Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico
Oseguera Montiel, D. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Akke van der Zijpp, co-promotor(en): Henk Udo; Klaas Frankena. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462570344 - 150
geiten - brucellose - kleine landbouwbedrijven - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - brucella - dierziekten - goats - brucellosis - small farms - livelihood strategies - animal diseases

Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has a range of functions for farmers, like income, food, insurance, credit, and a reason for not having to migrate to the US. However, caprine brucellosis, a zoonosis endemic in Mexico caused by Brucella melitensis, has a negative impact on flock productivity. Although brucellosis is rarely a fatal disease in humans, it can be very debilitating and disabling due to complications such as arthritis and spondylitis. The main objectives of this thesis were to assess the impact of brucellosis on smallholder goat husbandry and to evaluate brucellosis control strategies in enhancing farmers' livelihoods. The research approach was that of a case study, incorporating methods from natural and social sciences, such as archival and secondary data review, surveys, ethnography and veterinary epidemiological modelling. The case study was conducted in two states within the Bajío region with high rates of migration: Michoacán and Jalisco. In Michoacán free cost vaccination and testing was applied whereas in Jalisco farmers had to bear part of those costs and there was a lack of veterinarians offering the service. Goat farmers considered that they were better off than farmers who did not keep goats: 'it is better to herd than to be herded'. Farmers' knowledge, labour and good social capital allowed them to maintain relatively large flocks given the amount of crop land owned. The prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis in goats was 38% in Jalisco and 11% in Michoacán. Access to communal land and crop residues were key for the pastoral management system prevalent in the study area, but grazing goats had higher risk of testing positive to brucellosis. Farmers avoided drinking goat milk, as it was seen as a cause of 'fever'. The milk price was low and controlled by the caramel industry. Vaccination and test-and-cull strategies are options to control brucellosis. Simulations showed that vaccination is economically feasible but will not bring the prevalence below to 10% within 5-years. Test-and-slaughter is not economically rewarding at the current milk price. At present, culling of seropositive goats to brucellosis does not happen because an adequate infrastructure for culling does not exist. Farmers perceived that brucellosis control measures cause losses such as abortion due to untimely vaccination and infections due to ear tagging. Moreover, farmers did not always know that brucellosis and Malta fever (human brucellosis) are synonyms, neither were they aware of all consequences of brucellosis infection. Brucellosis control is stagnant because of a two way lack of communication: farmers are not well informed about brucellosis and policies are formulated without knowledge of goat farming practices and of farmers' perceptions. Successful brucellosis control would enhance smallholder goat farmers' livelihoods but the control policy needs to be redesigned. Important factors to consider in the design of a new policy are: (1) a comprehensive compensation for losses when applying test-and-cull; (2) the integration of farmers' expertise and experience; (3) diffusion of knowledge about brucellosis control, its prevention and its impact on human health and livestock production; (4) a regional planning is a must to succeed.

Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Small Ruminants in The Gambia
Klaassen, M. ; Roest, Hendrik-Jan ; Hoek, W. van der; Goossens, B. ; Secka, A. ; Stegeman, A. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
hospitalized febrile patients - q-fever - domestic ruminants - northern tanzania - goats - netherlands - prevalence - antibodies - diagnosis - children
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia.
An isotope dilution model for partitioning phenylalanine and tyrosine uptake by the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows
Crompton, L.A. ; France, J. ; Reynolds, C.K. ; Mills, J.A.N. ; Hanigan, M.D. ; Ellis, J.L. ; Bannink, A. ; Bequette, B.J. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2014
Journal of Theoretical Biology 359 (2014). - ISSN 0022-5193 - p. 54 - 60.
