Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Evaluatie Actieplan Stalbranden 2012-2016
Bokma-Bakker, Martien ; Bokma, Sjoerd ; Ellen, Hilko ; Hagen, René ; Ruijven, Charlotte van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1035) - 80
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - pluimvee - varkens - melkvee - schapen - geiten - paarden - stallen - brand - voorkomen van branden - veiligheid - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - poultry - pigs - dairy cattle - sheep - goats - horses - stalls - fire - fire prevention - safety
EU-approved rapid tests might underestimate bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in goats
Meloni, Daniela ; Bozzetta, Elena ; Langeveld, Jan P.M. ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Goldmann, Wilfred ; Andrèoletti, Olivier ; Lantier, Isabelle ; Keulen, Lucien Van; Bossers, Alex ; Pitardi, Danilo ; Nonno, Romolo ; Sklaviadis, Theodoros ; Ingravalle, Francesco ; Peletto, Simone ; Colussi, Silvia ; Acutis, Pier Luigi - \ 2017
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 29 (2017)2. - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 232 - 236.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy - diagnosis - EU - goats - rapid tests - scrapie - sensitivity - surveillance
We report the diagnostic sensitivity of 3 EU-approved rapid tests (ELISAs; 1 from IDEXX and 2 from Bio-Rad) for the detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases in goats. Ninety-eight goat brainstem samples were tested. All the rapid tests had 100% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity, with the IDEXX test significantly more sensitive than the 2 Bio-Rad tests. All tests detected 100% of samples from goats with clinical scrapie, but missed 8% (IDEXX) to 33% (Bio-Rad SG) of samples from preclinical goats. Importantly, only IDEXX picked up all samples from clinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected goats, whereas the other 2 rapid tests missed 15% (Bio-Rad SG) to 25% (Bio-Rad SAP). These results show that a fraction of preclinical scrapie infections are likely missed by EU surveillance, with sensitivity of detection strongly dependent on the choice of the rapid test. Moreover, a significant proportion of clinical BSE infections are underestimated by using either Bio-Rad test. Assuming that the same sensitivity on preclinical goats would also occur in BSE-infected goats, our data suggest that IDEXX is likely the most sensitive test for detecting preclinical field cases of BSE infection in goats, although with an 8% failure rate. These results raise some concerns about the reliability of current EU surveillance figures on BSE infection in goats.
Browse species from Ethiopia: role in methane reduction and nematode control in goats
Mengistu, Genet F. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Wilbert Pellikaan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579767 - 130
goats - browsing - nematode control - methane - anthelmintic properties - browse plants - ethiopia - geiten - afgrazen - nematodenbestrijding - methaan - wormdrijvende eigenschappen - graasplanten - ethiopië

The aim of the research reported in this thesis was to evaluate browse species collected from Ethiopia for preference by goats, and for their in vitro anthelmintic and methane (CH4) reduction properties. During the conduct of the studies observations were made warranting a further aim, to compare in vitro fermentation patterns of browse species using inocula from goats and cows kept on identical dietary regime.

The preference of browse species using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy and in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG), relationships between browse species intake and chemical composition were determined in Chapter 2. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days were conducted using goats receiving a daily ration of grass hay and wheat bran, without (trial 1) or with (trial 2) the inclusion of PEG. Preference measured as the first 10 min browse DMI differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (P<0.0001). Browse with higher tannin content, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Preference appeared to be based on digestible fibre fraction, hemicellulose rather than tannin levels in the browse species.

Extracts of the 10 browse species were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus (Chapter 3). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was applied using H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) in a dose dependent manner with extract concentrations of 0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 µg/ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The role of polyphenols in the inhibition against L3 was evaluated using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). All browse extracts significantly (P<0.0001) inhibited larval exsheathment in a dose dependent manner with the dose required to inhibit 50% of the L3 (EC50) being highest in C. farinosa and lowest in E. racemosa and M. senegalensis. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone treated A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, M. angolensis, R. natalensis and D. cinerea were different (P<0.001) from the control (only PBS), indicating that larval inhibition was largely due to non-phenolic compounds. Absence of significant differences between PVPP treated E. racemosa, M. senegalensis, D. angustifolia and S. singueana, and control suggest that inhibition was mostly attributable to tannins and other polyphenols. Browse species anthelmintic property against H. contortus L3 was due to the presence of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds.

In vitro gas production (GP), CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of the 10 browse species were determined using PEG 6000 in Chapter 4. Proanthocyanidins (PA) were quantified using a modified HCl-butanol method and PA composition was determined by UPLC-DAD, with detection of other polyphenols by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Substrates were inoculated in buffered goat rumen fluid with or without PEG 6000 for 72 h to measure GP with head space gas sample measurements taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h for CH4. At the end of incubation, VFA, ammonia (NH3) and IVOMD were determined. Increased (P<0.0001) GP, CH4 and total VFA were observed after PEG addition indicating PA were mainly involved in reducing methanogenesis and to a lower extent also overall fermentability. Prodelphinidins were the major explaining factors for this reduction but other polyphenols like quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol were also involved in CH4 reduction. The effect of PEG addition on IVOMD was variable among browse and could be due to artefacts from the tannin-PEG complexes in the incubation residue. Proanthocyanidins were mainly responsible for the reduced in vitro fermentative activities with possible minor effects of other phenolic and non-phenolic components.

Due to unusual fermentation patterns observed in Chapter 4, a comparison was made between goat and cow inocula on in vitro gas and CH4 production and kinetics parameters as well as VFA production in Chapter 5. Leaves of A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, D. cinerea, R. natalensis, freeze-dried maize and grass silage, and a concentrate were inoculated for 72 h to measure GP, in buffered inocula from goats and cows kept on an identical feeding regime. During incubation, headspace gas samples were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h, and analysed for CH4 with VFA determined at the end of incubation. A triphasic and monophasic modified Michaelis-Menten equation was fitted to the cumulative GP and CH4 curves, respectively. Total GP and CH4 (P<0.0001), half-time for asymptotic (P<0.012) and rate (P<0.0001) of GP were higher for goat inoculum. The total VFA were higher (P<0.0001) in goats and the proportion of individual VFA differed significantly (P<0.002) between animal species. Differences between goat and cow inocula were attributable to variation in the activity and composition of the microbial population, and differences were more pronounced for fermentation of browse species than grass and maize silages.

A synthesis of the results from the four research chapters is provided in the general discussion (Chapter 6). The present work highlights the browse species characteristics which can be strategically exploited in goat production systems to improve health and feed utilization efficiency.

