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Ethnobotany : linking traditional plant use to health, history and heritage
Andel, Tinde van - \ 2016
Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573741 - 16 p.
ethnobotany - economic botany - health - wild plants - medicinal plants - etnobotanie - economische botanie - gezondheid - wilde planten - medicinale planten
The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy
Maroyi, A. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Jos van der Maesen, co-promotor(en): Lars Chatrou. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732446 - 190
gloriosa - taxonomie - fylogenie - etnobotanie - zaden - plantensamenstelling - knollen - colchicine - economische botanie - taxonomy - phylogeny - ethnobotany - seeds - plant composition - tubers - economic botany
This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of great importance because it includes widely used species as traditional medicine, horticultural plants and sources of industrial and pharmaceutical chemical colchicine. The seeds and tubers of G. superba are valued as a commercial source of colchicine. The genus Gloriosa has considerable horticultural appeal because of the conspicuous inflorescence of its members and the ease with which taxa are propagated, introduced into new areas and hybridise in cultivation. G. carsonii, G. modesta, G. simplex and G. superba have been taken into cultivation as ornamental plants in several countries, including native countries of these species.
Growth and development of true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottbøll) : with special reference to accumulation of starch in the trunk : a study on morphology, genetic variation and ecophysiology, and their implications for cultivation
Schuiling, D.L. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858546 - 259
metroxylon sagu - sago - arecaceae - starch crops - plant development - growth analysis - plant morphology - agronomy - maluku - indonesia - ecophysiology - economic botany - zetmeelgewassen - plantenontwikkeling - groeianalyse - plantenmorfologie - agronomie - molukken - indonesië - ecofysiologie - economische botanie
Keywords: Metroxylon sagu, Arecaceae, starch crops, plant growth and development, plant morphology, inflorescence structure, electron microscopy, phenological scale, genetic variation, plant taxonomy, folk taxonomy, ethnobotany, leaf area, leaf area index, starch accumulation, starch distribution, plant ecophysiology, tropical lowlands, wetlands, traditional processing, estate cultivation, agronomy, Moluccas, Maluku.

True sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottbøll) is a stout, clustering palm adapted to swampy tropical lowland conditions. Each axis in a sago palm clump flowers once at the end of its life after having amassed a large amount of starch in its trunk. Man can harvest this starch by felling the trunk, pulverizing the pith and leaching the starch out with water, and use it like other starches for food or non-food purposes. It is a staple food mainly in eastern Indonesia and in Papua New Guinea where it is harvested mostly from semi-managed stands. For establishing sago palm as a full-fledged plantation crop, desirable because of its envisaged large yield potential as a perennial, its niche habitat, and its potential as a raw material provider for bio-ethanol production, the scientific base for establishing the right felling time to harvest the starch needed strengthening.

Between October 1988 and November 1990, 27 sago trunks in the Adult Vegetative (AV) or Generative (G) phase belonging to six varieties were selected from semi wild sago stands in the Moluccas, eastern Indonesia: 23 trunks (4 varieties) on the alluvial coastal plain near Hatusua village, Seram Island, and 4 trunks (2 varieties) on hilly terrain near Siri Sori Serani village, Saparua Island. These trunks were felled, dissected, morphologically described and sampled for the amount and distribution of starch they contained. The leafless parts of the trunks were 4.45 to 19.65 m long, had a mean starch density of 4.6 to 254 kg/m3 and contained five to 777 kg of starch (maximum found in a whole trunk: 819 kg).

To link starch content to age, the ages of the sampled trunks had to be estimated. To enable age estimation by counting leaf scars on the trunk, the leaf unfolding rate of 36 AV-phase palms around Hatusua (31 palms) and Siri-Sori Serani (5 palms) was monitored for varying periods between 1989 and 1992. Probably due to large variation in habitat and genetic make up, this rate varied from 2 to 14 leaves per year (mean 7.85), rendering number of leaf scars unfit as accurate age estimator. Also trunk height proved unfit for this purpose. From monitoring 5 G-phase palms, the G-phase could be subdivided into 3 sub-phases (G1, G2, G3), recognizable from the ground by the phased development of the successive orders of inflorescence branches. By combining gathered morphological and monitoring data, a phenological scale of a model palm was composed consisting of two parallel timelines of hidden and outwardly visible events: two years after the start of the Establishment (E) phase, the first AV-phase leaf is initiated in the apical growing point, to unfold only 2.5 years later; the initiation of the first AV-phase tissues is followed 12.5 to 14.5 years later by the initiation of the first G-phase tissues, followed 4 to 5.5 years later by the shedding of fruits, and finally by a 2- to 5-year Recycling phase (name proposed here) in which the axis decays and collapses. This scale, which accounts for the large time gap between initiation of trunk parts and their becoming visible, may help to correctly time cultural measures. The 27 sampled trunks could tentatively be ranked according to physiological age into 4 AV phase classes and 9 G phase classes.