milk protein-synthesis - amino-acids - metabolism - casein - goats - infusions - ruminant - flux
An isotope dilution model for partitioning phenylalanine and tyrosine uptake by the mammary gland of the lactating dairy cow is constructed and solved in the steady state. The model contains four intracellular and four extracellular pools and conservation of mass principles is applied to generate the fundamental equations describing the behaviour of the system. The experimental measurements required for model solution are milk secretion and plasma flow rate across the gland in combination with phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations and plateau isotopic enrichments in arterial and venous plasma and free and protein bound milk during a constant infusion of [1-13C]phenylalanine and [2,3,5,6-2H]tyrosine tracer. If assumptions are made, model solution enables determination of steady state flows for phenylalanine and tyrosine inflow to the gland, outflow from it and bypass, and flows representing the synthesis and degradation of constitutive protein and hydroxylation. The model is effective in providing information about the fates of phenylalanine and tyrosine in the mammary gland and could be used as part of a more complex system describing amino acid metabolism in the whole ruminant
Emissies van stof en ziektekiemen uit melkgeitenstallen: aanvullende metingen = Emissions of dust and pathogens from goat houses: additional measurements
Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Arkel, M.C. van; Hol, J.M.G. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 712) - 34
geiten - geitenhouderij - huisvesting, geiten - stof - bacteriën - q-koorts - coxiella burnetii - ammoniakemissie - stankemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - emissie - goats - goat keeping - goat housing - dust - bacteria - q fever - ammonia emission - odour emission - methane - nitrous oxide - emission
Emissions of dust, pathogens and gases have been measured in two goat houses during the summer and autumn. Coxiella burnetii, the bacteria responsible for Q-fever, could be detected in a number of dust samples.
Vooruit met de Geit (video)
Cornelissen, J.M.R. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Bremmer, B. ; Immink, V.M. ; Eijk, O.N.M. van; Peet, G.F.V. van der - \ 2013
Wageningen UR Livestock Research + LEI Wageningen UR, Lelystad
geitenhouderij - geiten - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, geiten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - uitloop - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - diergedrag - dierlijke productie - goat keeping - goats - animal welfare - goat housing - farm management - outdoor run - sustainability - animal behaviour - animal production
Zes geitenhouders hebben gekeken naar wat hen kon helpen om de geitenhouderij te verbeteren, te verduurzamen, niet alleen op het primaire bedrijf maar ook in de keten. Deze geitenhouders zijn concreet aan de slag gegaan met hun eigen bedrijfsplannen op hun eigen bedrijf.
Vooruit met de Geit: naar een maatschappelijk verantwoorde geitensector; Markt- en ketenverkenning geitenvlees en geitenzuivel
Immink, V.M. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Cornelissen, J.M.R. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Sector en ondernemerschap ) - 25
geitenhouderij - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - ondernemerschap - huisvesting, geiten - geiten - dierenwelzijn - goat keeping - corporate social responsibility - entrepreneurship - goat housing - goats - animal welfare
De wijze waarop de geitenhouderij de eerste stappen kan zetten naar een maatschappelijk verantwoorde sector zijn ingedeeld in vier categorieën waarbij de richting bepaald is uit oriëntatie op MVO en op consument of tussenschakel in de keten.
Coxiella burnetii in pregnant goats
Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.P.M. van Putten, co-promotor(en): Annemarie Rebel; Alex Bossers. - s.n. - ISBN 9789064646423 - 197
q-koorts - coxiella burnetii - humane ziekten - geiten - geitenhouderij - dierenwelzijn - q fever - human diseases - goats - goat keeping - animal welfare
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. Since it was first recognised as a disease in the 1930s, knowledge about the agent and the disease itself has increased, although knowledge gaps are still present. Therefore the name Q(uery) fever still holds true.
Weidegang van geiten : Dossier Biokennis
Eekeren, N.J.M. van - \ 2013
geitenhouderij - geiten - begrazing - biologische landbouw - dierenwelzijn - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - goat keeping - goats - grazing - organic farming - animal welfare - farm management
Weidegang is belangrijk voor het welzijn van geiten. Daarmee is het een essentieel onderdeel van de bedrijfsvoering en bovendien onderscheidend voor de biologische geitenhouderij. Helaas levert weidegang bij geiten ook een aantal knelpunten op zoals: het risico op een maagdarmwormenbesmetting, ruimtegebrek op huiskavel, opname en benutting van vers gras, arbeid en het weiden in productiegroepen. In het onderzoek van het project BIOGEIT is in de afgelopen jaren veel aandacht geweest voor deze knelpunten.
Wat wil de geit?
Staaveren, N. van; Greef, K.H. de; Cornelissen, J.M.R. - \ 2013
Geitenhouderij 2013 (2013)feb. - ISSN 0165-9812 - p. 20 - 21.
geiten - dierlijke productie - diervoeding - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - geitenhouderij - goats - animal production - animal nutrition - animal health - animal welfare - goat keeping
Welzijn van dieren is een belangrijk item in de huidige maatschappij. Om het welzijn van geiten te kunnen waarborgen zal eerst gekeken moeten worden naar de behoeften van geiten. Wat wil de geit?