Preference of goats (Capra hircus L.) for tanniniferous browse species available in semi-arid areas in Ethiopia
Mengistu, G. ; Bezabih, M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2017
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 101 (2017)6. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 1286 - 1296.
Browse preference - Fibre - Intake behaviour - Phenol - Tannin - goats

The objectives were to determine browse species preference of goats using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy, to compare preference when offered in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and to establish relationships between browse species intake and chemical compositional data. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days, were conducted using four local mature male goats of 2-2.5 years receiving a daily ration of grass hay (4% of body weight) and 200 g wheat bran. In trial 1, goats were offered 25 g of each browse species for a total of 30 min with intake, time spent on consumption and the number of visits to specific browse species recorded at 10-min intervals. In trial 2, the same procedure was followed except that 25 g of PEG 4000 was added to the daily wheat bran ration. Crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in browse species ranged from 69.0-245.5 to 159.8-560.6 g/kg dry matter (DM) respectively. Total phenols and total tannins contents ranged between 3.7-70.6 and 2.5-68.1 mg tannic acid equivalent/g DM, respectively, and condensed tannins 1.7-18.4 Abs550 nm/g DM. Preference indicators measured in the first 10 min of browse species intake differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (p <0.0001). Principal components explained 69.9% of the total variation in browse species DMI. Despite the high tannin levels, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Tannin levels at the observed browse species DMI did not determine preference, instead, preference appeared to be based on hemicellulose. Determining browse species preference is essential to exploit them to improve nutrient utilization and control parasites in goats.

Monitoring van het helingsproces van de navelstrengen van geitenlammeren
Verkaik, Jan ; Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Gunnink, Henk ; Hattum, Theo van; Ouweltjes, Wijbrand - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 992) - 21
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - geiten - diergezondheid - transport - animal welfare - animal production - goats - animal health
Initiatives to reduce mutilations in EU livestock production
Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Schöne, Maria ; Bracke, M.B.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 940) - 86 p.
animal welfare - animal production - cattle - sheep - goats - pigs - poultry - animal sports - horses - animal ethics - animal health - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - schapen - geiten - varkens - pluimvee - sporten met dieren - paarden - dierethiek - diergezondheid
Research concerning slaughter without stunning of ruminants in The Netherlands
Gerritzen, M.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 417) - 32 p.
animal welfare - animal production - cattle - goats - sheep - animal health - slaughter - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - geiten - schapen - diergezondheid - slacht
Informatiedocument leefoppervlakte : relatie tussen welzijns- en milieuregelgeving
Ellen, H.H. ; Buisonje, F.E. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 849) - 27
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - schapen - geiten - varkens - pluimvee - nerts - konijnen - huisvesting, dieren - milieu - wetgeving - biologische landbouw - milieuwetgeving - emissie - bodemoppervlak - animal welfare - animal production - cattle - sheep - goats - pigs - poultry - mink - rabbits - animal housing - environment - legislation - organic farming - environmental legislation - emission - floor area
Er is een nauwe relatie tussen het leefoppervlak per dier en de emissie van ammoniak. Over het algemeen geeft meer oppervlak een hogere emissie. Vanuit welzijnsregelgeving zijn veelal minimale oppervlaktes voorgeschreven. In de stalbeschrijvingen van de Rav worden ook eisen gesteld aan de oppervlakte per dier. In dit rapport worden voor de diverse diercategorieën de eisen voor leefoppervlakte vanuit de welzijnsregelgeving vergeleken met die in de stalbeschrijvingen. Een belangrijk aspect is daarbij de definitie van het begrip leefoppervlakte.
Populatieschatting geiten op Bonaire
Lagerveld, S. ; Debrot, A.O. ; Bertuol, P. ; Davaasuren, N. ; Neijenhuis, F. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C115/15) - 48
geiten - tellingen - karteringen - bonaire - goats - censuses - surveys
Op basis van 75 lijntransecten van 500 m worden in dit verslag de eerste kwantitatieve schattingen gedaan van het geitenbestand van Bonaire. Deze transecten werden met behulp van het programma Distance 6.2 via een ‘random systematic design’ over het eiland verdeeld. Het veldonderzoek heeft plaatsgevonden in de periode 6 - 13 december 2014.
Unlocking resources in savannas: how goats and other mixed feeders overcome the negative effects of tannins
Mkhize, N.R. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer; Ignas Heitkonig. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574274 - 110
geiten - tanninen - diervoeding - diervoedering - savannen - afgrazen - graasduur - begrazing - dierfysiologie - plantensamenstelling - afrika - goats - tannins - animal nutrition - animal feeding - savannas - browsing - grazing time - grazing - animal physiology - plant composition - africa

Abstract

This thesis contributes insights on how condensed tannins might mediate the interactions between woody plants and large herbivores in the African savannas. Current understanding in this regard is still based on data from short-term laboratory experiments, mostly with confined animals and a few correlative field studies that only explore relationships between tannin concentrations of plants with their intake. Although these experiments are a necessary first step in isolating and characterising the effects of condensed tannins, they oversimplify the complex interactions that occur between wild herbivores or livestock and plants. The challenge for research is to translate the roles of tannins in plant-herbivore interactions from controlled experiments to field conditions. The aims of this research were: to (1) investigate how condensed tannins influence foraging behaviour and growth performance of free-ranging ruminant herbivores, and (2) determine the effects of supplements on use of woody plants and intake rates of condensed tannins by free-ranging herbivores in a semi-arid savanna.

Field experiments were conducted and data collected on free-ranging goats as models for all mixed feeders that share similar characteristics with goats. Condensed tannin exposure levels to goats were experimentally increased in the field by orally dosing 15 goats with 20g condensed tannin powder extracted from a bark of tannin-rich species. To reduce tannin exposure, 15 goats were dosed with 20 g of PEG in an attempt to neutralize tannin effects, and another group of 15 goats was dosed only with water and served as a control group. Feeding behaviour of goats supplemented with a protein-rich source, an energy-rich source were compared with that of goats that were not supplemented.

The results indicated that mixed feeders exposed to high levels of condensed tannins spend more time grazing and less time browsing compared to animals with low tannin exposure. However, the findings did not support expectation for tannins to reduce overall foraging time. Therefore, it was concluded that condensed tannins do not necessarily suppress foraging, but only influence the amount of time animals spend foraging on either herbaceous or woody forage. These findings also supported hypothesis that herbivores forage in ways that minimize their intake rate of condensed tannins. Animals altered their foraging behaviour depending on the treatment groups they were allocated to, and compiled diets that indicated tannin minimization as a goal. Moreover, there was support for the notion that condensed tannins are digestibility reducers. It was clear that free-ranging animals are able to employ their behavioural adaptations to chemical defences in ways that mitigate the negative physiological effects on their presumed ultimate fitness. This thesis presents possible effects of nutrient-tannin/toxin interactions on herbivores in African savannas. In the supplementation experiment, proteins and energy equally increased browse consumption by herbivores, with a concomitant increase in tannin intake rates.

