economische botanie - gezondheid - wilde planten - medicinale planten
The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy
Maroyi, A. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Jos van der Maesen, co-promotor(en): Lars Chatrou. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732446 - 190
gloriosa - taxonomie - fylogenie - etnobotanie - zaden - plantensamenstelling - knollen - colchicine - economische botanie - taxonomy - phylogeny - ethnobotany - seeds - plant composition - tubers - economic botany
This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of great importance because it includes widely used species as traditional medicine, horticultural plants and sources of industrial and pharmaceutical chemical colchicine. The seeds and tubers of G. superba are valued as a commercial source of colchicine. The genus Gloriosa has considerable horticultural appeal because of the conspicuous inflorescence of its members and the ease with which taxa are propagated, introduced into new areas and hybridise in cultivation. G. carsonii, G. modesta, G. simplex and G. superba have been taken into cultivation as ornamental plants in several countries, including native countries of these species.
Growth and development of true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottbøll) : with special reference to accumulation of starch in the trunk : a study on morphology, genetic variation and ecophysiology, and their implications for cultivation
Schuiling, D.L. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858546 - 259
metroxylon sagu - sago - arecaceae - starch crops - plant development - growth analysis - plant morphology - agronomy - maluku - indonesia - ecophysiology - economic botany - zetmeelgewassen - plantenontwikkeling - groeianalyse - plantenmorfologie - agronomie - molukken - indonesië - ecofysiologie - economische botanie
Keywords: Metroxylon sagu, Arecaceae, starch crops, plant growth and development, plant morphology, inflorescence structure, electron microscopy, phenological scale, genetic variation, plant taxonomy, folk taxonomy, ethnobotany, leaf area, leaf area index, starch accumulation, starch distribution, plant ecophysiology, tropical lowlands, wetlands, traditional processing, estate cultivation, agronomy, Moluccas, Maluku.

True sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottbøll) is a stout, clustering palm adapted to swampy tropical lowland conditions. Each axis in a sago palm clump flowers once at the end of its life after having amassed a large amount of starch in its trunk. Man can harvest this starch by felling the trunk, pulverizing the pith and leaching the starch out with water, and use it like other starches for food or non-food purposes. It is a staple food mainly in eastern Indonesia and in Papua New Guinea where it is harvested mostly from semi-managed stands. For establishing sago palm as a full-fledged plantation crop, desirable because of its envisaged large yield potential as a perennial, its niche habitat, and its potential as a raw material provider for bio-ethanol production, the scientific base for establishing the right felling time to harvest the starch needed strengthening.

Between October 1988 and November 1990, 27 sago trunks in the Adult Vegetative (AV) or Generative (G) phase belonging to six varieties were selected from semi wild sago stands in the Moluccas, eastern Indonesia: 23 trunks (4 varieties) on the alluvial coastal plain near Hatusua village, Seram Island, and 4 trunks (2 varieties) on hilly terrain near Siri Sori Serani village, Saparua Island. These trunks were felled, dissected, morphologically described and sampled for the amount and distribution of starch they contained. The leafless parts of the trunks were 4.45 to 19.65 m long, had a mean starch density of 4.6 to 254 kg/m3 and contained five to 777 kg of starch (maximum found in a whole trunk: 819 kg).

To link starch content to age, the ages of the sampled trunks had to be estimated. To enable age estimation by counting leaf scars on the trunk, the leaf unfolding rate of 36 AV-phase palms around Hatusua (31 palms) and Siri-Sori Serani (5 palms) was monitored for varying periods between 1989 and 1992. Probably due to large variation in habitat and genetic make up, this rate varied from 2 to 14 leaves per year (mean 7.85), rendering number of leaf scars unfit as accurate age estimator. Also trunk height proved unfit for this purpose. From monitoring 5 G-phase palms, the G-phase could be subdivided into 3 sub-phases (G1, G2, G3), recognizable from the ground by the phased development of the successive orders of inflorescence branches. By combining gathered morphological and monitoring data, a phenological scale of a model palm was composed consisting of two parallel timelines of hidden and outwardly visible events: two years after the start of the Establishment (E) phase, the first AV-phase leaf is initiated in the apical growing point, to unfold only 2.5 years later; the initiation of the first AV-phase tissues is followed 12.5 to 14.5 years later by the initiation of the first G-phase tissues, followed 4 to 5.5 years later by the shedding of fruits, and finally by a 2- to 5-year Recycling phase (name proposed here) in which the axis decays and collapses. This scale, which accounts for the large time gap between initiation of trunk parts and their becoming visible, may help to correctly time cultural measures. The 27 sampled trunks could tentatively be ranked according to physiological age into 4 AV phase classes and 9 G phase classes.

Since the examined palms belonged to 6 different local varieties, their relative rareness or commonness had to be established to assess the validity of the findings. Based on literature and on interviews with informants, an overview of locally recognised sago palm varieties is presented. The number of unique variety names in 32 localities in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea totalled 325, ranging from 2 (spined vs unspined only) to 34 per locality. On the basis of this survey, the Hatusua varieties were considered average. The nomenclatural category folk variety (fovar, fv.) is proposed to unambiguously name local varieties by adding to the variety name an indication of the location where, and (if known) the ethnic/linguistic group by which that name is used.

Leaf area estimation methods were devised to enable investigation of the relationship between leaf area and starch content. In the AV-phase the Total leaf area (TLA) of a sago palm axis ranged from 200 m2 to 325 m2, one axis having an exceptional TLA of 388 m2. The TLA in the G-phase before fruiting mostly remained within the same range, possibly exceeding it for a short period early in that stage. The Leaf area index (LAI) of an individual axis showed an upward trend from 1 - 1.5 in the E-phase to 1.25 - 1.75 in the AV-phase, to more than 2 in the early G-phase, followed by a decrease to about 1.5 again in the late G-phase before fruiting. No fruiting palms were available for analysis. The TLA and LAI of a single trunk could not be linked to the mean starch density of its pith, nor to the total amount of starch the pith contained.
Generally, starch density in the trunk first increased with height above ground level, reached a maximum about half-way to two-thirds up the leafless part of the trunk, and then sharply dropped towards the top of the trunk. From the late AV phase onward the maximum starch density ranged from 238 to 284 kg/m3. The four trunks with the highest maximum starch densities, all closely around 280 kg/m3, belonged to three different varieties, suggesting that 280 kg/m3 may be considered the maximum starch storage capacity in the pith of any variety.
The starch distribution pattern in the leafless part of the trunk showed a tendency to evolve with age from two tailed (density gradually increasing from base, gradually decreasing towards top) to one tailed (density gradually increasing from base, sharply decreasing towards top). The differences in distribution pattern found strongly suggested that there must be other factors besides age and development phase affecting starch accumulation. Attempts to determine the effect of palm variety and of the environment mostly failed.

Potential yield of a model palm based on the maximum starch density of 280 kg/m3 was estimated at 840 kg of dry starch. That this amount is much higher than generally found may partly be due to poor recovery ratios, as the results of a traditionally processed trunk demonstrated: only 47% of the starch in the processed trunk part was recovered, and if the unharvested starch present in the traditionally discarded basal and top part of the trunk is taken into account, recovery drops to 44%.