Vooruit met de geit! Wensen van burger en consument ten aanzien van de geitenhouderij
Berg, Isabelle van den - \ 2012
goat keeping - consumer attitudes - consumer preferences - goats - animal welfare - animal health - q fever - sustainability - animal products
Bluetongue virus serotype 6 in Europe in 2008 - Emergence and disappearance of an unexpected non-virulent BTV
Rijn, P.A. van; Geurts, Y. ; Spek, A.N. van der; Veldman, D. ; Gennip, H.G.P. van - \ 2012
Veterinary Microbiology 158 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 23 - 32.
proteins - strain - goats - time
Bluetongue viruses (BTVs) could invade N-W Europe similar to BTV serotype 8 (BTV8/net06), since the source and route of introduction of this virus has not been solved. Therefore, the Dutch survey for Bluetongue by PCR testing was extended by further analysis of PCR positives to identify the involved BTV. In late August 2008, BTV was reported with 12 nucleotide differences in the S10 amplicon (S10 genotyping). This virus was identified as serotype 6, here named BTV6/net08. Promptly, serotype specific real-time PCR tests were developed for serotypes 1, 6, and 8 (S2 genotyping). Agreement was found between results by S10- and S2 genotyping. Further, BTV1 was identified by both S10- and S2 genotyping in one imported animal. After initial discovery of BTV6 in the Netherlands, animals from 18 holdings tested PCR positive for BTV6/net08 in 2008. Remarkably only one or two PCR positive animals per holding were found. Serum neutralization tests did not result in the discovery of more BTV6 infected animals. Retrospective studies indicated no evidence for infections by BTV6/net08 prior to the first discovery. Experimental infections with BTV6/net08 did not cause clinical disease in sheep, calves and cattle, except for a very short fever in some animals. This clearly showed that the vaccine-related BTV6/net08 is not virulent. BTV6/net08 was not found by passive and active surveys in the years after its discovery. Apparently, BTV6/net08 was not efficiently transmitted by endemic species of Culicoides in N-W Europe, and disappeared without the need of any control measure.
Sustaines high throughput polymerase chain reaction diagnostics during the European epidemic of Bluetongue serotype 8
Rijn, P.A. van; Heutink, C.G. ; Boonstra, J. ; Kramps, J.A. ; Gennip, H.G.P. van - \ 2012
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 24 (2012)3. - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 469 - 478.
rt-pcr assay - clinical signs - netherlands - goats - sheep
A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR test) based on genome segment 10 of Bluetongue virus (BTV) was developed. The PCR test consists of robotized viral RNA isolation from blood samples and an all-in-one method including initial denaturation of genomic double-stranded RNA, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and real-time detection and analysis. Reference strains of the 24 recognized BTV serotypes, isolates from different years, and geographic origins were detected. Other orbiviruses such as African horse sickness virus, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, and Equine encephalosis virus were not detected. Experimentally infected animals were PCR positive from 2 days postinoculation, which was earlier than fever, other clinical signs, or seroconversion. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were very close to or even 100%. The PCR test played a key role in the detection of BTV serotype 8 in August 2006 in The Netherlands. The outbreak in a completely naive ruminant population allowed for further evaluation of the PCR test with field samples. In 2006, the correlation between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR results was estimated to be 95%. In the following years, the PCR test was used for diagnosis of diseased animals, for testing of healthy animals for trade purposes, and for detection of BTV RNA in different species of the insect vector, Culicoides. In the autumn of 2008, BTV serotype 6 unexpectedly emerged in northwest Europe and was also detected with the PCR test developed in the current study. The performance in routine use over 5 years has been recorded and evaluated.
Vooruit met de geit!
Bremmer, B. - \ 2012
V-focus 9 (2012)5a. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 36 - 37.
geitenhouderij - geitenziekten - q-koorts - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - geiten - goat keeping - goat diseases - q fever - sustainability - animal welfare - animal production - goats
De recente problemen met Q-koorts hebben de geitenhouderij onder het maatschappelijke vergrootglas gelegd. Maar niet alleen op het gebied van volksgezondheid en maatschappelijke acceptatie zijn er knelpunten, ook milieu en economische levensvatbaarheid vragen aandacht. Binnen het project ‘Vooruit met de Geit’ wordt gezocht naar nieuwe bouwstenen voor verbeteringen op al deze duurzaamheidsaspecten.