These results were explained in light of the ongoing bush encroachment in the African savannas. The expected increase in the availability of browse will probably impose a selection pressure for herbivores that can better utilise the encroaching woody plants known to be endowed with tannins and other carbon-based secondary metabolites. These results are used to generalise about the herbivore health, herbivore nutritional, and environmental benefits that are possible from managing our rangelands and herbivores in ways that increase utilization of chemically defended plants. For example, increased consumption of tannin-rich forage will not only improve nutrition, but it will also reduce internal parasite burden, and reduce bloating by ruminant herbivores while simultaneously reducing the methane emissions that lead to global warming.

Slim samenwerken met de natuur: Herbebossing op de Nederlands-Caribische Benedenwindse Eilanden
Debrot, A.O. - \ 2015
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap (2015)april. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 3 - 5.
bebossing - beplantingen - vegetatie - meervoudig landgebruik - begrazing - nadelige gevolgen - geïntroduceerde soorten - geiten - caribische eilanden - afforestation - plantations - vegetation - multiple land use - grazing - adverse effects - introduced species - goats - caribbean islands
Herbebossen in een droog, zonovergoten en zout klimaat, kan dat wel? Ja, zolang je maar slim samenwerkt met de natuur. De vernietigende werking van loslopend vee op de inheemse plantengemeenschappen van droge tropische eilanden is vaak aangetoond. Het goede nieuws is dat met de juiste maatregelen de inheemse flora en fauna een behoorlijke veerkracht kunnen vertonen. Op basis van zeventien jaar ervaring en projecten op meer dan vijftien locaties wordt het hoe hieronder uit de doeken gedaan.
Vaststellen nul-situatie onverdoofd slachten van runderen en kleine herkauwers in Nederland in 2014
Gerritzen, M.A. ; Verkaik, J.C. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Hindle, V.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 395) - 25 p.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - geiten - schapen - diergezondheid - slacht - animal welfare - animal production - cattle - goats - sheep - animal health - slaughter
Virus and host factors affecting the clinical outcome of Bluetongue Virus infection
Caporale, M. ; Gialleonorado, L. ; Janowicz, A. ; Wilkie, G. ; Shaw, A. ; Savini, G. ; Rijn, P.A. van; Mertens, P. ; Ventura, M. ; Palmarini, M. - \ 2014
Journal of Virology 88 (2014)18. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 10399 - 10411.
serotype 8 - culicoides-sonorensis - northern europe - british sheep - cattle - goats - ceratopogonidae - pathogenesis - replication - population
Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by Culicoides. Here, we assessed virus and host factors influencing the clinical outcome of BTV infection using a single experimental framework. We investigated how mammalian host species, breed, age, BTV serotypes, and strains within a serotype affect the clinical course of bluetongue. Results obtained indicate that in small ruminants, there is a marked difference in the susceptibility to clinical disease induced by BTV at the host species level but less so at the breed level. No major differences in virulence were found between divergent serotypes (BTV-8 and BTV-2). However, we observed striking differences in virulence between closely related strains of the same serotype collected toward the beginning and the end of the European BTV-8 outbreak. As observed previously, differences in disease severity were also observed when animals were infected with either blood from a BTV-infected animal or from the same virus isolated in cell culture. Interestingly, with the exception of two silent mutations, full viral genome sequencing showed identical consensus sequences of the virus before and after cell culture isolation. However, deep sequencing analysis revealed a marked decrease in the genetic diversity of the viral population after passaging in mammalian cells. In contrast, passaging in Culicoides cells increased the overall number of low-frequency variants compared to virus never passaged in cell culture. Thus, Culicoides might be a source of new viral variants, and viral population diversity can be another factor influencing BTV virulence.
Knelpunten bestrijding mond- en klauwzeer en klassieke varkenspest
Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Bondt, N. ; Asseldonk, Marcel van - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2014-022) - ISBN 9789086156818 - 37
mond- en klauwzeer - klassieke varkenspest - huisvesting, dieren - biggen - overschotten - dierenwelzijn - varkens - vleeskalveren - melkvee - schapen - geiten - ziektebestrijding - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - dierziekten - foot and mouth disease - classical swine fever - animal housing - piglets - surpluses - animal welfare - pigs - veal calves - dairy cattle - sheep - goats - disease control - animal health - animal production - animal diseases
Dit onderzoek inventariseert de belangrijkste knelpunten tijdens de uitbraakfase van Mond- en klauwzeer en Klassieke Varkenspest die voortkomen uit de geldende regelgeving en/of uit de structuur van veehouderijsectoren, en beschrijft de mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen.
Zwavelvoorziening op biologische veebedrijven
Beeckman, A. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Govaerts, W. ; Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2014
BioKennis bericht Zuivel & rundvlees (2014)30.
zwavel - mineraaltekorten - biologische landbouw - eiwit - zwavelmeststoffen - melkveehouderij - vleesvee - schapen - geiten - diergezondheid - sulfur - mineral deficiencies - organic farming - protein - sulfur fertilizers - dairy farming - beef cattle - sheep - goats - animal health
Door luchtverontreiniging kwam zwavel jarenlang gratis uit de lucht. Nu dit milieu­-probleem is opgelost krijgt de landbouw steeds meer te maken met zwaveltekorten. Zwavel is een essentieel element voor de vorming van verschillende aminozuren (o.a. methionine en cysteine) en daarmee van eiwit. Eiwitvorming is zowel belangrijk voor gewas als dierproductie dus zwaveltekorten komen bij beide voor.
Harmonisatie diercategorieën
Groenestein, C.M. ; Bruggen, C. van; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 16) - 36
vee - classificatie - stikstof - fosfor - dierlijke meststoffen - wetgeving - nederland - rundvee - varkens - pluimvee - schapen - geiten - paarden - ezels - livestock - classification - nitrogen - phosphorus - animal manures - legislation - netherlands - cattle - pigs - poultry - sheep - goats - horses - donkeys
Voor wettelijke regelingen, tellingen en monitoringstudies worden in Nederland verschillende indelingen gebruikt voor landbouwhuisdieren. Dat leidt soms tot verwarring en is inefficiënt, vooral omdat gegevens niet eenvoudig uitgewisseld kunnen worden en er aparte bestanden beheerd moeten worden. Op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken heeft de Commissie van Deskundigen Meststoffenwet (CDM) een voorstel gemaakt voor een geharmoniseerde en vereenvoudigde indeling van diercategorieën, vooral voor de Uitvoeringsregeling Meststoffenwet. In het voorstel is de huidige indeling van diercategorieën van de Landbouwtelling en de Farm Structure Survey (FSS) van de Europese Commissie als uitgangspunt genomen. In totaal zijn 117 diercategorieën verdeeld over zeven hoofdcategorieën onder de loep genomen. Per hoofdcategorie is een nieuwe, vereenvoudigde indeling voorgesteld. Het resultaat is een voorstel met 60 diercategorieën van in Nederland gehouden landbouwhuisdieren. Het aantal hoofdcategorieën (7) is gelijk gebleven, maar het aantal subcategorieën is fors verminderd. De grootste veranderingen worden voorgesteld bij varkens, van de oorspronkelijke tien categorieën blijven er zes over
Fokken en scrapie resistentie bij de Toggenburger geit
Windig, Jack - \ 2014
goat keeping - goats - scrapie - dutch toggenburg - toggenburg - goat breeds - disease resistance - animal breeding - rare breeds
Paratuberculose in de melkgeitenhouderij : van literatuurscan naar innovatief onderzoek
Lievaart-Peterson, K. ; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Vellema, P. ; Luttikholt, S. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. ; Schuiling, E. ; Koets, A. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2014
paratuberculose - herkauwers - melkproducerende dieren - geiten - geitenhouderij - diergezondheid - ziektebestrijding - dierziektepreventie - paratuberculosis - ruminants - milk yielding animals - goats - goat keeping - animal health - disease control - animal disease prevention
De besmettelijke ziekte paratuberculose komt vooral voor bij herkauwers. De Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren (GD) schat dat ongeveer 80 procent van de Nederlandse commerciële melkgeitenbedrijven met de infectie te maken heeft. De ziekte kan op bedrijven tot belangrijke bedrijfseconomische schade leiden, vooral door melkproductieverlies, een verhoogde uitval en vervroegde vervanging. Beheersing van van deze aandoening om de bedrijfseconomische en de welzijnsschade terug te dringen is het doel. Het project ‘Paratuberculose in de melkgeitenhouderij’ geeft die beheersing een nieuwe impuls.
Jaarrapportage onderzoek Animal Welfare Check Points 2013
Visser, E.K. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Neijenhuis, F. ; Lourens, A. ; Werf, J.T.N. van der; Gunnink, H. ; Hindle, V.A. ; Verkaik, J.C. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Gerritzen, M.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 753) - 89
dierenwelzijn - transport - slacht - varkens - vleeskuikens - hennen - rundvee - schapen - geiten - diergezondheid - doden van dieren - dierlijke productie - protocollen - veevervoer - animal welfare - slaughter - pigs - broilers - hens - cattle - sheep - goats - animal health - killing of animals - animal production - protocols - transport of animals
Het project “Animal Welfare Check Points” heeft als doel het ontwikkelen van protocollen voor het beoordelen van het welzijn van slachtdieren tijdens het selecteren en voorbereiden op het primaire bedrijf, tijdens transport en op de slachterij. In de tweede fase van het onderzoek (2013) zijn gegevens verzameld om een idee te krijgen van de gemiddelden en spreiding van de welzijnsparameters in de praktijk. Daarnaast zijn ervaringen opgedaan met de toepassing van de protocollen in de praktijk, en waar nodig zijn protocollen verder aangescherpt.
Traditional land use and reconsideration of environmental zoning in the Hawf Protected Area, south-eastern Yemen
Slecht, E. ; Zaballos, L.G.H. ; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K. ; Scholte, P. ; Buerkert, A. - \ 2014
Journal of Arid Environments 109 (2014). - ISSN 0140-1963 - p. 92 - 102.
monsoonal fog oases - arabian peninsula - mountain pastures - genetic-structure - conservation - goats - populations - forest - kenya
The Al Hawf area at the Yemen–Oman border hosts a unique fog-derived ecosystem which, due to its high diversity of plant and animal species, merits protection. Given the area's remoteness, poor infrastructure, high population growth and limited exchanges across the Omani border, the local livelihoods strongly rely on the exploitation of natural marine and terrestrial resources. Since quantitative data on the intensity of anthropogenic pressure on the terrestrial ecosystem are lacking, the present study analysed the impact of agricultural and pastoral land use on the vegetation of the designated Hawf Protected Area (HPA). To this end structured interviews, village walks and other rural appraisal tools were combined with vegetation surveys and GPS-based monitoring of pasturing livestock herds. The loss of traditional herding systems that regulated selective management of fragile grazing grounds along the altitude gradient in the HPA, particularly for camels, the overexploitation of woody perennials for construction purposes, and the resettlement of former migrant workers are major constraints for the successful implementation of the government-designed management plan. Implementation could be improved by better taking into account the vegetation composition in the area, current and traditional grazing schemes and local people's needs for off-farm income
Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico
Oseguera Montiel, D. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Akke van der Zijpp, co-promotor(en): Henk Udo; Klaas Frankena. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462570344 - 150
geiten - brucellose - kleine landbouwbedrijven - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - brucella - dierziekten - goats - brucellosis - small farms - livelihood strategies - animal diseases

Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has a range of functions for farmers, like income, food, insurance, credit, and a reason for not having to migrate to the US. However, caprine brucellosis, a zoonosis endemic in Mexico caused by Brucella melitensis, has a negative impact on flock productivity. Although brucellosis is rarely a fatal disease in humans, it can be very debilitating and disabling due to complications such as arthritis and spondylitis. The main objectives of this thesis were to assess the impact of brucellosis on smallholder goat husbandry and to evaluate brucellosis control strategies in enhancing farmers' livelihoods. The research approach was that of a case study, incorporating methods from natural and social sciences, such as archival and secondary data review, surveys, ethnography and veterinary epidemiological modelling. The case study was conducted in two states within the Bajío region with high rates of migration: Michoacán and Jalisco. In Michoacán free cost vaccination and testing was applied whereas in Jalisco farmers had to bear part of those costs and there was a lack of veterinarians offering the service. Goat farmers considered that they were better off than farmers who did not keep goats: 'it is better to herd than to be herded'. Farmers' knowledge, labour and good social capital allowed them to maintain relatively large flocks given the amount of crop land owned. The prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis in goats was 38% in Jalisco and 11% in Michoacán. Access to communal land and crop residues were key for the pastoral management system prevalent in the study area, but grazing goats had higher risk of testing positive to brucellosis. Farmers avoided drinking goat milk, as it was seen as a cause of 'fever'. The milk price was low and controlled by the caramel industry. Vaccination and test-and-cull strategies are options to control brucellosis. Simulations showed that vaccination is economically feasible but will not bring the prevalence below to 10% within 5-years. Test-and-slaughter is not economically rewarding at the current milk price. At present, culling of seropositive goats to brucellosis does not happen because an adequate infrastructure for culling does not exist. Farmers perceived that brucellosis control measures cause losses such as abortion due to untimely vaccination and infections due to ear tagging. Moreover, farmers did not always know that brucellosis and Malta fever (human brucellosis) are synonyms, neither were they aware of all consequences of brucellosis infection. Brucellosis control is stagnant because of a two way lack of communication: farmers are not well informed about brucellosis and policies are formulated without knowledge of goat farming practices and of farmers' perceptions. Successful brucellosis control would enhance smallholder goat farmers' livelihoods but the control policy needs to be redesigned. Important factors to consider in the design of a new policy are: (1) a comprehensive compensation for losses when applying test-and-cull; (2) the integration of farmers' expertise and experience; (3) diffusion of knowledge about brucellosis control, its prevention and its impact on human health and livestock production; (4) a regional planning is a must to succeed.

Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Small Ruminants in The Gambia
Klaassen, M. ; Roest, Hendrik-Jan ; Hoek, W. van der; Goossens, B. ; Secka, A. ; Stegeman, A. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
hospitalized febrile patients - q-fever - domestic ruminants - northern tanzania - goats - netherlands - prevalence - antibodies - diagnosis - children
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia.
An isotope dilution model for partitioning phenylalanine and tyrosine uptake by the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows
Crompton, L.A. ; France, J. ; Reynolds, C.K. ; Mills, J.A.N. ; Hanigan, M.D. ; Ellis, J.L. ; Bannink, A. ; Bequette, B.J. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2014
Journal of Theoretical Biology 359 (2014). - ISSN 0022-5193 - p. 54 - 60.
milk protein-synthesis - amino-acids - metabolism - casein - goats - infusions - ruminant - flux
An isotope dilution model for partitioning phenylalanine and tyrosine uptake by the mammary gland of the lactating dairy cow is constructed and solved in the steady state. The model contains four intracellular and four extracellular pools and conservation of mass principles is applied to generate the fundamental equations describing the behaviour of the system. The experimental measurements required for model solution are milk secretion and plasma flow rate across the gland in combination with phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations and plateau isotopic enrichments in arterial and venous plasma and free and protein bound milk during a constant infusion of [1-13C]phenylalanine and [2,3,5,6-2H]tyrosine tracer. If assumptions are made, model solution enables determination of steady state flows for phenylalanine and tyrosine inflow to the gland, outflow from it and bypass, and flows representing the synthesis and degradation of constitutive protein and hydroxylation. The model is effective in providing information about the fates of phenylalanine and tyrosine in the mammary gland and could be used as part of a more complex system describing amino acid metabolism in the whole ruminant
Emissies van stof en ziektekiemen uit melkgeitenstallen: aanvullende metingen = Emissions of dust and pathogens from goat houses: additional measurements
Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Arkel, M.C. van; Hol, J.M.G. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 712) - 34
geiten - geitenhouderij - huisvesting, geiten - stof - bacteriën - q-koorts - coxiella burnetii - ammoniakemissie - stankemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - emissie - goats - goat keeping - goat housing - dust - bacteria - q fever - ammonia emission - odour emission - methane - nitrous oxide - emission
Emissions of dust, pathogens and gases have been measured in two goat houses during the summer and autumn. Coxiella burnetii, the bacteria responsible for Q-fever, could be detected in a number of dust samples.
Vooruit met de Geit (video)
Cornelissen, J.M.R. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Bremmer, B. ; Immink, V.M. ; Eijk, O.N.M. van; Peet, G.F.V. van der - \ 2013
Wageningen UR Livestock Research + LEI Wageningen UR, Lelystad
geitenhouderij - geiten - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, geiten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - uitloop - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - diergedrag - dierlijke productie - goat keeping - goats - animal welfare - goat housing - farm management - outdoor run - sustainability - animal behaviour - animal production
Zes geitenhouders hebben gekeken naar wat hen kon helpen om de geitenhouderij te verbeteren, te verduurzamen, niet alleen op het primaire bedrijf maar ook in de keten. Deze geitenhouders zijn concreet aan de slag gegaan met hun eigen bedrijfsplannen op hun eigen bedrijf.
Vooruit met de Geit: naar een maatschappelijk verantwoorde geitensector; Markt- en ketenverkenning geitenvlees en geitenzuivel
Immink, V.M. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Cornelissen, J.M.R. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Sector en ondernemerschap ) - 25
geitenhouderij - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - ondernemerschap - huisvesting, geiten - geiten - dierenwelzijn - goat keeping - corporate social responsibility - entrepreneurship - goat housing - goats - animal welfare
De wijze waarop de geitenhouderij de eerste stappen kan zetten naar een maatschappelijk verantwoorde sector zijn ingedeeld in vier categorieën waarbij de richting bepaald is uit oriëntatie op MVO en op consument of tussenschakel in de keten.
Coxiella burnetii in pregnant goats
Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.P.M. van Putten, co-promotor(en): Annemarie Rebel; Alex Bossers. - s.n. - ISBN 9789064646423 - 197
q-koorts - coxiella burnetii - humane ziekten - geiten - geitenhouderij - dierenwelzijn - q fever - human diseases - goats - goat keeping - animal welfare
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. Since it was first recognised as a disease in the 1930s, knowledge about the agent and the disease itself has increased, although knowledge gaps are still present. Therefore the name Q(uery) fever still holds true.
Weidegang van geiten : Dossier Biokennis
Eekeren, N.J.M. van - \ 2013
Biokennis
geitenhouderij - geiten - begrazing - biologische landbouw - dierenwelzijn - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - goat keeping - goats - grazing - organic farming - animal welfare - farm management
Weidegang is belangrijk voor het welzijn van geiten. Daarmee is het een essentieel onderdeel van de bedrijfsvoering en bovendien onderscheidend voor de biologische geitenhouderij. Helaas levert weidegang bij geiten ook een aantal knelpunten op zoals: het risico op een maagdarmwormenbesmetting, ruimtegebrek op huiskavel, opname en benutting van vers gras, arbeid en het weiden in productiegroepen. In het onderzoek van het project BIOGEIT is in de afgelopen jaren veel aandacht geweest voor deze knelpunten.
Wat wil de geit?
Staaveren, N. van; Greef, K.H. de; Cornelissen, J.M.R. - \ 2013
Geitenhouderij 2013 (2013)feb. - ISSN 0165-9812 - p. 20 - 21.
geiten - dierlijke productie - diervoeding - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - geitenhouderij - goats - animal production - animal nutrition - animal health - animal welfare - goat keeping
Welzijn van dieren is een belangrijk item in de huidige maatschappij. Om het welzijn van geiten te kunnen waarborgen zal eerst gekeken moeten worden naar de behoeften van geiten. Wat wil de geit?
Vooruit met de geit! Wensen van burger en consument ten aanzien van de geitenhouderij
Berg, Isabelle van den - \ 2012
goat keeping - consumer attitudes - consumer preferences - goats - animal welfare - animal health - q fever - sustainability - animal products
Bluetongue virus serotype 6 in Europe in 2008 - Emergence and disappearance of an unexpected non-virulent BTV
Rijn, P.A. van; Geurts, Y. ; Spek, A.N. van der; Veldman, D. ; Gennip, H.G.P. van - \ 2012
Veterinary Microbiology 158 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 23 - 32.
proteins - strain - goats - time