In an attempt to establish the point in time at which a sago palm starts to be a nett consumer of its own starch, the course of the energy producing and consuming capacity of an axis during its life time was modelled based on the assumption that by the end of the AV-phase the existing TLA of the axis produces just the amount of energy needed to maintain existing biomass, to keep up the normal regular growth, and to fill new trunk with starch. Using this model, assimilate requirements for building and maintaining the inflorescence and the fruits could not be met by the production capacity of the leaves plus the starch reserves in the trunk. For this modelling approach to succeed in predicting the turning point from nett production to nett consumption of starch by a sago palm axis, additional data on chemical composition of its parts and on assimilation rate are needed.

Lack of precise data on the age of the sampled trunks and lack of uniformity of their genetic make up and growing conditions made it impossible to arrive at the sought-after detailed timetable of the evolution of trunk starch accumulation and depletion to base the right felling time of a sago palm on. The high starch density found in the trunk of a palm with half-grown fruits indicated that depletion of starch reserves by the palm itself may set in much later than generally assumed.
Once the course of starch accumulation in time in a single axis is unravelled, the next research question should be how this adds up in a clump - the actual production unit in a plantation - with axes of different age. Timing felling in such a situation should be aimed at maintaining a maximum starch accumulation rate for the plantation as a whole rather than at harvesting a maximum amount of starch per trunk.

Data sheets of each palm examined containing all primary and some secondary data, and including photographs, are appended in digital form.

Guide to cultivated plants
Elzebroek, A.T.G. ; Wind, K. - \ 2008
Wallingford : CABI - ISBN 9781845933562 - 540
gewassen - planten - plantkunde - agronomie - landbouwplantenteelt - economische botanie - agro-ecologie - crops - plants - botany - agronomy - crop husbandry - economic botany - agroecology
Guide to cultivated plants includes concise textual descriptions and attractive full color illustrations of over 300 crop species. These comprise 11 commodity groups ranging from vegetables, both horticulture and forages species, and arable crops to the major fruits and plantation crops. All major cultivated plants from temperate, Mediterranean and tropical climates are covered and the morphology, botany, ecology, agronomy and use of cultivated crops is fully discussed.
Crop wild relatives in the Netherlands: actors and protection measures
Hoekstra, R. ; Veller, M.G.P. van; Odé, B. - \ 2008
In: Crop wild relative conservation and use / Maxted, N., Ford-Lloyd, B.V., Kell, S.P., Iriondo, J.M., Dulloo, E., Turok, J., Wallingford : CABI - ISBN 9781845930998 - p. 165 - 177.
gewassen - wilde verwanten - bedreigde soorten - plantenverzamelingen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - in-situ conservering - genetische erosie - genetische variatie - botanische tuinen - genenbanken - germplasm - medicinale planten - hulpbronnenbehoud - economische botanie - crops - wild relatives - endangered species - plant collections - plant genetic resources - in situ conservation - genetic erosion - genetic variation - botanical gardens - gene banks - medicinal plants - resource conservation - economic botany
This book text presents methodologies and case studies that provide recommendations for the conservation and use of crop wild relatives. In a national, regional or global context, the status of crop wild relatives, that are closely related to crop plants, is examined. Conservation of crop wild relatives is important to enable these species to be included in plant breeding activities for beneficial traits such as pest or disease resistance and yield improvement.
Studies on agronomy and crop physiology of Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew
Taye, M. - \ 2008
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Willemien Lommen. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049159 - 148
plectranthus - agronomie - agronomische kenmerken - planten met knollen - knollen - gewassen - etnobotanie - ethiopië - knolvorming - gewasfysiologie - economische botanie - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - agro-ecologie - agronomy - agronomic characteristics - tuberous species - tubers - crops - ethnobotany - ethiopia - tuberization - crop physiology - economic botany - new crops - agroecology

Keywords: Development, morphology, plant density, potato, radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, seed size, seed tuber, spacing, stolon, tipping, tuber

Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew (Lamiaceae) is an ancient Ethiopian tuber crop grown in mid and high altitude areas in the north, south and south-west of Ethiopia. Cultivation dates back from c. 3000 BC, but in recent years its acreage and production have declined. Renewed interest to conserve the crop and increase its production is limited by absence of accurate information on growth, development and cultural practices of P. edulis. This project aimed at providing the basic knowledge needed to direct further applied research.
A standard production technique was developed after interviewing farmers in Chencha and Wolaita in southern Ethiopia, and was used in later experiments. The standard planting material chosen were de-sprouted tuber pieces, prepared from a medium (12–15 cm) sized mother tuber broken into three pieces. Three pieces were planted per hole, at a hole spacing of 75  90 cm. Shoot tipping (pinching; the removal of the apices with 12 leaf pairs) was carried out when the crop was 10–15 cm high.
The general structure of the crop was similar to that of Irish potato. Plant components were: the seed tuber pieces, sprouts, main stems, branches, leaves, inflorescences, fruits, seeds, roots, stolons and tubers. The crop had a long growing period. In two growth studies, maximum fresh tuber yields were attained c. 34 weeks after planting (WAP). Above-ground development was characterised by a late emergence (c. 4 weeks), a slow development of the canopy after emergence until full ground cover was attained (c. 20 weeks), a very short period during which ground cover was full (c. 2 weeks) and a relative fast decline in ground cover thereafter (6−8 weeks). Primary and secondary branches constituted the major part of the canopy. The first stolons were formed c. 1012 WAP on below-ground nodes of main stems and primary branches. Tubers were first recorded at 18 WAP as a swelling on the tip of the stolon and sometimes as a swelling of the middle part of stolons. Tubers attained a maximum length of 2025 cm, and a maximum diameter of c. 2 cm. Aerial stolons were initiated 1216 weeks later than below-ground stolons and could be up to 2.5 m long.
The increase in tuber fresh weight with time was realized by an increase in both number of tubers and in average weight per tuber over the entire tuber formation period. Fresh tuber yields at 34 WAP were 4549 Mg ha1. Yield levels in other sets of experiments in which the harvest date was chosen arbitrarily were c. 21 Mg ha1 (29.7 WAP) and c. 30 Mg ha1 (34.7 WAP). Experimental yields were very high compared to those reported by farmers.
Nevertheless, in growth studies, the average daily dry matter production of the crop over the whole growing period was only 4.2−4.6 g m2 day1. The dry matter production was limited by a poor radiation interception by the canopy – only one third of the incident radiation was intercepted − and a low radiation use efficiency (RUE) – on average only 1.59 g MJ1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). RUE gradually increased after emergence to about 2.7 g MJ1 PAR when tuber formation was still in an early stage (24−26 WAP), but then declined because of a stagnation or decline in total crop dry weight, that lasted several weeks. Dry matter production decreased in that period because the decrease in canopy dry matter – especially stem dry matter − was not yet compensated for by the increase in tuber dry matter. This was attributed partly to a still limited capacity of the tubers to convert and / or store assimilates in this stage. Later this changed and total dry weight and RUE increased again. Harvest index was 8199% at the moment when tuber yield was maximum.
Shoot tipping significantly increased ground cover and delayed canopy senescence. Tipping also had a positive – though not always significant – effect on tuber yield. Tipping enhanced early stolon formation, but did not consistently affect the number of stolons later in the growing season
Because differences among tipped treatments were not large, limiting the tipping frequency to one will help to save time, labour and money.
