Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==hernieuwbare energie
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De toekomst van hout in de biobased economy
Annevelink, E. ; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2018
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 15 (2018)141. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 7 - 11.
biobased economy - hout - biobrandstoffen - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - cellulose - lignine - vezels - wood - biofuels - biomass - renewable energy - biobased materials - lignin - fibres
De laatste jaren is de biobased economy sterk gegroeid door allerlei activiteiten, variërend van fundamenteel onderzoek naar nieuwe biobased toepassingen, tot het op commerciële schaal vervaardigen van biobased producten. Welke kansen biedt dit voor hout en houtige biomassa en wat zijn de verwachte effecten op de houtmarkt?
Biobased materialen, circulaire economie en natuurlijk kapitaal
Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 109) - 37
biomassa - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - bioplastics - hernieuwbare energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobrandstoffen - recycling - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biomass - biobased materials - renewable energy - sustainability - biofuels - biobased chemistry
This preliminary study investigates the amount of biomass that would be needed in the Netherlands to replace the fossil raw materials used in the manufacture of plastics and how this transition to biobased plastics can be achieved. It is based on desk research and calculations of the area of agricultural land that would be needed to produce sufficient biobased material to meet Dutch demand for biobased plastics. In addition, interviews were held with experts on the institutional obstacles to such a transition. Far too little agricultural land is available in the Netherlands to produce the required amount of biomass needed to replace fossil plastics. Research with the aim of increasing the contribution made by biobased materials to the circular economy should focus on assessing the options for producing sustainable raw materials and on a comprehensive assessment of the sustainable use of biomass in various applications.
Samenhang van beleid versterkt
Marinissen, R. ; Linderhof, V. ; Witmer, M. ; Munaretto, S. - \ 2017
Milieu 23 (2017)7. - ISSN 0920-2234 - p. 16 - 18.
vervangbare hulpbronnen - hernieuwbare energie - grondstoffenindustrie - kringlopen - economie - renewable resources - renewable energy - input industries - cycling - economics
De thema’s water, energie, klimaatverandering, landgebruik en voedsel kennen vele raakvlakken. Een goede ontwikkeling in het ene thema kan meerwaarde opleveren voor het andere, maar ook een negatief effect hebben. Samenhangend beleid kan minnen voorkomen en plussen juist stimuleren. Dit geldt zeker voor een alles omvattend onderwerp als het realiseren van een koolstofarme economie.
Opiniestuk sustainable development goals : transities realiseren met duurzaam bodem - en landgebruik
Mol, G. ; Cleen, M. de; Molenaar, Co ; Keesstra, S. ; Visser, S. ; Okx, J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research - 7
duurzame energie - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - biogas - overheidsbeleid - klimaat - bio-energie - reststromen - hernieuwbare energie - energiebeleid - sustainable energy - biofuels - government policy - climate - bioenergy - residual streams - renewable energy - energy policy
In 2015 hebben de Verenigde Naties de Duurzame Ontwikkelingsdoelen – beter bekend als de Sustainable Development Goals of kortweg SDGs – aangenomen als de weg waarlangs ze de meest urgente problemen op het gebied van armoede, honger, maar ook onderwijs, economie, en milieu en klimaat wil aanpakken. De ambities, geformuleerd in de 17 SDGs, zijn verstrekkend en hoog. In verschillende Nederlandse beleidsdocumenten1234567 wordt daarom aangegeven dat hiervoor serieuze maatschappelijke transities nodig zijn zoals op het gebied van energie en klimaat, voedselvoorziening en circulaire economie, mobiliteit en leefbare steden. Voor veel van deze transities is duurzaam gebruik en beheer van bodem, water en land een essentieel onderdeel. Dit opiniestuk heeft als doel de rol van duurzaam bodem- en landgebruik te benadrukken en de urgentie ervan agenderen voor de maatschappelijke transities waar Nederland voor staat. En laten zien dat de maatschappelijke opgaven te complex zijn voor een sectorale aanpak. Integrale benadering en goede samenwerking tussen alle stakeholders zijn nodig om te komen tot duurzame oplossingen. Het is raadzaam hier voortvarend werk van te maken; de bodem is een traag systeem, dus 2030 – het jaar waarin de SDGs moeten zijn gerealiseerd – is al morgen.