Bluetongue viruses (BTVs) could invade N-W Europe similar to BTV serotype 8 (BTV8/net06), since the source and route of introduction of this virus has not been solved. Therefore, the Dutch survey for Bluetongue by PCR testing was extended by further analysis of PCR positives to identify the involved BTV. In late August 2008, BTV was reported with 12 nucleotide differences in the S10 amplicon (S10 genotyping). This virus was identified as serotype 6, here named BTV6/net08. Promptly, serotype specific real-time PCR tests were developed for serotypes 1, 6, and 8 (S2 genotyping). Agreement was found between results by S10- and S2 genotyping. Further, BTV1 was identified by both S10- and S2 genotyping in one imported animal. After initial discovery of BTV6 in the Netherlands, animals from 18 holdings tested PCR positive for BTV6/net08 in 2008. Remarkably only one or two PCR positive animals per holding were found. Serum neutralization tests did not result in the discovery of more BTV6 infected animals. Retrospective studies indicated no evidence for infections by BTV6/net08 prior to the first discovery. Experimental infections with BTV6/net08 did not cause clinical disease in sheep, calves and cattle, except for a very short fever in some animals. This clearly showed that the vaccine-related BTV6/net08 is not virulent. BTV6/net08 was not found by passive and active surveys in the years after its discovery. Apparently, BTV6/net08 was not efficiently transmitted by endemic species of Culicoides in N-W Europe, and disappeared without the need of any control measure.
Sustaines high throughput polymerase chain reaction diagnostics during the European epidemic of Bluetongue serotype 8
Rijn, P.A. van; Heutink, C.G. ; Boonstra, J. ; Kramps, J.A. ; Gennip, H.G.P. van - \ 2012
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 24 (2012)3. - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 469 - 478.
rt-pcr assay - clinical signs - netherlands - goats - sheep
A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR test) based on genome segment 10 of Bluetongue virus (BTV) was developed. The PCR test consists of robotized viral RNA isolation from blood samples and an all-in-one method including initial denaturation of genomic double-stranded RNA, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and real-time detection and analysis. Reference strains of the 24 recognized BTV serotypes, isolates from different years, and geographic origins were detected. Other orbiviruses such as African horse sickness virus, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, and Equine encephalosis virus were not detected. Experimentally infected animals were PCR positive from 2 days postinoculation, which was earlier than fever, other clinical signs, or seroconversion. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were very close to or even 100%. The PCR test played a key role in the detection of BTV serotype 8 in August 2006 in The Netherlands. The outbreak in a completely naive ruminant population allowed for further evaluation of the PCR test with field samples. In 2006, the correlation between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR results was estimated to be 95%. In the following years, the PCR test was used for diagnosis of diseased animals, for testing of healthy animals for trade purposes, and for detection of BTV RNA in different species of the insect vector, Culicoides. In the autumn of 2008, BTV serotype 6 unexpectedly emerged in northwest Europe and was also detected with the PCR test developed in the current study. The performance in routine use over 5 years has been recorded and evaluated.
Vooruit met de geit!
Bremmer, B. - \ 2012
V-focus 9 (2012)5a. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 36 - 37.
geitenhouderij - geitenziekten - q-koorts - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - geiten - goat keeping - goat diseases - q fever - sustainability - animal welfare - animal production - goats
De recente problemen met Q-koorts hebben de geitenhouderij onder het maatschappelijke vergrootglas gelegd. Maar niet alleen op het gebied van volksgezondheid en maatschappelijke acceptatie zijn er knelpunten, ook milieu en economische levensvatbaarheid vragen aandacht. Binnen het project ‘Vooruit met de Geit’ wordt gezocht naar nieuwe bouwstenen voor verbeteringen op al deze duurzaamheidsaspecten.
Vooruit met de geit. Marktkansen voor Geitenvlees! Een duik in de keten van The Green Peas
Livestock Research, - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 75
geiten - geitenhouderij - geitenvlees - duurzame veehouderij - marketing - goats - goat keeping - goat meat - sustainable animal husbandry
De geitensector loopt tegen verschillende problemen aan. The Green Peas is gevraagd door Wageningen UR Livestock Research (WUR) om onderzoek te doen naar het verwaarden van duurzaam, Nederlands geitenvlees. The Green Peas is gevraagd vanwege haar expertise op het gebied van duurzaam voedselonderzoek in combinatie met conceptproductontwikkeling. Deze opdracht vloeit voort uit het project Vooruit met de Geit. In dit project wordt onderzocht hoe: ‘een geitenhouderij met gezonde dieren, een minimaal milieubeslag, geen gevaar voor de volksgezondheid en een houdbaar rendement voor de veehouder mogelijk gemaakt kan worden.
Vooruit met de geit
Bremmer, B. ; Bos, A.P. ; Schuiling, H.J. ; Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 557) - 34
geitenhouderij - dierenwelzijn - geiten - duurzame veehouderij - probleemanalyse - probleemoplossing - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - goat keeping - animal welfare - goats - sustainable animal husbandry - problem analysis - problem solving - animal production - animal health
The report provides insight into the problems in and around Dutch goat husbandry.
Seasonal diet changes in elephant and impala in mopane woodland
Kos, M. ; Hoetmer, A.J. ; Pretorius, Y. ; Boer, W.F. de; Knegt, H.J. de; Grant, C.C. ; Kohi, E. ; Page, B. ; Peel, M. ; Slotow, R. ; Waal, C. van der; Wieren, S.E. van; Prins, H.H.T. ; Langevelde, F. van - \ 2012
European Journal of Wildlife Research 58 (2012)1. - ISSN 1612-4642 - p. 279 - 287.
colophospermum-mopane - aepyceros-melampus - foraging behavior - national-park - herbivores - digestion - ecology - goats - trees - serengeti
Elephant and impala as intermediate feeders, having a mixed diet of grass and browse, respond to seasonal fluctuations of forage quality by changing their diet composition. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the decrease in forage quality is accompanied by a change in diet from more monocots in the wet season to more dicots in the dry season and that that change is more pronounced and faster in impala than in elephant; (2) mopane (Colophospermum mopane), the most abundant dicot species, is the most important species in the elephant diet in mopane woodland, whereas impala feed relatively less on mopane due to the high condensed tannin concentration; and (3) impala on nutrient-rich soils have a diet consisting of more grass and change later to diet of more browse than impala on nutrient-poor soils. The phosphorus content and in vitro digestibility of monocots decreased and the NDF content increased significantly towards the end of the wet season, whereas in dicots no significant trend could be detected. We argue that this decreasing monocot quality caused elephant and impala to consume more dicots in the dry season. Elephant changed their diet gradually over a 16-week period from 70% to 25% monocots, whereas impala changed diets rapidly (2-4 weeks) from 95% to 70% monocots. For both elephants and impala, there was a positive correlation between percentage of monocots and dicots in the diet and the in vitro digestibility of these forage items. Mopane was the most important dicot species in the elephant diet and its contribution to the diet increased significantly in the dry season, whereas impala selected other dicot species. On nutrient-rich gabbroic soils, impala ate significantly more monocots than impala from nutrient-poor granitic soils, which was related to the higher in vitro digestibility of the monocots on gabbroic soil. Digestibility of food items appears to be an important determinant of diet change from the wet to the dry season in impala and elephants.