Across experiments in which the number and size of the tuber pieces planted per hole were varied, the tuber fresh weight increased when the number of main stems per m2 increased up to 2.53 main stems per m2. This sufficiently high stem number could usually be achieved by planting sufficient seed tuber material (equalling at least one medium-sized mother tuber per hole) and breaking it into two or three pieces. This confers with the farmers practice. Over all treatments, an increase in fresh tuber yield was never realized by merely increasing the individual tuber weight, but either by combined effects on number of tubers and individual tuber fresh weight or by an effect on number of tubers alone.
A further increase in radiation interception by advancing and improving canopy development could likely be achieved by planting larger seed pieces, pre-sprouting the seed tuber pieces and using a higher plant density. However, the below ground development should be geared to that. At present the late initiation and formation of tubers already seems to limit production, and this should be improved when an enhanced canopy cover should result also in higher tuber yield.
On short term notice, however, the major constraints to concentrate on will be the shortage of seed tubers and the poor storability of the progeny tubers. Shortage of seed tubers was mentioned by the interviewed P. edulis farmers as a major constraint and the principle reason for the decline in production of P. edulis. The present practice by farmers of storing tubers in situ in the ground was shown to reduce tuber fresh weights by 3659% and the number of tubers by 1848% in 6 weeks.

Investeringsimpuls riet
Jongschaap, R.E.E. ; Colon, L.T. ; Dolstra, O. - \ 2005
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 370) - 32
phragmites australis - agronomie - gewasbescherming - plantenveredeling - genetische variatie - nederland - economische botanie - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - agronomy - plant protection - plant breeding - genetic variation - netherlands - economic botany - new crops
Riet is een gewas met veel nuttige functies zoals biomassaproductie voor energiewinning en de absorptie van nutriënten en zware metalen bij afvalwaterzuivering. Het doel van deze literatuurstudie is om a) riet als productief gewas te waarderen op agronomische kenmerken en te zoeken naar genetische variatie van die kenmerken die de teelt economisch en maatschappelijk verhogen en b) om om de genoemde kenmerken te kwantificeren voor Nederlandse of West-Europese omstandigheden
Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Proceedings of the First PROTA International Workshop
Schmelzer, G.H. ; Omino, E.A. - \ 2003
Wageningen : PROTA Foundation - ISBN 9077114041 - 360
veldgewassen - wilde planten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantkunde - tropisch afrika - economische botanie - field crops - wild plants - plant genetic resources - botany - tropical africa - economic botany
Prota programme, Wageningen University
Ressources vegetales de l'Afrique tropicale : precurseur
Oyen, L.P.A. ; Lemmens, R.H.M.J. - \ 2002
Wageningen : PROTA programme - ISBN 9789077114032 - 207
wilde planten - tropische gewassen - landbouw - agronomie - plantkunde - informatiesystemen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - doelgroepen - landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plattelandsontwikkeling - biodiversiteit - tropisch afrika - afrika - economische botanie - wild plants - tropical crops - agriculture - agronomy - botany - information systems - plant genetic resources - target groups - land use - sustainability - rural development - biodiversity - tropical africa - africa - economic botany
Plant Resources of Tropical Africa: Precursor
Oyen, L.P.A. ; Lemmens, R.H.M.J. - \ 2002
Wageningen : PROTA programme - ISBN 9789077114025 - 187
wilde planten - tropische gewassen - landbouw - agronomie - plantkunde - informatiesystemen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - doelgroepen - landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plattelandsontwikkeling - biodiversiteit - tropisch afrika - afrika - economische botanie - wild plants - tropical crops - agriculture - agronomy - botany - information systems - plant genetic resources - target groups - land use - sustainability - rural development - biodiversity - tropical africa - africa - economic botany
PROTA programme, Wageningen University
Plant resources of Tropical Africa: Basic list of species and commodity grouping
Bosch, C.H. ; Siemonsma, J.S. ; Lemmens, R.H.M.J. ; Oyen, L.P.A. - \ 2002
Wageningen : PROTA programme - ISBN 9789077114018 - 341
tropische gewassen - wilde planten - aanwendingen - inventarisaties - controlelijsten - plantkunde - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - biologische naamgeving - tropisch afrika - afrika - economische botanie - tropical crops - wild plants - uses - inventories - checklists - botany - plant genetic resources - biological nomenclature - tropical africa - africa - economic botany
Medicinal and poisonous plants 2
Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. van; Bunyapraphatsara, N. - \ 2001
Leiden : Backhuys Publishers - ISBN 9789057820991 - 782
medicinale planten - giftige planten - tropische gewassen - taxonomie - zuidoost-azië - economische botanie - medicinal plants - poisonous plants - tropical crops - taxonomy - south east asia - economic botany
Report of expedition to collect wild species of potato in Costa Rica, November 25 - December 23, 1996
Spooner, D.M. ; Hoekstra, R. ; Vilchez, B. - \ 1997
Wageningen : CPRO-DLO - 45
solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - genenbanken - genetische bronnen - germplasm - hulpbronnenbehoud - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - wilde planten - costa rica - plantkunde - economische botanie - potatoes - gene banks - genetic resources - resource conservation - plant genetic resources - wild plants - botany - economic botany
De introductie van onze cultuurplanten en hun begeleiders van het Neolithicum tot 1500 (ed. A.C. Zeven).
Zeven, A.C. - \ 1997
Wageningen : Vereniging voor Landbouwgeschiedenis - ISBN 9789080052239 - 107
wilde planten - geschiedenis - plantkunde - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - economische botanie - historische perioden - wild plants - history - botany - new crops - economic botany - historic periods
Modelling weed emergence patterns
Vleeshouwers, L.M. - \ 1997
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): C.M. Karssen; M.J. Kropff. - S.l. : Vleeshouwers - ISBN 9789054857082 - 165
onkruiden - wilde planten - kieming - zaadkieming - kiemrust - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - plantkunde - economische botanie - weeds - wild plants - germination - seed germination - seed dormancy - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models - botany - economic botany
<p>Anticipating weed pressure may be important in selecting and timing weed control measures in order to optimize their effectiveness, and thus reduce herbicide use. Therefore, a predictive model of the time of emergence and the numbers of seedling emerging (the weed emergence pattern) after soil cultivation may be a useful tool in integrated weed management. In this study, a simulation model was developed in order to increase the quantitative understanding of weed emergence in the field in relation to weather, soil and cultivation measures. In the model, three phases were distinguished in the process of weed emergence in the field, and modelled in separate modules: annual changes in dormancy, germination, and pre-emergence growth. The model was parameterized and tested for three arable weed species: <em>Polygonum persicaria, Chenopodium album</em> and <em>Spergula arvensis.</em><p>Simulation of annual cycles in dormancy and germination is based on a physiological model concerning the action of phytochrome in the seed. Dormancy is related to the amount of an hypothetical phytochrome receptor, that fluctuates in an annual pattern. The simulation model gave a reasonably accurate description of cyclic changes in germinability of seeds exhumed in a three years' burial experiment. The timing of germination was simulated by means of the thermal time concept.<p>A physiologically based model describes the effects of temperature, soil penetration resistance, burial depth and seed weight on pre-emergence growth of seedlings. The model provided a good description of seedling emergence observed in a laboratory experiment.<p>The separate modules simulating the consecutive processes of dormancy release, germination and pre-emergence growth were linked to form a model simulating seasonal weed emergence patterns in the field. Input variables of the model were the date and method of soil cultivation, soil temperature and soil penetration resistance. Output of the model was seedling density and the timing of seedling emergence. The model was evaluated with data from a field experiment. When using the germination results of the exhumed seed lots to estimate the degree of dormancy at the time of soil cultivation, the extent of the emergence flushes following soil cultivation could be described well. Although the dormancy model gave a good description of annual cycles in dormancy, the quantitative prediction of seasonal changes in dormancy and germination was not accurate enough for predicting field emergence, and appeared to be the weak point in predicting weed emergence patterns. When there was substantial emergence as a result of soil cultivation, the timing of emergence could be predicted accurately.
Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 11. Auxiliary plants
Jansen, P.C.M. ; Oyen, L.P.A. ; Maesen, L.J.G. van der - \ 1997
Leiden : Backhuys Publishers (Plant Resources of South-East Asia 11) - ISBN 9789073348660 - 389
wilde planten - bedektzadigen - bosbouw - bomen - beplantingen - zuidoost-azië - dekgewassen - bosproducten anders dan hout - economische botanie - wild plants - angiosperms - forestry - trees - plantations - south east asia - cover crops - non-wood forest products - economic botany
Verzamelexpeditie redt wilde aardappelen-speurtocht in Guatemala
Hoekstra, R. ; Berg, R.G. van den; Spooner, D.M. - \ 1997
Prophyta 51 (1997)4. - ISSN 0921-5506 - p. 8 - 10.
genenbanken - genetische bronnen - germplasm - hulpbronnenbehoud - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - wilde planten - flora - plantengeografie - guatemala - plantkunde - economische botanie - gene banks - genetic resources - resource conservation - plant genetic resources - potatoes - wild plants - phytogeography - botany - economic botany
Wild plant food in agricultural environments: a study of occurrence, management, and gathering rights in Northeast Thailand.
Price, L.L. - \ 1997
Human Organization 56 (1997). - ISSN 0018-7259 - p. 209 - 221.
economie - voedingsmiddelen - voedselvoorziening - voeding - voedselproductie - landbouw - wilde planten - vrouwen - thailand - plantkunde - economische botanie - grondrechten - economics - foods - food supply - nutrition - food production - agriculture - wild plants - women - botany - economic botany - land rights
This article examines the gathering of wild plant foods in agricultural environments and utilizes research conducted among rice cultivators in northeast Thailand as the case study. The management of wild food plants and gathering rights on agricultural land are closely linked to women's roles as farmers and land owners, as well as gatherers and marketers of these resources
Plant domestication and evolution : a monovular twin or not?
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van - \ 1996
Wageningen : CPRO-DLO - 101
oorsprong - distributie - vestiging - wilde planten - genetica - genetische variatie - evolutie - soortvorming - immunogenetica - fylogenie - fylogenetica - relaties - gewassen - acclimatisatie - domesticatie - plantkunde - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - economische botanie - origin - distribution - establishment - wild plants - genetics - genetic variation - evolution - speciation - immunogenetics - phylogeny - phylogenetics - relationships - crops - acclimatization - domestication - botany - new crops - economic botany
Efforts to accelerate domestication of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) by means of induced mutations and tissue culture
Klu, G.Y.P. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): Evert Jacobsen; A.M. van Harten. - S.l. : Klu - ISBN 9789054856047 - 110
oorsprong - distributie - vestiging - psophocarpus tetragonolobus - plantenveredeling - straling - geïnduceerde mutaties - weefselkweek - embryokweek - wilde planten - gewassen - acclimatisatie - domesticatie - plantkunde - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - economische botanie - origin - distribution - establishment - plant breeding - radiation - induced mutations - tissue culture - embryo culture - wild plants - crops - acclimatization - domestication - botany - new crops - economic botany
This thesis describes mutation breeding and tissue culture techniques developed for accelerated domestication of winged bean ( <em>Psophocarpus</em><em>tetragonolobus</em> (L.) DC.). The tissue culture techniques, which are the first steps towards genetic transformation of the crop, include: (1) direct adventitious shoot formation from the axes of cotyledon explants; (2) direct simultaneous regeneration of adventitious shoots and somatic embryos; and (3) direct somatic embryogenesis on the wounds of cotyledon explants. An optimised mutation breeding technique for economic significance, based on the early selection of chlorophyll mutations generated from gamma-radiated seeds, has been developed. The use of this scheme has resulted in the recovery of seed coat colour mutants which have succesfully served as an indirect method for selecting changes in tannin content and nodulation. A desired mutant with reduced tannin content and improved nodulation was selected.
Botanical files on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) - on the chance for gene flow between wild and cultivated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., including L. serriola L., Compositae) and the generalized implications for risk-assessments on genetically modified plants
Frietema, F.T. de; Meijden, R. van der; Brandenburg, W.A. - \ 1995
Gorteria Suppl. 2 (1995). - ISSN 0017-2294 - p. 1 - 44.
population genetics - hybridization - hybrids - asteraceae - wild plants - lactuca sativa - lettuces - field experimentation - experiments - animals - identification - markers - environment - adverse effects - environmental impact - human activity - netherlands - europe - lactuca - botany - economic botany - populatiegenetica - hybridisatie - hybriden - wilde planten - slasoorten - experimenteel veldonderzoek - experimenten - dieren - identificatie - merkers - milieu - nadelige gevolgen - milieueffect - menselijke activiteit - nederland - europa - plantkunde - economische botanie
In Botanical Files, a study of the real chances for gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild a system of dispersal codes (Dpdf) was introduced (see text box Dpdf).³7 They are indications of already occurring gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild flora, as can be deduced from herbarium collections and florisdc archives. These codes apply to the Netherlands only. One of the crops of which the real chances for gene flow could not be determined, because of uncertainties regarding the relationship between the cultivated plant and its wild relatives, is Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Its relationship with the wild L. serriola L. is accepted to be very close, but the species are considered to be distinguishable. In a field trial, using 350 specimens from 67 genetically different populations, the distinction between the two species proved to depend largely on character states usually connected to domestication, like absence or presence of prickles, retention of achenes, leaf texture and colour. The consequences are that both wild and cultivated lettuce must be considered to belong to the same species. The finding of some ‘domesticated’ character states in ‘wild’ lettuces indicates an already ongoing gene flow between cultivated lettuce and the wild flora, and the Dp(jf-code is adapted accordingly, indicating a substantial chance for gene flow from cultivated lettuce to its wild relative in the Netherlands. If the scope of Dispersal codes as in Botanical Files is extended to Europe, European Dpdf-codes are needed. In this report a model is proposed using a plant geographical division of Europe into six vegetational regions. For each species six Dpdf-codes, summarizing the chances for gene flow to each of the regions, should be developed. For the major part of the species this can be done using the information already present in national herbarium collections.
Plant resources of South-East Asia, no. 3: Dye and tannin-producing plants.