Biodigestion at the Neighbourhood Level : from community participation to waste separation
Hiemstra, J. ; Lie, R. ; Rietveld, M. - \ 2017
Urban Agriculture Magazine (2017)32. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 49 - 51.
bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - reststromen - projecten - co-vergisting - digestaat - hernieuwbare energie - energiebronnen - organisch afval - recycling - bioenergy - biofuels - residual streams - projects - co-fermentation - digestate - renewable energy - energy sources - organic wastes
Urban Agriculture magazine • number 32 • September 2017 49 www.ruaf.org High energy bills and litter on the streets caused a group of residents of the Wildeman neighbourhood in the district of Osdorp in Amsterdam to act. Expecting no solution from the municipality, they decided to take care of it themselves and tackled these two problems with one solution: using the technology of biodigestion to produce energy from municipal food waste - a perfect example of the urban food-waste-energy nexus.
De energiesector als lichtend of verblindend voorbeeld?
Giezen, M. ; Brouwer, Stijn ; Roest, Kees ; Vliet, B.J.M. van - \ 2017
H2O online (2017). - 6 p.
energie - water - hernieuwbare energie - systemen - economie - energy - renewable energy - systems - economics
De energiesector wordt in de watersector veelvuldig genoemd als voorbeeld voor de transitie richting een circulaire economie. In hoeverre werkt dit verhelderend of juist verblindend? In deze literatuurstudie laten de auteurs hun licht schijnen op de energiesector als voorbeeld wanneer het gaat om de introductie van nieuwe decentrale technieken. Vanuit zowel een technologisch, economisch, sociaal-cultureel als een institutioneel perspectief brengen de auteurs de contextuele systeemveranderingen die van invloed kunnen zijn op toepassing van decentrale technieken in kaart. Hiermee worden de overeenkomsten en verschillen tussen energie- en watersectoren helder en ontstaat ruimte voor relativering en nuance.
More food, lower footprint : How circular food production contributes to efficiency in the food system
Scholten, M.C.T. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - cycling - environment - sustainability - nutrition - biomass - renewable energy - residual streams - agricultural wastes - organic wastes - crop residues - food production - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - kringlopen - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voeding - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - reststromen - agrarische afvalstoffen - organisch afval - oogstresten - voedselproductie
Martin Scholten on circular food production. Ideas about how circular food production can contribute to the sustainable food security.
Methodology for the case studies
Smits, M.J.W. ; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2017
EU (Circular impacts ) - 19 p.
economics - cycling - projects - renewable energy - recycling - sustainability - durability - politics - policy - environment - economie - kringlopen - projecten - hernieuwbare energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheid (durability) - politiek - beleid - milieu
This document is about the methodology and selection of the case studies. It is meant as a guideline for the case studies, and together with the other reports in this work package can be a source of inform ation for policy officers, interest groups and researchers evaluating or performing impact assessments of circular economy policies or specific circular economy projects. The methodology was developed to ensure that the case studies focus on the overall im pacts of the circular economy. The frame of the methodology is a s tep - by - step approach, which will be described in section s 3 and 4 of this document. In section 2 we describe the selection of the case studies.
Philosophical explorations on energy transition
Geerts, Robert-Jan - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bart Gremmen; Guido Ruivenkamp, co-promotor(en): Josette Jacobs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430487 - 172
philosophy - technology - sustainable energy - renewable energy - social change - energy consumption - quality - society - energy - filosofie - technologie - duurzame energie - hernieuwbare energie - sociale verandering - energiegebruik - kwaliteit - samenleving - energie