Diereigen : typologische indeling van landbouwhuisdieren voor de diagnostiek van dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid, houderij en productie
Verwer, C.M. - \ 2011
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 36 p.
dierhouderij - biologische landbouw - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - persoonlijkheid - filosofie - geiten - veehouderij - dierlijke productie - animal husbandry - organic farming - animal health - animal welfare - personality - philosophy - goats - livestock farming - animal production
Welzijn en gezondheid zijn belangrijke praktische begrippen waarvan het van groot belang is dat de veehouder zelf in staat is de mate van welzijn en gezondheid van zijn veestapel te beoordelen en waar nodig bij te sturen. Dit rapport beschrijft een concept voor een nieuwe werkwijze waarin wordt nagestreefd de bedrijfsvoering meer vanuit het dier zelf te benaderen en in te vullen. Kenmerken van het dier zoals constitutie en gedrag, maar ook fysiologische parameters en de geestelijke gesteldheid van het dier worden in dit concept meegenomen. Het project ‘weerstand geiten’ wordt als voorbeeld gebruikt om de toepassing van de nieuwe werkwijze te illustreren.
Verhogen vetgehalte geitenmelk
Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Govaerts, W. - \ 2011
BioKennis bericht Geiten 2011 (2011)12. - 4 p.
geiten - geitenmelk - vetgehalte - biologische landbouw - voedingsrantsoenen - voersamenstelling - geitenhouderij - goats - goat milk - fat content - organic farming - feed rations - feed formulation - goat keeping
Biologische geitenmelk wordt voor het grootste deel (90%) omgezet in kaas en geëxporteerd. Het eiwit- en vetgehalte van geitenmelk bepaalt in belangrijke mate de kaasopbrengst en daarmee de melkprijs. Ook geeft een lager vetgehalte een meer brokkelige kaas, vooral bij zachte kazen. Biologische geitenhouders willen daarom graag meer mogelijkheden om de gehalten in melk te sturen. In dit BioKennisbericht informatie over de factoren die het vetgehalte bepalen en tips voor geitenhouders.
The Nutritive value of mulberry leaves (Morus Alba) and partial replacement of cotton seed in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle
Vu, C.C. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Pham, K.T. - \ 2011
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 24 (2011)9. - ISSN 1011-2367 - p. 1233 - 1242.
grass hay - cell-wall - digestibility - sheep - digestion - matter - goats
The in vivo digestibility of mulberry leaves (Morus alba) and the effects of the partial replacement of cotton seed with fresh mulberry leaf in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle was investigated. For the in vivo digestibility trial, twenty castrated rams of Phanrang breed (a local prolific breed) with an initial weight of 23-25 kg, were first assigned to four groups according to weight and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments to determine digestibility of nutrients in mulberry leaves (M. alba), natural Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and buffalo grass (Panicum maximum cv. TD 58). All forages were cut and chopped daily before being offered (at 120% maintenance) to the sheep. In the feeding trial, 20 Laisind (Vietnam yellow cows×Red Sindhy bulls) crossbred bulls averaged 18 month old and 184 kg were used to investigate the effect of partial replacement of cottonseed in the diet by mulberry leaves on live weight gain and feed conversion rate. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four levels of fresh mulberry leaves which varied from 0 to 15% of total dietary dry mater and five animals per treatment over an 84 day period. The in vivo digestion trial showed the superior quality of mulberry leaves compared with the grasses. Chemical analysis indicated that mulberry leaves had the highest CP and the lowest NDF contents (22.3 and 31.1% DM, respectively) among the four forages tested. Digestibility of DM and OM of the mulberry leaf (66.4 and 71.8%, respectively) was also the highest but that of CP (58.2%) and NDF (58.4%) was the lowest of the four forages evaluated (p
Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from ruminants in Q fever outbreak, the Netherlands.
Roest, H.I.J. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Tilburg, J.H.H.C. ; Nabuurs-Fransen, M.H. ; Klaassen, C.H.W. ; Vellema, P. ; Brom, R. Van den; Dercksen, D. ; Wouda, W. ; Spierenburg, M. ; Spek, A.N. Van der; Buijs, R. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. - \ 2011
Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (2011)4. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 668 - 675.
goats - history
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. One of the largest reported outbreaks of Q fever in humans occurred in the Netherlands starting in 2007; epidemiologic investigations identified small ruminants as the source. To determine the genetic background of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants responsible for the human Q fever outbreak, we genotyped 126 C. burnetii–positive samples from ruminants by using a 10-loci multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analyses panel and compared them with internationally known genotypes. One unique genotype predominated in dairy goat herds and 1 sheep herd in the human Q fever outbreak area in the south of the Netherlands. On the basis of 4 loci, this genotype is similar to a human genotype from the Netherlands. This finding strengthens the probability that this genotype of C. burnetii is responsible for the human Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands
Space allowance of young goats during transportation to slaughter = Beladingsdichtheid tijdens het wegtransport van jonge geiten
Hindle, V.A. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Werf, J.T.N. van der; Lambooij, E. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 542) - 48
geitenhouderij - geiten - jonge dieren - slachtdieren - veevervoer - fysiologische functies - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - goat keeping - goats - young animals - meat animals - transport of animals - physiological functions - animal welfare - animal health - animal production
Research was performed during long distance road transportations of young goats (6-8 weeks). Effects of three space allowances on physiological responses (blood parameters, heart rate and body temperature) were measured.
Welzijn biologische schapen en geiten
Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2011
dierenwelzijn - schapen - geiten - biologische landbouw - diergedrag - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - animal welfare - sheep - goats - organic farming - animal behaviour - animal health - animal production
De biologische veehouderij heeft veel oog voor natuurlijk gedrag, een goede gezondheid met nadruk op ziektepreventie, en natuurlijke voeding. Het dierenwelzijn in de biologische sector heeft daarom een hoog niveau. Dit past goed bij de verduurzaming van de biologische veehouderij. In 2010 heeft de sector zichzelf een spiegel voorgehouden. Hieruit blijkt dat veel goed gaat op het gebied van dierenwelzijn, maar er zijn ook verbeterpunten. In dit dossier een overzicht voor de biologische melkgeiten- en schapenhouderij, met vooral aandacht voor aspecten waar nog welzijnswinst te behalen is.