Lemmens, R.H.M.J. ; Wulijarni-Soetjipto, N. - \ 1991
Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022010556 - 372
genenbanken - genetische bronnen - germplasm - hulpbronnenbehoud - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - agronomie - wilde planten - taxonomie - plantkunde - flora - botanische samenstelling - inventarisaties - controlelijsten - zuidoost-azië - economische botanie - gene banks - genetic resources - resource conservation - plant genetic resources - agronomy - wild plants - taxonomy - botany - botanical composition - inventories - checklists - south east asia - economic botany
Legumes traditionnels du Cameroun, une etude agro-botanique
Stevels, J.M.C. - \ 1990
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): Jos van der Maesen; M. Flach, co-promotor(en): F.J. Breteler. - Wageningen : Agricultural University - ISBN 9789067541510 - 262
bedektzadigen - wilde planten - tuinieren - groenteteelt - sierplanten - kameroen - plantkunde - economische botanie - angiosperms - wild plants - gardening - vegetable growing - ornamental plants - cameroon - botany - economic botany
<p>Cameroon has a remarkable abundance of vegetable species. A great variety of local and introduced vegetable crops are grown and together with a significant number of wild and semi-wild plants, occasionally cultivated, form a valuable complementary food in the daily diet.<p>Primarily the aim of this study is to present an inventory of traditional vegetable species in Cameroon, indicating their importance in local agriculture, their significance as food and their nutritional value. The second objective is a taxonomical study of these vegetable crops, in order to expose, and where feasible eliminate, the existing widespread confusion in their scientific nomenclature. Botanical descriptions and practical differential keys, based on those parts of the plants that are actually used, are provided. This study deals with 67 traditional vegetables, 20 species of which are discussed in greater detail. The materials and data were gathered mainly in Cameroon during the period 1975 - 1979, and subsequently elaborated upon at the Department of Plant Taxonomy of the Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.<p>Chapter I contains a general introduction. The working plan (chapter 2) clarifies the selection of the 20 primary species (paragraph 2.1). Further detailed information is supplied regarding the materials used and the applied methods of investigation (paragraph 2.2).<p>Chapter 3 presents the five agro-ecological regions into which Cameroon can be divided (paragraph 3. 1). A review is given of the physical and biological environment (paragraph 3.2) and of the agriculture and animal husbandry (paragraph 3.3). Various aspects pertaining to vegetables are discussed, such as the different types of vegetable crops (paragraph 3.4. 1), local and introduced vegetables (paragraph 3.4.2), the inventory of the vegetables in the different agro- ecological regions (paragraph 3.4.3) and a classification of wild and/or cultivated species (paragraph 3.4.4). Finally the various types of vegetable production are dealt with (paragraph 3.5).<p>Chapter 4 is based on nutritional research and surveys which have been carried out in Cameroon since 1953. The first part is devoted to a survey of food and nutrition in the different agro-ecological regions (paragraph 4. 1). In the second part an account is given of the preparation and utilisation of vegetables including their nutritional value (paragraph 4.2).<p>Chapter 5 deals with the botanical study of the vegetable species. Differential keys to groups of species (paragraph 5. 1. 1) and to individual species (paragraph 5.1.2), based on characteristics of the edible product, are supplied. In the next paragraph (5.2) all 67 species are arranged in alphabetical order, primarily in family order and subsequently according to the genera and species. This paragraph also provides concise information concerning the 47 secondary species.<p>The 20 primary species are considered in a final paragraph (5.3), also in alphabetical order.<br/>The format of the text in the paragraphs 5.2 and 5.3 is essentially similar for each species. In paragraph 5.2 the author and the original publication of the species are cited, along with the current synonyms, pertinent literature, vernacular names, the occurrence in each of the five agro-ecological regions, a concise botanical description, a few relevant notes, representative herbarium specimens from Cameroon and finally the applicability as a vegetable. Furthermore paragraph 5.3 provides an etymological explanation of the scientific name and the typification, while synonymy, literature, geographic distribution and botanical description are discussed at length. Notes in this paragraph elaborate the typification. Any other relevant questions are subsequently dealt with, such as the recurring confusion with other species of the same genus, infraspecific variation and the distinction of cultivar-groups or cultivars, some cytogenetic and evolutionary aspects, and the use as a vegetable. Finally all the herbarium material examined from Cameroon is listed.<p>Each species is accompanied by a botanical drawing of the edible parts of the plant in paragraph 5.2. Species dealt with in paragraph 5.3 are fully illustrated. In some cases a photograph is added. In conclusion a general bibliography and indices of scientific and vernacular plant names are provided.
Plant resources of South-East Asia: a selection
Westphal, E. ; Jansen, P.C.M. ; Outer, R.W. den - \ 1989
Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022009857 - 322
agronomie - wilde planten - spermatophyta - ecologie - gewassen - landbouw - fenologie - acclimatisatie - zuidoost-azië - economische botanie - agronomy - wild plants - ecology - crops - agriculture - phenology - acclimatization - south east asia - economic botany
Plant resources of South-East Asia: I. Pulses.
Maesen, L.J.G. van der; Sadikin Somaatmadja, - \ 1989
Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022009840 - 105
peulvruchten - Arachis hypogaea - aardnoten - Glycine max - sojabonen - Fabaceae - ecologie - gewassen - landbouw - fenologie - acclimatisatie - wilde planten - Zuidoost-Azië - economische botanie - grain legumes - groundnuts - soyabeans - ecology - crops - agriculture - phenology - acclimatization - wild plants - South East Asia - economic botany
Plant resources of South-East Asia: Proceedings 1st Prosea International Symposium, 1989, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Siemonsma, J.S. ; Wulijarni-Soetjipto, N. - \ 1989
Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022009994 - 337
agronomie - wilde planten - onderzoek - zuidoost-azië - plantkunde - economische botanie - agronomy - wild plants - research - south east asia - botany - economic botany
Plant resources of South-East Asia, basic list of species and commodity grouping, version 1.
Lemmens, R.H.M.J. ; Jansen, P.C.M. ; Siemonsma, J.S. ; Stavast, F.M. - \ 1989
Wageningen : Pudoc - 345
genenbanken - genetische bronnen - germplasm - hulpbronnenbehoud - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - agronomie - wilde planten - taxonomie - flora - botanische samenstelling - inventarisaties - controlelijsten - zuidoost-azië - economische botanie - gene banks - genetic resources - resource conservation - plant genetic resources - agronomy - wild plants - taxonomy - botanical composition - inventories - checklists - south east asia - economic botany
Medicinal and poisonous plants of the tropics : proceedings of symposium 5-35 of the 14th International Botanical Congress, Berlin 24 July-1 August 1987
Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. - \ 1987
Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022009215 - 152
geneesmiddelen - medicinale planten - fytotoxinen - giftige planten - stimulerende middelen - subtropen - toxische stoffen - tropen - wilde planten - plantkunde - natuurlijke producten - economische botanie - drugs - medicinal plants - phytotoxins - poisonous plants - stimulants - subtropics - toxic substances - tropics - wild plants - botany - natural products - economic botany
Dictionary of cultivated plants and their regions of diversity : excluding most ornamentals, forest trees and lower plants
Zeven, A.C. ; Wet, J.M.J. de - \ 1982
Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022007853