Since the examined palms belonged to 6 different local varieties, their relative rareness or commonness had to be established to assess the validity of the findings. Based on literature and on interviews with informants, an overview of locally recognised sago palm varieties is presented. The number of unique variety names in 32 localities in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea totalled 325, ranging from 2 (spined vs unspined only) to 34 per locality. On the basis of this survey, the Hatusua varieties were considered average. The nomenclatural category folk variety (fovar, fv.) is proposed to unambiguously name local varieties by adding to the variety name an indication of the location where, and (if known) the ethnic/linguistic group by which that name is used.

Leaf area estimation methods were devised to enable investigation of the relationship between leaf area and starch content. In the AV-phase the Total leaf area (TLA) of a sago palm axis ranged from 200 m2 to 325 m2, one axis having an exceptional TLA of 388 m2. The TLA in the G-phase before fruiting mostly remained within the same range, possibly exceeding it for a short period early in that stage. The Leaf area index (LAI) of an individual axis showed an upward trend from 1 - 1.5 in the E-phase to 1.25 - 1.75 in the AV-phase, to more than 2 in the early G-phase, followed by a decrease to about 1.5 again in the late G-phase before fruiting. No fruiting palms were available for analysis. The TLA and LAI of a single trunk could not be linked to the mean starch density of its pith, nor to the total amount of starch the pith contained.
Generally, starch density in the trunk first increased with height above ground level, reached a maximum about half-way to two-thirds up the leafless part of the trunk, and then sharply dropped towards the top of the trunk. From the late AV phase onward the maximum starch density ranged from 238 to 284 kg/m3. The four trunks with the highest maximum starch densities, all closely around 280 kg/m3, belonged to three different varieties, suggesting that 280 kg/m3 may be considered the maximum starch storage capacity in the pith of any variety.
The starch distribution pattern in the leafless part of the trunk showed a tendency to evolve with age from two tailed (density gradually increasing from base, gradually decreasing towards top) to one tailed (density gradually increasing from base, sharply decreasing towards top). The differences in distribution pattern found strongly suggested that there must be other factors besides age and development phase affecting starch accumulation. Attempts to determine the effect of palm variety and of the environment mostly failed.

Potential yield of a model palm based on the maximum starch density of 280 kg/m3 was estimated at 840 kg of dry starch. That this amount is much higher than generally found may partly be due to poor recovery ratios, as the results of a traditionally processed trunk demonstrated: only 47% of the starch in the processed trunk part was recovered, and if the unharvested starch present in the traditionally discarded basal and top part of the trunk is taken into account, recovery drops to 44%.

In an attempt to establish the point in time at which a sago palm starts to be a nett consumer of its own starch, the course of the energy producing and consuming capacity of an axis during its life time was modelled based on the assumption that by the end of the AV-phase the existing TLA of the axis produces just the amount of energy needed to maintain existing biomass, to keep up the normal regular growth, and to fill new trunk with starch. Using this model, assimilate requirements for building and maintaining the inflorescence and the fruits could not be met by the production capacity of the leaves plus the starch reserves in the trunk. For this modelling approach to succeed in predicting the turning point from nett production to nett consumption of starch by a sago palm axis, additional data on chemical composition of its parts and on assimilation rate are needed.

Lack of precise data on the age of the sampled trunks and lack of uniformity of their genetic make up and growing conditions made it impossible to arrive at the sought-after detailed timetable of the evolution of trunk starch accumulation and depletion to base the right felling time of a sago palm on. The high starch density found in the trunk of a palm with half-grown fruits indicated that depletion of starch reserves by the palm itself may set in much later than generally assumed.
Once the course of starch accumulation in time in a single axis is unravelled, the next research question should be how this adds up in a clump - the actual production unit in a plantation - with axes of different age. Timing felling in such a situation should be aimed at maintaining a maximum starch accumulation rate for the plantation as a whole rather than at harvesting a maximum amount of starch per trunk.

Data sheets of each palm examined containing all primary and some secondary data, and including photographs, are appended in digital form.