Verbeteren welzijnsprestaties in de biologische veehouderij: korte termijn prioriteiten en aanzet tot lange termijn visie = Improving welfare performance in organic farming: short term priorities and longe term vision
Bracke, M.B.M. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 479) - 89
dierenwelzijn - biologische landbouw - veehouderij - melkvee - horens - pluimvee - ruwvoer (roughage) - biggen - mortaliteit - lammeren - geiten - animal welfare - organic farming - livestock farming - dairy cattle - horns - poultry - roughage - piglets - mortality - lambs - goats
This report describes five projects to improve animal welfare in organic farming: breeding polled (hornless) cattle, providing roughage to poultry, reducing mortality of piglets and lambs, and providing facilities for climbing and grooming in goats. In addition the development of a longer term vision on the future of organic farming is initiated, and its short-term implications are identified.
Hoge resolutie typering van Coxiella burnetii
Janse, I. ; Bossers, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Rotterdam, B. van - \ 2011
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM briefrapport / Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu 330302001/2011) - 38
q-koorts - coxiella burnetii - epidemiologie - genotypen - virulentie - geiten - schapen - q fever - epidemiology - genotypes - virulence - goats - sheep
Dit rapport beschrijft het onderzoek wat uitgevoerd is in het kader van het project ‘Hoge Resolutie Typering Coxiella burnetii’’. Het doel van dit project was om de genoomsequenties van een aantal Nederlandse isolaten van de bacterie Coxiella burnetii, de veroorzaker van Q-koorts, in kaart te brengen om hiermee de ontwikkeling van verbeterde typeringsmethodes mogelijk te maken. Op basis van genoomsequenties kan onderzocht worden of de Nederlandse uitbraken bijvoorbeeld samenhangen met veranderde virulentiekenmerken. Genoom informatie is ook essentieel om een verbeterde, op de Nederlandse situatie toegespitste typering mogelijk te maken.
Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.
Udo, H.M.J. ; Budisatria, I.G.S. - \ 2011
Tropical Animal Health and Production 43 (2011)7. - ISSN 0049-4747 - p. 1411 - 1418.
central java - goats
This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available
Sesbania sesban as a fodder tree in Ethiopian livestock farming systems: Feeding practices and farmers' perception of feeding effects on sheep performance
Oosting, S.J. ; Mekoya, A. ; Fernandez-Rivera, S. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2011
Livestock Science 139 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 135 - 141.
reproductive-performance - maize grain - basal diet - menz sheep - tef straw - oat hay - supplementation - growth - goats - leucaena
Sesbania sesban is one of the exotic multipurpose fodder trees introduced in the Ethiopian highlands for livestock feed and soil conservation. Several on-station studies showed that supplementation with Sesbania improved intake and digestibility of basal diet and growth rate of animals. However, information about farmers' feeding practices of Sesbania and farmers' perception of the effect of Sesbania feeding on animal performance is limited. The present study was conducted to assess farmers' feeding practices and their perception about effects of Sesbania supplementation on sheep performance in annual (one wheat-based (WheatCL) and one teff-based (TeffCL)) and perennial (coffee-based (CoffeeCL)) crop-based livestock systems in the Ethiopian Highlands. Data were collected from 98 households by interviews using a structured questionnaire. Farmers had on average 6.9years of experience using Sesbania as a cut and carry supplementary feed. Farmers in the WheatCL and TeffCL fed Sesbania throughout the dry season while farmers in the CoffeeCL had no specific season for feeding Sesbania. Farmers in WheatCL and TeffCL offered significantly (P
Omgevingsverrijking voor geiten
Verwer, C.M. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van - \ 2011
BioKennis bericht Geiten 2011 (2011)9. - 4 p.
geiten - geitenhouderij - dierenwelzijn - omgevingsverrijking - diergedrag - biologische landbouw - goats - goat keeping - animal welfare - environmental enrichment - animal behaviour - organic farming
Wat hebben geiten in hun omgeving nodig? Klimmen, schuren en schuilen zijn natuurlijke behoeften van geiten. Maar hoe kun je de omgeving het beste inrichten om aan die behoeften te voldoen? Om dat te weten te komen deden onderzoekers van het Louis Bolk Instituut een inventarisatie op het gebied van klim-, schuur- en schuilmogelijkheden in de biologische geitenhouderij. Dit BioKennisbericht beschrijft hun bevindingen.
Haalbaarheid mobiel slachthuis en uitsnijderij = Feasibility of mobile slaughter and cutting carcasses
Lambooij, E. ; Puister-Jansen, L.F. ; Graven, W. ; Bemelman, Y. ; Hoste, R. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 460)
slacht - slachtuitrusting - mobiele toepassingen - streekgebonden producten - biologische landbouw - pluimvee - varkens - rundvee - schapen - geiten - dierenwelzijn - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische haalbaarheid - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - slaughter - slaughtering equipment - mobile applications - regional specialty products - organic farming - poultry - pigs - cattle - sheep - goats - animal welfare - feasibility studies - economic viability - animal production - animal health
To develop selling of local products and biologic meat a mobile unit for slaughter farm animals with a permanent cutting and selling room at the farm can be useful.
Dierenwelzijn: Een markt te winnen? : discussieer mee over de toekomst van de biologische veehouderij
Bracke, Marc - \ 2011
organic farming - animal welfare - future - discussion - poultry - dairy cattle - pigs - goats - sheep - animal production
Biologisch is goed voor dierenwelzijn, maar er zit ook een prijskaartje aan. Daardoor is er ruimte voor een tussensegment, dat nu volop in ontwikkeling is. Hoe kan de biologische veehouderij zich blijvend onderscheiden op dierenwelzijn?
Welzijn biologische schapen en geiten
Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2011
BioKennis bericht Geiten 8 (2011). - 4
biologische landbouw - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - diergezondheid - schapen - schapenhouderij - geiten - geitenhouderij - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - diervoeding - organic farming - animal welfare - animal behaviour - animal health - sheep - sheep farming - goats - goat keeping - animal production - animal housing - animal nutrition
De biologische veehouderij heeft veel oog voor natuurlijk gedrag, een goede gezondheid met nadruk op ziektepreventie, en natuurlijke voeding. Het dierenwelzijn in de biologische sector heeft daarom een hoog niveau. Dit past goed bij de verduurzaming van de biologische veehouderij. In 2010 heeft de sector zichzelf een spiegel voorgehouden. Hieruit blijkt dat veel goed gaat op het gebied van dierenwelzijn, maar er zijn ook verbeterpunten. In dit BioKennisbericht een overzicht voor de biologische melkgeiten- en schapenhouderij, met vooral aandacht voor aspecten waar nog welzijnswinst te behalen is.
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