Vooruit met de geit. Marktkansen voor Geitenvlees! Een duik in de keten van The Green Peas
Livestock Research, - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 75
geiten - geitenhouderij - geitenvlees - duurzame veehouderij - marketing - goats - goat keeping - goat meat - sustainable animal husbandry
De geitensector loopt tegen verschillende problemen aan. The Green Peas is gevraagd door Wageningen UR Livestock Research (WUR) om onderzoek te doen naar het verwaarden van duurzaam, Nederlands geitenvlees. The Green Peas is gevraagd vanwege haar expertise op het gebied van duurzaam voedselonderzoek in combinatie met conceptproductontwikkeling. Deze opdracht vloeit voort uit het project Vooruit met de Geit. In dit project wordt onderzocht hoe: ‘een geitenhouderij met gezonde dieren, een minimaal milieubeslag, geen gevaar voor de volksgezondheid en een houdbaar rendement voor de veehouder mogelijk gemaakt kan worden.
Vooruit met de geit
Bremmer, B. ; Bos, A.P. ; Schuiling, H.J. ; Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 557) - 34
geitenhouderij - dierenwelzijn - geiten - duurzame veehouderij - probleemanalyse - probleemoplossing - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - goat keeping - animal welfare - goats - sustainable animal husbandry - problem analysis - problem solving - animal production - animal health
The report provides insight into the problems in and around Dutch goat husbandry.
Seasonal diet changes in elephant and impala in mopane woodland
Kos, M. ; Hoetmer, A.J. ; Pretorius, Y. ; Boer, W.F. de; Knegt, H.J. de; Grant, C.C. ; Kohi, E. ; Page, B. ; Peel, M. ; Slotow, R. ; Waal, C. van der; Wieren, S.E. van; Prins, H.H.T. ; Langevelde, F. van - \ 2012
European Journal of Wildlife Research 58 (2012)1. - ISSN 1612-4642 - p. 279 - 287.
colophospermum-mopane - aepyceros-melampus - foraging behavior - national-park - herbivores - digestion - ecology - goats - trees - serengeti
Elephant and impala as intermediate feeders, having a mixed diet of grass and browse, respond to seasonal fluctuations of forage quality by changing their diet composition. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the decrease in forage quality is accompanied by a change in diet from more monocots in the wet season to more dicots in the dry season and that that change is more pronounced and faster in impala than in elephant; (2) mopane (Colophospermum mopane), the most abundant dicot species, is the most important species in the elephant diet in mopane woodland, whereas impala feed relatively less on mopane due to the high condensed tannin concentration; and (3) impala on nutrient-rich soils have a diet consisting of more grass and change later to diet of more browse than impala on nutrient-poor soils. The phosphorus content and in vitro digestibility of monocots decreased and the NDF content increased significantly towards the end of the wet season, whereas in dicots no significant trend could be detected. We argue that this decreasing monocot quality caused elephant and impala to consume more dicots in the dry season. Elephant changed their diet gradually over a 16-week period from 70% to 25% monocots, whereas impala changed diets rapidly (2-4 weeks) from 95% to 70% monocots. For both elephants and impala, there was a positive correlation between percentage of monocots and dicots in the diet and the in vitro digestibility of these forage items. Mopane was the most important dicot species in the elephant diet and its contribution to the diet increased significantly in the dry season, whereas impala selected other dicot species. On nutrient-rich gabbroic soils, impala ate significantly more monocots than impala from nutrient-poor granitic soils, which was related to the higher in vitro digestibility of the monocots on gabbroic soil. Digestibility of food items appears to be an important determinant of diet change from the wet to the dry season in impala and elephants.