Guide to cultivated plants
Elzebroek, A.T.G. ; Wind, K. - \ 2008
Wallingford : CABI - ISBN 9781845933562 - 540
gewassen - planten - plantkunde - agronomie - landbouwplantenteelt - economische botanie - agro-ecologie - crops - plants - botany - agronomy - crop husbandry - economic botany - agroecology
Guide to cultivated plants includes concise textual descriptions and attractive full color illustrations of over 300 crop species. These comprise 11 commodity groups ranging from vegetables, both horticulture and forages species, and arable crops to the major fruits and plantation crops. All major cultivated plants from temperate, Mediterranean and tropical climates are covered and the morphology, botany, ecology, agronomy and use of cultivated crops is fully discussed.
Crop wild relatives in the Netherlands: actors and protection measures
Hoekstra, R. ; Veller, M.G.P. van; Odé, B. - \ 2008
In: Crop wild relative conservation and use / Maxted, N., Ford-Lloyd, B.V., Kell, S.P., Iriondo, J.M., Dulloo, E., Turok, J., Wallingford : CABI - ISBN 9781845930998 - p. 165 - 177.
gewassen - wilde verwanten - bedreigde soorten - plantenverzamelingen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - in-situ conservering - genetische erosie - genetische variatie - botanische tuinen - genenbanken - germplasm - medicinale planten - hulpbronnenbehoud - economische botanie - crops - wild relatives - endangered species - plant collections - plant genetic resources - in situ conservation - genetic erosion - genetic variation - botanical gardens - gene banks - medicinal plants - resource conservation - economic botany
This book text presents methodologies and case studies that provide recommendations for the conservation and use of crop wild relatives. In a national, regional or global context, the status of crop wild relatives, that are closely related to crop plants, is examined. Conservation of crop wild relatives is important to enable these species to be included in plant breeding activities for beneficial traits such as pest or disease resistance and yield improvement.
Studies on agronomy and crop physiology of Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew
Taye, M. - \ 2008
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Willemien Lommen. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049159 - 148
plectranthus - agronomie - agronomische kenmerken - planten met knollen - knollen - gewassen - etnobotanie - ethiopië - knolvorming - gewasfysiologie - economische botanie - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - agro-ecologie - agronomy - agronomic characteristics - tuberous species - tubers - crops - ethnobotany - ethiopia - tuberization - crop physiology - economic botany - new crops - agroecology

Keywords: Development, morphology, plant density, potato, radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, seed size, seed tuber, spacing, stolon, tipping, tuber

Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew (Lamiaceae) is an ancient Ethiopian tuber crop grown in mid and high altitude areas in the north, south and south-west of Ethiopia. Cultivation dates back from c. 3000 BC, but in recent years its acreage and production have declined. Renewed interest to conserve the crop and increase its production is limited by absence of accurate information on growth, development and cultural practices of P. edulis. This project aimed at providing the basic knowledge needed to direct further applied research.
A standard production technique was developed after interviewing farmers in Chencha and Wolaita in southern Ethiopia, and was used in later experiments. The standard planting material chosen were de-sprouted tuber pieces, prepared from a medium (12–15 cm) sized mother tuber broken into three pieces. Three pieces were planted per hole, at a hole spacing of 75  90 cm. Shoot tipping (pinching; the removal of the apices with 12 leaf pairs) was carried out when the crop was 10–15 cm high.
The general structure of the crop was similar to that of Irish potato. Plant components were: the seed tuber pieces, sprouts, main stems, branches, leaves, inflorescences, fruits, seeds, roots, stolons and tubers. The crop had a long growing period. In two growth studies, maximum fresh tuber yields were attained c. 34 weeks after planting (WAP). Above-ground development was characterised by a late emergence (c. 4 weeks), a slow development of the canopy after emergence until full ground cover was attained (c. 20 weeks), a very short period during which ground cover was full (c. 2 weeks) and a relative fast decline in ground cover thereafter (6−8 weeks). Primary and secondary branches constituted the major part of the canopy. The first stolons were formed c. 1012 WAP on below-ground nodes of main stems and primary branches. Tubers were first recorded at 18 WAP as a swelling on the tip of the stolon and sometimes as a swelling of the middle part of stolons. Tubers attained a maximum length of 2025 cm, and a maximum diameter of c. 2 cm. Aerial stolons were initiated 1216 weeks later than below-ground stolons and could be up to 2.5 m long.
The increase in tuber fresh weight with time was realized by an increase in both number of tubers and in average weight per tuber over the entire tuber formation period. Fresh tuber yields at 34 WAP were 4549 Mg ha1. Yield levels in other sets of experiments in which the harvest date was chosen arbitrarily were c. 21 Mg ha1 (29.7 WAP) and c. 30 Mg ha1 (34.7 WAP). Experimental yields were very high compared to those reported by farmers.
Nevertheless, in growth studies, the average daily dry matter production of the crop over the whole growing period was only 4.2−4.6 g m2 day1. The dry matter production was limited by a poor radiation interception by the canopy – only one third of the incident radiation was intercepted − and a low radiation use efficiency (RUE) – on average only 1.59 g MJ1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). RUE gradually increased after emergence to about 2.7 g MJ1 PAR when tuber formation was still in an early stage (24−26 WAP), but then declined because of a stagnation or decline in total crop dry weight, that lasted several weeks. Dry matter production decreased in that period because the decrease in canopy dry matter – especially stem dry matter − was not yet compensated for by the increase in tuber dry matter. This was attributed partly to a still limited capacity of the tubers to convert and / or store assimilates in this stage. Later this changed and total dry weight and RUE increased again. Harvest index was 8199% at the moment when tuber yield was maximum.
Shoot tipping significantly increased ground cover and delayed canopy senescence. Tipping also had a positive – though not always significant – effect on tuber yield. Tipping enhanced early stolon formation, but did not consistently affect the number of stolons later in the growing season
Because differences among tipped treatments were not large, limiting the tipping frequency to one will help to save time, labour and money.
Across experiments in which the number and size of the tuber pieces planted per hole were varied, the tuber fresh weight increased when the number of main stems per m2 increased up to 2.53 main stems per m2. This sufficiently high stem number could usually be achieved by planting sufficient seed tuber material (equalling at least one medium-sized mother tuber per hole) and breaking it into two or three pieces. This confers with the farmers practice. Over all treatments, an increase in fresh tuber yield was never realized by merely increasing the individual tuber weight, but either by combined effects on number of tubers and individual tuber fresh weight or by an effect on number of tubers alone.
A further increase in radiation interception by advancing and improving canopy development could likely be achieved by planting larger seed pieces, pre-sprouting the seed tuber pieces and using a higher plant density. However, the below ground development should be geared to that. At present the late initiation and formation of tubers already seems to limit production, and this should be improved when an enhanced canopy cover should result also in higher tuber yield.
On short term notice, however, the major constraints to concentrate on will be the shortage of seed tubers and the poor storability of the progeny tubers. Shortage of seed tubers was mentioned by the interviewed P. edulis farmers as a major constraint and the principle reason for the decline in production of P. edulis. The present practice by farmers of storing tubers in situ in the ground was shown to reduce tuber fresh weights by 3659% and the number of tubers by 1848% in 6 weeks.