oorsprong - distributie - vestiging - genenbanken - genetische bronnen - germplasm - hulpbronnenbehoud - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - agronomie - bedektzadigen - wilde planten - flora - plantengeografie - wereld - plantkunde - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - economische botanie - origin - distribution - establishment - gene banks - genetic resources - resource conservation - plant genetic resources - agronomy - angiosperms - wild plants - phytogeography - world - botany - new crops - economic botany
La culture du Gombo (Abelmoschus spp.), legume-fruit tropical (avec reference speciale a la Cote d'Ivoire)
Siemonsma, J.S. - \ 1982
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J.D. Ferwerda. - Wageningen : Siemonsma - 297
abelmoschus esculentus - okra's - malvaceae - ivoorkust - wilde planten - plantkunde - economische botanie - okras - cote d'ivoire - wild plants - botany - economic botany - cum laude
<p/>The data for this study have been gathered in Ivory Coast during the period 1977-1980.<p/>The first purpose of the study was a description of the traditional okra cultivation and, in particular, the evaluation of the local planting material in order to determine its potential for crop improvement.<p/>The second purpose of the programme was a study of the agronomic limitations in the case of intensive cultivation and in what ways such problems might be solved.<p/>The inventories of vegetables offered for sale in 18 important regional markets (cf. chapter 2) proved that okra is one of the most important fruit vegetables in Ivory Coast. The young fruits are sold either fresh or dried. Especially in the western part of the country okra is also an important leaf vegetable.<p/>The indigenous vegetables are traditionally grown in the fields of foodcrops. From the inventory of a large number of these fields in different parts of the country, it appeared that vegetable growing is particularly important in yam and groundnut fields. Yam and groundnut are usually grown at the beginning and at the end of the rotation respectively. In whatever region or type of field, okra is one of the most common plants in this mixed cropping.<p/>The popularity of this vegetable is even more clearly shown in the bibliographical data on vegetable consumption in Ivory Coast.<p/>Contrary to the ample bibliographical information on okra cultivation in the subtropics, much less is published on its cultivation in the tropics, especially in the (sub)equatorial zones. General recommendations for intensive cultivation in Ivory Coast have been embodied by SODEFEL ("Société de Développement de la Production des Fruits et Légumes").<p/>In our experimental programme, we have been able to study in detail the local planting material (chapter 4), the dry matter production and its distribution (chapter 5), ecological influences (chapter 6), the mineral nutrition (chapter 7), cultural practices (chapter 8), pests and diseases (chapter 9) and breeding and selection (chapter 10).<p/>Based on a number of 314 local okra lines collected by the author, our experiments show that the local planting material in Ivory Coast is made up by two taxa which appear to be very distinct as to their morphological, cytogenetical and agronomic characteristics.<p/>The morphology of the taxon, called "SOUDANAIS", corresponds with existing botanical descriptions of <em>Abelmoschus esculentus</em> (L.) Moench. Its chromosome number (2n = 130-144) lies well between the extremes reported for this species.<p/>The taxon, called "GUINEEN", has morphological characteristics intermediate between <em>Abelmoschus esculentus</em> (L.) Moench and <em>A. Manihot</em> (L.) Medikus. Its chromosome number (2n = 184-200), the highest observed in the genus, supports the hypothesis that it might be an amphidiploid of these two species.<p/>The crossing behaviour of the "GUINEEN" type in crosses with the supposed parental species resembles the behaviour of the artificial amphidiploid of <em>Abelmoschus e</em> s <em>culentus</em> and <em>A. Manihot</em> , realized in Japan.<p/>Interspecific hybridization between the "SOUDANAIS", type and the "GUINEEN" type succeeds well in both directions. The hybrids are vigorous, but have a very reduced fertility. However, we obtained considerable amounts of seed on these hybrids under conditions of open pollination, probably due to backcrossing (pollination by insects with the fertile pollen of the parental species).<p/>In the traditional vegetable growing of the forest zone, the "ordinary" okra "SOUDANAIS", type) has been almost completely superseded by the "GUINEEN", type.<p/>The growth analysis (cf. chapter 5) indicated that the first month can be decisive for the success of the crop. The relative growth rate (RGR) in general decreases with the age of the plants and retardation in initial growth may hardly be caught up. The fragility of the young plantlets makes them very sensitive for modifications in cultural practices.<p/>The high yield of young fruits and seed (second experiment) of the "GUINEEN", line as compared to the three cultivars/lines of the "SOUDANAIS", type, points to the capacity of the first-mentioned type to maintain longer a considerable leaf area during a longer period. The long duration of the generative period of the "GUINEEN"-type may be very interesting for home gardens where the objective is precisely a production spread over a long period.<p/>No significant differences in dry matter production have been observed between crops grown for the young fruits and those grown for seed, although dry matter production tends to be higher in the vegetable crop than in the seed crop in cultivars with a long generative period ("GUINEEN" type).<p/>In the crop grown for seed a greater proportion of the total dry matter is channeled to the generative plant parts. From this it can be deduced that, for use as a vegetable, the young fruits should be harvested as late as possible, thus as late as permitted by the quality requirements of the product.<p/>The differences between the cultivars in the ratio vegetative parts/generative parts were mainly due to the differences in the duration of the vegetative and the generative period. Early flowering and late senescence are important selection objectives.<p/>The distribution in roots, leaves and stems of the dry matter present in the vegetative plant parts, was independent of the cultivar and of the purpose of the crop (young fruits or seed). Differences between cultivars were observed rather within the main organs of the plant, for instance within the leaves between blade and petiole, and within the ripe capsules between seed and fruitwall.<p/>From the study of ecological influences (cf. chapter 6), it appeared that in rain- conditioned cultivation the most favourable period for sowing of the "SOUDANAIS" type lies directly at the beginning of both the long and the short rainy season (march and august). The less favourable results gained from other sowing dates mainly seem to be due to a less favourable rainfall distribution (excess or shortage of water) and to a higher incidence of pests and diseases. The second rainy season, however, is more capricious than the first one, and in some years, sowing in august risks suffering from insufficient rainfall.<p/>The number of the leaf-axil bearing the first flower-bud is independent of the growth rate of the plant, but positively correlated with the duration of the photoperiod and/or with the temperature. In South Ivory Coast, the reaction on the photoperiod finds expression in a quantitative way, as none of the "SOUDANAIS" lines of our collection appeared to have a critical photoperiod shorter than 12½ hours.<p/>On an average, the "GUINEEN", type has shorter critical photoperiods than the "SOUDANAIS", type and sowing at the beginning of the long rainy season in South Ivory Coast, may result in vegetative periods of up to 8-9 months. Such a long cropping period explains why its geographical distribution is limited to the most humid parts of west Africa.<p/>Three greenhouse experiments on the photoperiodical reaction were executed in Wageningen.<p/>It appeared that flower initiation in the three subtropical cultivars 'Clemson Spineless', 'Pusa Sawani' and 'Long Green' is little influenced by photoperiods ranging from 10 to 18 hours, but these cultivars show a quantitative reaction for anthesis. The delay of the flowering date under long photoperiods is caused by flower-bud abortion and slower growth of the persistent buds.