Diereigen : typologische indeling van landbouwhuisdieren voor de diagnostiek van dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid, houderij en productie
Verwer, C.M. - \ 2011
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 36 p.
dierhouderij - biologische landbouw - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - persoonlijkheid - filosofie - geiten - veehouderij - dierlijke productie - animal husbandry - organic farming - animal health - animal welfare - personality - philosophy - goats - livestock farming - animal production
Welzijn en gezondheid zijn belangrijke praktische begrippen waarvan het van groot belang is dat de veehouder zelf in staat is de mate van welzijn en gezondheid van zijn veestapel te beoordelen en waar nodig bij te sturen. Dit rapport beschrijft een concept voor een nieuwe werkwijze waarin wordt nagestreefd de bedrijfsvoering meer vanuit het dier zelf te benaderen en in te vullen. Kenmerken van het dier zoals constitutie en gedrag, maar ook fysiologische parameters en de geestelijke gesteldheid van het dier worden in dit concept meegenomen. Het project ‘weerstand geiten’ wordt als voorbeeld gebruikt om de toepassing van de nieuwe werkwijze te illustreren.
Verhogen vetgehalte geitenmelk
Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Govaerts, W. - \ 2011
BioKennis bericht Geiten 2011 (2011)12. - 4 p.
geiten - geitenmelk - vetgehalte - biologische landbouw - voedingsrantsoenen - voersamenstelling - geitenhouderij - goats - goat milk - fat content - organic farming - feed rations - feed formulation - goat keeping
Biologische geitenmelk wordt voor het grootste deel (90%) omgezet in kaas en geëxporteerd. Het eiwit- en vetgehalte van geitenmelk bepaalt in belangrijke mate de kaasopbrengst en daarmee de melkprijs. Ook geeft een lager vetgehalte een meer brokkelige kaas, vooral bij zachte kazen. Biologische geitenhouders willen daarom graag meer mogelijkheden om de gehalten in melk te sturen. In dit BioKennisbericht informatie over de factoren die het vetgehalte bepalen en tips voor geitenhouders.
The Nutritive value of mulberry leaves (Morus Alba) and partial replacement of cotton seed in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle
Vu, C.C. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Pham, K.T. - \ 2011
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 24 (2011)9. - ISSN 1011-2367 - p. 1233 - 1242.
grass hay - cell-wall - digestibility - sheep - digestion - matter - goats
The in vivo digestibility of mulberry leaves (Morus alba) and the effects of the partial replacement of cotton seed with fresh mulberry leaf in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle was investigated. For the in vivo digestibility trial, twenty castrated rams of Phanrang breed (a local prolific breed) with an initial weight of 23-25 kg, were first assigned to four groups according to weight and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments to determine digestibility of nutrients in mulberry leaves (M. alba), natural Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and buffalo grass (Panicum maximum cv. TD 58). All forages were cut and chopped daily before being offered (at 120% maintenance) to the sheep. In the feeding trial, 20 Laisind (Vietnam yellow cows×Red Sindhy bulls) crossbred bulls averaged 18 month old and 184 kg were used to investigate the effect of partial replacement of cottonseed in the diet by mulberry leaves on live weight gain and feed conversion rate. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four levels of fresh mulberry leaves which varied from 0 to 15% of total dietary dry mater and five animals per treatment over an 84 day period. The in vivo digestion trial showed the superior quality of mulberry leaves compared with the grasses. Chemical analysis indicated that mulberry leaves had the highest CP and the lowest NDF contents (22.3 and 31.1% DM, respectively) among the four forages tested. Digestibility of DM and OM of the mulberry leaf (66.4 and 71.8%, respectively) was also the highest but that of CP (58.2%) and NDF (58.4%) was the lowest of the four forages evaluated (p
Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from ruminants in Q fever outbreak, the Netherlands.
Roest, H.I.J. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Tilburg, J.H.H.C. ; Nabuurs-Fransen, M.H. ; Klaassen, C.H.W. ; Vellema, P. ; Brom, R. Van den; Dercksen, D. ; Wouda, W. ; Spierenburg, M. ; Spek, A.N. Van der; Buijs, R. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. - \ 2011
Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (2011)4. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 668 - 675.
goats - history
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. One of the largest reported outbreaks of Q fever in humans occurred in the Netherlands starting in 2007; epidemiologic investigations identified small ruminants as the source. To determine the genetic background of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants responsible for the human Q fever outbreak, we genotyped 126 C. burnetii–positive samples from ruminants by using a 10-loci multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analyses panel and compared them with internationally known genotypes. One unique genotype predominated in dairy goat herds and 1 sheep herd in the human Q fever outbreak area in the south of the Netherlands. On the basis of 4 loci, this genotype is similar to a human genotype from the Netherlands. This finding strengthens the probability that this genotype of C. burnetii is responsible for the human Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands
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