Investeringsimpuls riet
Jongschaap, R.E.E. ; Colon, L.T. ; Dolstra, O. - \ 2005
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 370) - 32
phragmites australis - agronomie - gewasbescherming - plantenveredeling - genetische variatie - nederland - economische botanie - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - agronomy - plant protection - plant breeding - genetic variation - netherlands - economic botany - new crops
Riet is een gewas met veel nuttige functies zoals biomassaproductie voor energiewinning en de absorptie van nutriënten en zware metalen bij afvalwaterzuivering. Het doel van deze literatuurstudie is om a) riet als productief gewas te waarderen op agronomische kenmerken en te zoeken naar genetische variatie van die kenmerken die de teelt economisch en maatschappelijk verhogen en b) om om de genoemde kenmerken te kwantificeren voor Nederlandse of West-Europese omstandigheden
Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Proceedings of the First PROTA International Workshop
Schmelzer, G.H. ; Omino, E.A. - \ 2003
Wageningen : PROTA Foundation - ISBN 9077114041 - 360
veldgewassen - wilde planten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantkunde - tropisch afrika - economische botanie - field crops - wild plants - plant genetic resources - botany - tropical africa - economic botany
Prota programme, Wageningen University
Ressources vegetales de l'Afrique tropicale : precurseur
Oyen, L.P.A. ; Lemmens, R.H.M.J. - \ 2002
Wageningen : PROTA programme - ISBN 9789077114032 - 207
wilde planten - tropische gewassen - landbouw - agronomie - plantkunde - informatiesystemen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - doelgroepen - landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plattelandsontwikkeling - biodiversiteit - tropisch afrika - afrika - economische botanie - wild plants - tropical crops - agriculture - agronomy - botany - information systems - plant genetic resources - target groups - land use - sustainability - rural development - biodiversity - tropical africa - africa - economic botany
Plant Resources of Tropical Africa: Precursor
Oyen, L.P.A. ; Lemmens, R.H.M.J. - \ 2002
Wageningen : PROTA programme - ISBN 9789077114025 - 187
wilde planten - tropische gewassen - landbouw - agronomie - plantkunde - informatiesystemen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - doelgroepen - landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plattelandsontwikkeling - biodiversiteit - tropisch afrika - afrika - economische botanie - wild plants - tropical crops - agriculture - agronomy - botany - information systems - plant genetic resources - target groups - land use - sustainability - rural development - biodiversity - tropical africa - africa - economic botany
PROTA programme, Wageningen University
Plant resources of Tropical Africa: Basic list of species and commodity grouping
Bosch, C.H. ; Siemonsma, J.S. ; Lemmens, R.H.M.J. ; Oyen, L.P.A. - \ 2002
Wageningen : PROTA programme - ISBN 9789077114018 - 341
tropische gewassen - wilde planten - aanwendingen - inventarisaties - controlelijsten - plantkunde - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - biologische naamgeving - tropisch afrika - afrika - economische botanie - tropical crops - wild plants - uses - inventories - checklists - botany - plant genetic resources - biological nomenclature - tropical africa - africa - economic botany
Medicinal and poisonous plants 2
Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. van; Bunyapraphatsara, N. - \ 2001
Leiden : Backhuys Publishers - ISBN 9789057820991 - 782
medicinale planten - giftige planten - tropische gewassen - taxonomie - zuidoost-azië - economische botanie - medicinal plants - poisonous plants - tropical crops - taxonomy - south east asia - economic botany
Report of expedition to collect wild species of potato in Costa Rica, November 25 - December 23, 1996
Spooner, D.M. ; Hoekstra, R. ; Vilchez, B. - \ 1997
Wageningen : CPRO-DLO - 45
solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - genenbanken - genetische bronnen - germplasm - hulpbronnenbehoud - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - wilde planten - costa rica - plantkunde - economische botanie - potatoes - gene banks - genetic resources - resource conservation - plant genetic resources - wild plants - botany - economic botany
De introductie van onze cultuurplanten en hun begeleiders van het Neolithicum tot 1500 (ed. A.C. Zeven).
Zeven, A.C. - \ 1997
Wageningen : Vereniging voor Landbouwgeschiedenis - ISBN 9789080052239 - 107
wilde planten - geschiedenis - plantkunde - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - economische botanie - historische perioden - wild plants - history - botany - new crops - economic botany - historic periods
Modelling weed emergence patterns
Vleeshouwers, L.M. - \ 1997
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): C.M. Karssen; M.J. Kropff. - S.l. : Vleeshouwers - ISBN 9789054857082 - 165
onkruiden - wilde planten - kieming - zaadkieming - kiemrust - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - plantkunde - economische botanie - weeds - wild plants - germination - seed germination - seed dormancy - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models - botany - economic botany
<p>Anticipating weed pressure may be important in selecting and timing weed control measures in order to optimize their effectiveness, and thus reduce herbicide use. Therefore, a predictive model of the time of emergence and the numbers of seedling emerging (the weed emergence pattern) after soil cultivation may be a useful tool in integrated weed management. In this study, a simulation model was developed in order to increase the quantitative understanding of weed emergence in the field in relation to weather, soil and cultivation measures. In the model, three phases were distinguished in the process of weed emergence in the field, and modelled in separate modules: annual changes in dormancy, germination, and pre-emergence growth. The model was parameterized and tested for three arable weed species: <em>Polygonum persicaria, Chenopodium album</em> and <em>Spergula arvensis.