<p/>However, 'Perkins Long Pod' Ivoirien, the cultivar recommended in Ivory Coast, has a critical photoperiod between 13½ and 14 hours for flower initiation and between 13 hours and 13 hours 15 minutes for anthesis and fruit setting. Below the critical photoperiods this cultivar reacts quantitatively. Already at photoperiods longer than 12 to 12½ hours, both anthesis and fruit setting become negatively affected in a serious way. Although this cultivar does rather well in the South, it seems risky to recommend it for the entire territory of Ivory Coast.<p/>In accordance with its flowering behaviour under natural conditions, a critical photoperiod between 12 hours and 12 hours 40 minutes was observed in the greenhouse for Adiopodoumé la, a line of the "GUINEEN", type.<p/>A shade experiment showed that a reduction of the radiation with 50% during the first three weeks of the cropping period reduces yield. 25% shade during the rest of the cropping period also tends to reduce yield, but this could not be shown statistically.<p/>The uptake of the macro-elements N, P, K, Ca and Mg (cf. chapter 7) was investigated by means of chemical analysis of plants from the second experiment of the growth analysis. The evaluation of the uptake by two cultivars grown for the young fruits as well as for the seed, did not reveal any selective absorption of any element as a consequence of either the type of cultivar or the crop-purpose. The differences in the uptake could be explained by the differences in total dry matter production.<p/>The mineral content of the total cumulative dry matter is high in young plants, decreases with age, but gets more or less stabilized from the age of 11 weeks. In the present study, the total amount of dry matter produced during the entire cropping period contained 1.9% nitrogen, 0.2% phosphorus, 1.2% potassium, 1.6% calcium and 0.7% magnesium on average.<p/>The course of the mineral requirements indicates that a basal dressing before sowing of those elements that are leached easily such as nitrogen and potassium, is little effective, because the uptake of elements is negligible during the first month of the cropping period. Even after the first month the duration of the cropping period justifies fractionated fertilizer applications which, however, can be restricted to the vegetative period in the case of cultivars with a relatively short generative period "SOUDANAIS" type).<p/>In the case of cultivars with a long generative period ("GUINEEN", type), grown for seed, the decline of dry matter production as soon as the fruits start to mature, thus about one month after anthesis, suggests that a final fertilizer application at the beginning of the generative period should equally be sufficient. Several applications after anthesis seem to be justified in the case that the need for mineral elements continues to be considerable during the generative period, as was observed for the "GUINEEN", line, Djiroutou l, grown for the young fruits. This line produced 7.4 t/ha of dry matter, containing 133 kg nitrogen, 14 kg phosphorus, 80 kg potassium, 114 kg calcium and 49 kg magnesium. More than half of these quantities were taken up during the generative period.<p/>Compared to the rest of the plant, the useful product, viz. the young edible fruits or the seeds, is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and poor in calcium and magnesium. Export of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium can easily reach 50% of the total needs of the crop.<p/>In South Ivory Coast, soil temperatures are often supra-optimal, and they have, directly or indirectly, a negative effect on germination and initial growth.<p/>The experiments (cf. chapter 8) showed the beneficial effect on initial growth of cultural practices which bring down the soil temperature: mulching, watering before the hottest part of the day, sowing on that side of the ridges which is least exposed to direct radiation of the sunlight.<p/>Okra is known for its capricious germination and emergence. The best attention during initial growth can be realized on the nursery bed on account of the small acreage under care. Sowing on a nursery bed followed by transplantation, however, is hardly practised, due to the fact that okra-plantlets older than two weeks almost do not tolerate transplanting without a ball of soil. This has been clearly demonstrated in a transplanting experiment.<p/>According to references in literature, optimal plant density for the modern commercial cultivars is about 150 000 plants/ha. It is generally assumed that the optimal density for the late and robust local cultivars is much lower.<p/>In an experiment with densities from 20 000 to 80 000 plants/ha and ratios of the interrow and in the row spacings varying from 1 : 1 to 6 : 1, the best spacing as to yield and easiness of harvesting appeared to be 100 <em>x</em> 17 cm (60 000 plants/ ha) for the cultivar 'Perkins Long Pod' Ivoirien, recommended in Ivory Coast.<p/>The most important fungal diseases observed in our experiments in South Ivory Coast (cf. chapter 9) were damping-off ( <em>Macrophomina phaseoli</em> (Maubl.) Ashby), vascular wilt ( <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> Schlecht) and Cercospora-blight ( <em>Cercospora</em><em>abelmoschi</em> Ell . & Everh.). <em>Oidium</em><em>abelmoschi</em> Thüm. is important especially in the northern half of the country.<p/>Insect damage was mainly due to the cricket <em>Brachytrupes membranaceus</em> (Drury), to flea beetles of the genus <em>Podagrica</em> , to the bollworms <em>Earias biplaga</em> Wlk. and <em>Pectinophora gossypiella</em> (Saund.) and to the beetle <em>Anomala</em><em>denuda</em> Arrow.<br/>Okra Mosaic Virus (OMV), transmitted by <em>Podagrica</em> , is widespread but the damage is much less important than the damage due to Leaf Curl, transmitted by <em>Bemisia tabaci</em> (Genn.).<p/>Nematodes of the genus <em>Meloidogyne</em> constitute a major problem in okra cultivation. The fact that this pest did not appear in our experimental fields might be due to the predominance of <em>Panicum maximum</em> Jacq., an inferior hostplant, during the fallow periods between successive okra crops.<p/>The routine phytosanitary treatments applied in the experiments (quintozene against damping-off; maneb + carbatene against leaf fungi; HCH against field- and mole-crickets; carbaryl + parathion against other insects) generally allowed good yields in the experiments.<p/>From a varietal screening it appeared that the "GUINEEN" type of okra is much more tolerant to pests and diseases than the "SOUDANAIS" type which explains why in the traditional cultivation (without phytosanitary measures) in the forest zone, the former is preferred as planting material.<p/>Selection work (cf. chapter 10), especially in the United States and in India within the species <em>Abelmoschus e</em> sculentus, has produced very attractive cultivars such as 'Clemson Spineless' and 'Pusa Sawani' which are well suited to intensive cultivation. The use of these cultivars in Ivory Coast, however, should be discouraged as long as no intensive phytosanitary control can be excercised, because they are very susceptible to local pests and diseases.<p/>Our preliminary observations on the resistance or tolerance potential of the local planting material of <em>Abelmoschus e</em> sculentus ("SOUDANAIS" type) were disappointing.<p/>On the other hand, the tolerance of the "GUINEEN", type of okra to pests and diseases is impressive. This species is, as a consequence of its adaptation to extensive cultivation, in general later flowering, more vigorously developed and with a longer cropping period than the "SOUDANAIS", type, but it presents sufficient variation to prompt to selection directed towards desirable characteristics for intensive cultivation.<p/>After the first stage of straightforward selection of attractive lines present in the local planting material, such as we have been starting, a further breeding programme might comprise ultimately line selection in hybrid populations, with a view to combine the desirable characteristics of a 'Clemson Spineless' with the tolerance to pests and diseases of the local planting material.
Eetbare planten in West-Europa
Anonymous, - \ 1981
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en Landbouwdocumentatie no. 4555)
akkerbouw - bibliografieën - eten koken - borden - veldgewassen - voedsel - voedselbereiding - voedingsmiddelen - maaltijden - groenten - west-europa - wilde planten - plantkunde - economische botanie - arable farming - bibliographies - cooking - dishes - field crops - food - food preparation - foods - meals - vegetables - western europe - wild plants - botany - economic botany
Verzamelen van siergewassen in Chili : 2 oktober - 16 november 1978
Varekamp, H.Q. ; Vonk Noordegraaf, C. - \ 1979
Wageningen etc. : Instituut voor Veredeling Tuinbouwgewassen [etc.] (Rapport IVT Nr. 155) - 45
biologie - chili - verzamelen - identificatie - sierplanten - wilde planten - plantkunde - economische botanie - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - biology - chile - collection - identification - ornamental plants - wild plants - botany - economic botany - new crops
Toetsing van Coprinus comatus op houdbaarheid en smaak
Stork, H.W. ; Schouten, S.P. - \ 1979
Wageningen : Sprenger Instituut (Rapport / Sprenger Instituut no. 2064) - 3
boletus - agaricales - wilde planten - plantkunde - economische botanie - wild plants - botany - economic botany
Dictionary of cultivated plants and their centres of diversity : excluding ornamentals, forest trees and lower plants
Zeven, A.C. ; Zhukovsky, P.M. - \ 1975
Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022005491
oorsprong - distributie - vestiging - agronomie - bedektzadigen - wereld - plantkunde - wilde planten - flora - plantengeografie - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - economische botanie - origin - distribution - establishment - agronomy - angiosperms - world - botany - wild plants - phytogeography - new crops - economic botany
Eetbare wilde planten in Nederland
Anonymous, - \ 1974
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 3629)
bibliografieën - keukenkruiden - nederland - wilde planten - plantkunde - aromatische gewassen - economische botanie - bibliographies - culinary herbs - netherlands - wild plants - botany - aromatic plants - economic botany
Cicer L., a monograph of the genus, with special reference to the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), its ecology and cultivation
Maessen, L.J.G. van der - \ 1972
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J.D. Ferwerda; H.C.D. de Wit. - Wageningen : Veenman - 341
cicer arietinum - kekererwten - papilionoideae - economische botanie - fabaceae - plantenanatomie - plantenmorfologie - plantenecologie - wilde planten - flora - plantengeografie - plantkunde - erwten - chickpeas - economic botany - plant anatomy - plant morphology - plant ecology - wild plants - phytogeography - botany - peas
<p/>1. The history of the chickpea or gram, <em>Cicer arietinum</em> L., <em></em> has been described from Homer's time and the earliest finds, 5450 B.C. in Hacilar, Turkey, up to the present day. The crop was first domesticated in Asia Minor and was introduced in India either from Central Asia or Asia Minor, the two main centres of origin. Some forms were even introduced rather recently. Ethiopia is a secondary centre of domestication; connections with Egypt or Asia remain speculative. Several pieces of evidence oppose the opinion of DE CANDOLLE (1882) that the ancient Egyptians and Jews had only known the chickpea for two millenia.<p/>Medical uses, no longer widely practised, are discussed. The spread to the present areas of cultivation is described and mapped.<p/>2. The genus <em>Cicer</em> L. has been revised. Popov (1929) accepted 22 species, now 39 species (8 annual, 31 perennial) are known. One species is described for the first time: <em>C. multijugum</em> from Afghanistan. A key to the species is prepared. The species, arranged alphabetically, are described and accompanied by detailed illustrations. The synonymy and typifications are given, as well as notes on geography, ecology and morphology. The geographical distribution of each species of the genus, occurring in Central Asia, Asia Minor and the Medi terranean, is presented in maps. It is stressed that the variability and geography of many species is not known sufficiently. The poor availability of fresh material of the wild species is a handicap to research.<p/>The relation to the other genera in <em>Vicieae</em> is discussed. <em>Cicer</em> occupies a somewhat peculiar place with its glandular hairs, inflated fruits and seed shape. The infraspecific classification in the cultivated species is reviewed; an informal classification is presented on base of the work of POPOVA (1937) without rejecting the older varieties distinguished by JAUBERT and SPACH, and ALEFELD.<p/>3. The importance of the chickpea as the third pulse crop in the world after beans and peas is presented in a map, graphs and tables. The crop ranks l5th among all crops in area occupied yearly. Yields, at present an average of about 700 kg per ha, are highest in Egypt (1670 kg) and Turkey (1220 kg). About 83 of the world production is in the Indian subcontinent.<p/>The weather is the main reason for fluctuation in area. The partial recession in area, due to the expanding new cereal cultivars, will be met by higher yields per unit area and aided by higher prices.<p/>4. Some anatomical particulars, e.g. the glandular hairs, are shortly reviewed.<p/>5. The chickpea is generally cultivated in a traditional way. The resistance to drought (deep roots) and ability to grow in poor soils has not increased the care of the crop. However, with good soil preparation, proper sowing on rows, cultivation and fertilization the crop can yield reasonably. The sowing date is very important. Sowing early in the growth season is to be preferred, except in case of wilt disease. Plant density, sowing depth and sowing seed are discussed. Irrigations, needed in some countries, should be practised with care so as not to induce soil anaeroby.<p/>Often the chickpea is grown mixed with wheat or mustard, against crop failures and for utilization of different soil layers. In rotation the chickpea is a well esteemed crop. It has maintained soil fertility at a certain level for centuries in the densely populated areas of India. The plants are harvested mainly by hand. Threshing machines need good adjustment to prevent breakage of seeds. Storage is an important problem, since much loss may occur.<p/>6. Ecological trials were carried out on light, daylength, temperature and relative humidity. The photosynthesis rate varied from 250-500 μg CO <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> -uptake per cm <sup><font size="-1">2</font></SUP>and per h at about 26°C, but at 18°C, the rate was not much less. Leaves of two-weeks old are the most effective in photosynthesis and may use twice as much CO <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> as the four-week old leaves. Estimated calculated production appeared to be 12-14 tons of total dry matter, or about 5-7 tons of grains, similar to the highest yield ever obtained on a small plot.<p/>The chickpea is a quantitative LD plant. Under 16-h days the flowering was advanced by e.g. 20-35 days, if compared with 9-h days. Short days did not prevent flowering. Dry matter yield was improved in LD. The influence of the photoperiodic effect alone of the daylengths following different sowing dates on flowering and yield is small. Increasing photoperiods appeared to be more favourable than decreasing ones.<p/>The optimum temperature for early vegetative growth ranges from 21-29°C (night and day) to 24-32°C for different cultivars. Over the entire growth period the optimum temperature is somewhat lower, 18-26°C and 21-29°C, which is also optimum for flowering.<p/>The relative humidity was found to have little influence on fruit-setting. A decrease in light intensity of 25 % of the available amount during May and June, however, was found to decrease the number of pods by 25-50%.<p/>Data on soils and nutrients are summarized. As yet the chickpea does not respond to dressings of more than 10 kg N and 30 kg P <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> O <sub><font size="-1">5</font></sub> per ha. Moderately heavy soils are preferred, but both heavy and light soils are used in some areas.<p/>Growth substances usually have a negative influence on the growth of chickpeas. Scarcity of practical trials prohibits any recommendation.<p/>Topping appears to be an old practice to stimulate branching. Regeneration, however, takes a long time and is only sufficient under optimum conditions and if applied at an early stage.<p/>7. Breeding has not yet improved yields over large areas. A review on cytogenetics is given. Some new reports on the somatic number of chromosomes of some wild species are added. As crossing technique is a delicate operation, hybridization on a large scale is at present not possible, but pollination at an early stage without emasculation may be a solution. The introduction of new cultivars has not been very successful because they have not shown large differ ences with local cultivars.<p/>8. The most important insect pests of the chickpea are the podborer and the pulse beetles, which are described in some detail. Geographical distribution and way of control is given. All reported pests are mentioned. Nematode attacks seem to be underestimated at present. Rats may cause important damage in stores.<p/>9. The diseases of the chickpea, their occurrence, possible way of control are described. Most damage is done by wilt, caused by both a soil fungus and by physiological drought, and blight. Several other diseases such as rust and foot rots are not yet serious over large areas. As for pests, chemical control is often uneconomic.<p/>10. The chickpea is mainly used as human food, whether fresh, boiled, or roasted in many preparations. As a part of balanced foods it can form an important supplement to the protein nutrition of children. The proteins of chickpea constitute an important part of the protein intake in India. The chemical composition of the seeds (e.g. up to nearly 30% of protein) is given, as well as the amounts of essential amino acids.<p/>Except sometimes for methionine and for tryptophan the chickpea appears to be an excellent source of amino acids.
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