</em><p>Simulation of annual cycles in dormancy and germination is based on a physiological model concerning the action of phytochrome in the seed. Dormancy is related to the amount of an hypothetical phytochrome receptor, that fluctuates in an annual pattern. The simulation model gave a reasonably accurate description of cyclic changes in germinability of seeds exhumed in a three years' burial experiment. The timing of germination was simulated by means of the thermal time concept.<p>A physiologically based model describes the effects of temperature, soil penetration resistance, burial depth and seed weight on pre-emergence growth of seedlings. The model provided a good description of seedling emergence observed in a laboratory experiment.<p>The separate modules simulating the consecutive processes of dormancy release, germination and pre-emergence growth were linked to form a model simulating seasonal weed emergence patterns in the field. Input variables of the model were the date and method of soil cultivation, soil temperature and soil penetration resistance. Output of the model was seedling density and the timing of seedling emergence. The model was evaluated with data from a field experiment. When using the germination results of the exhumed seed lots to estimate the degree of dormancy at the time of soil cultivation, the extent of the emergence flushes following soil cultivation could be described well. Although the dormancy model gave a good description of annual cycles in dormancy, the quantitative prediction of seasonal changes in dormancy and germination was not accurate enough for predicting field emergence, and appeared to be the weak point in predicting weed emergence patterns. When there was substantial emergence as a result of soil cultivation, the timing of emergence could be predicted accurately.
Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 11. Auxiliary plants
Jansen, P.C.M. ; Oyen, L.P.A. ; Maesen, L.J.G. van der - \ 1997
Leiden : Backhuys Publishers (Plant Resources of South-East Asia 11) - ISBN 9789073348660 - 389
wilde planten - bedektzadigen - bosbouw - bomen - beplantingen - zuidoost-azië - dekgewassen - bosproducten anders dan hout - economische botanie - wild plants - angiosperms - forestry - trees - plantations - south east asia - cover crops - non-wood forest products - economic botany
Verzamelexpeditie redt wilde aardappelen-speurtocht in Guatemala
Hoekstra, R. ; Berg, R.G. van den; Spooner, D.M. - \ 1997
Prophyta 51 (1997)4. - ISSN 0921-5506 - p. 8 - 10.
genenbanken - genetische bronnen - germplasm - hulpbronnenbehoud - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - wilde planten - flora - plantengeografie - guatemala - plantkunde - economische botanie - gene banks - genetic resources - resource conservation - plant genetic resources - potatoes - wild plants - phytogeography - botany - economic botany
Wild plant food in agricultural environments: a study of occurrence, management, and gathering rights in Northeast Thailand.
Price, L.L. - \ 1997
Human Organization 56 (1997). - ISSN 0018-7259 - p. 209 - 221.
economie - voedingsmiddelen - voedselvoorziening - voeding - voedselproductie - landbouw - wilde planten - vrouwen - thailand - plantkunde - economische botanie - grondrechten - economics - foods - food supply - nutrition - food production - agriculture - wild plants - women - botany - economic botany - land rights
This article examines the gathering of wild plant foods in agricultural environments and utilizes research conducted among rice cultivators in northeast Thailand as the case study. The management of wild food plants and gathering rights on agricultural land are closely linked to women's roles as farmers and land owners, as well as gatherers and marketers of these resources
Plant domestication and evolution : a monovular twin or not?
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van - \ 1996
Wageningen : CPRO-DLO - 101
oorsprong - distributie - vestiging - wilde planten - genetica - genetische variatie - evolutie - soortvorming - immunogenetica - fylogenie - fylogenetica - relaties - gewassen - acclimatisatie - domesticatie - plantkunde - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - economische botanie - origin - distribution - establishment - wild plants - genetics - genetic variation - evolution - speciation - immunogenetics - phylogeny - phylogenetics - relationships - crops - acclimatization - domestication - botany - new crops - economic botany
Efforts to accelerate domestication of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) by means of induced mutations and tissue culture
Klu, G.Y.P. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): Evert Jacobsen; A.M. van Harten. - S.l. : Klu - ISBN 9789054856047 - 110
oorsprong - distributie - vestiging - psophocarpus tetragonolobus - plantenveredeling - straling - geïnduceerde mutaties - weefselkweek - embryokweek - wilde planten - gewassen - acclimatisatie - domesticatie - plantkunde - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - economische botanie - origin - distribution - establishment - plant breeding - radiation - induced mutations - tissue culture - embryo culture - wild plants - crops - acclimatization - domestication - botany - new crops - economic botany
This thesis describes mutation breeding and tissue culture techniques developed for accelerated domestication of winged bean ( <em>Psophocarpus</em><em>tetragonolobus</em> (L.) DC.). The tissue culture techniques, which are the first steps towards genetic transformation of the crop, include: (1) direct adventitious shoot formation from the axes of cotyledon explants; (2) direct simultaneous regeneration of adventitious shoots and somatic embryos; and (3) direct somatic embryogenesis on the wounds of cotyledon explants. An optimised mutation breeding technique for economic significance, based on the early selection of chlorophyll mutations generated from gamma-radiated seeds, has been developed. The use of this scheme has resulted in the recovery of seed coat colour mutants which have succesfully served as an indirect method for selecting changes in tannin content and nodulation. A desired mutant with reduced tannin content and improved nodulation was selected.
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