This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel technologies. Fossil energy sources and a growth-based economy have resulted in very specific energy practices, which will change in the future. Broader reflection is needed to understand how and in which direction such change is acceptable and desirable.

This reflection is initiated by articulating two pertinent problems with current energy practices that have thus far failed to receive appropriate attention in debates on energy transition: 1) the difficulty of dealing with intermittent sources in relation to the idea of cumulative accounting of energy consumption, and 2) the mismatch between expectations of ethical consumer behaviour in energy systems that discourage engagement.

To move forward, instead of assuming that all consumption is equivalent and that more is better, we must develop a better informed and more nuanced idea of 'good' energy practices that actually contribute to our quality of life. One often overlooked aspect of this may be 'embodied engagement', which would suggest that automation of tasks through energy-consuming technologies may be convenient, but also tends to lead to a loss of appreciation for both the task and its result. Some things, like creating a cozy environment around a fireplace, or climbing a mountain, are better partly because they take effort. In such cases, the 'efficiency' of the technology (e.g. the heat-pump, or the automobile) is besides the point - the question is whether it gives us anything of value at all.

Duurzame energie 2050 : verkenning rol van (agrarische) ondernemers in de energietransitie naar 2050
Wijnands, Frank ; Holster, Henri - \ 2016
Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 33
boeren - plattelandsomgeving - duurzame energie - energie - energievoorraden - hernieuwbare energie - farmers - rural environment - sustainable energy - energy - energy resources - renewable energy
Rural entrepreneurs (farmers) are going to play a major role in the energy transitions towards 2050. In professional dialogues between farmers and pertinent stakeholders it was shown that farmers are already involved in all aspects and are in the right position. The transition needs to be facilitated in local initiatives.
Biogas production and digestate utilisation from agricultural residues : deliverable nº: 6.2.1
Corre, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. - \ 2016
HYSOL project - 39 p.
renewable energy - anaerobic digestion - biogas - crop residues - agricultural wastes - sustainable energy - electricity supplies - innovations - biobased economy - fermentation - digestate - hernieuwbare energie - anaërobe afbraak - oogstresten - agrarische afvalstoffen - duurzame energie - elektriciteitsvoorzieningen - innovaties - fermentatie - digestaat
The HYSOL project aims at hybridisation of concentrated solar power with a gas turbine in order to guarantee a stable and reliable electricity supply, based on renewable energy. The production of fully renewable electricity in a Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) plant includes the use of renewable gas. In task 6.2 of the HYSOL project research into the possibilities of sustainable biogas production from agricultural residues by anaerobic digestion has been performed. In this report results are described of part of this research focussing on potential biogas production and digestate production and utilisation from animal manure and crop residues.
Anaerobic digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose in the presence of humic acids
Azman, Samet - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Fons Stams; Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): Caroline Plugge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579613 - 189
humic acids - hydrolysis - anaerobic digestion - cellulose - hemicelluloses - biomass - renewable energy - energy recovery - biogas - fermentation - bioprocess engineering - humuszuren - hydrolyse - anaërobe afbraak - hemicellulosen - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - energieterugwinning - fermentatie - bioproceskunde

Research on the hydrolysis step of the AD became more important with the increased use of recalcitrant waste products such as manure, sewage sludge and agricultural biomass for biogas production. Hydrolysis is often the rate limiting step of the overall AD. Hydrolysis enhancement is one of the required steps to optimise biogas production. Despite the progress to overcome the limitations of hydrolysis, inhibition of hydrolysis is still poorly researched. Humic acid-like molecules (HA) are one of the inhibitors of the anaerobic hydrolysis and their effect on the overall AD process is generally overlooked.

In this thesis, the HA inhibition on anaerobic digestion of cellulosic material and mitigation strategies, using cation and enzyme addition, to overcome the inhibition were investigated. In addition, the microbial community dynamics during AD in the presence and absence of HA were examined. In this scope, in Chapter 2, we reviewed the literature and pinpointed the urgent need for comprehensive studies on the role of hydrolytic microorganisms and environmental factors that effects their abundance within biogas plants. Consequently, the hydrolysis mechanism and involved hydrolytic enzymes were discussed. The overall discussion showed that a holistic approach, including microbiological and engineering studies should be chosen to disclose the role of hydrolytic microbes within biogas reactors. In Chapter 3 and, Chapter 4 the effect of HA on anaerobic cellulose hydrolysis and methanogenesis, in batch wise incubations is reported, respectively. Our results showed that pulse addition of 5 g L-1 HA caused a 50 % decrease in hydrolysis rate of anaerobic cellulose degradation (Chapter 3). Moreover, VFA accumulation was observed in the presence of HA during the anaerobic cellulose degradation, which indicated the possible inhibition of HA on methanogenesis. Based on the results of Chapter 3, pure cultures of methanogens and a mixed culture were tested to study the vulnerability of methanogenesis to HA inhibition. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis in pure cultures was inhibited by more than 75% in the presence of 1 g L-1 HA whereas, acetoclastic methanogenesis by Methanosaeta concilii was only slightly affected by HA up to 3 g L-1. When methanogenic granular sludge was incubated with HA, the specific methanogenic activity tests showed less inhibition, when compared to the pure cultures of methanogens. HA inhibition was also observed during long-term CSTR operation at an HRT of 20 days, 35°C and a mixture of cellulose and xylan as a subtrate (Chapter 6). 8 g L-1 HA inhibited the hydrolysis efficiency of the cellulose and xylan digestion by 40 % and concomitantly reduced the methane yields.

Mitigation of the HA inhibition is required to increase the hydrolysis efficiency and methane yields of cellulosic biomass digestion. Therefore, two different strategies were tested for their potential use as mitigation agents, viz. addition of cations such as, calcium magnesium and iron (Chapter 3 and Chapter 6) and addition of hydrolytic enzymes (Chapter 6). Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts mitigated the HA inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75, 65 and 72%, respectively, compared to the control groups in the batch wise incubations (Chapter 3). However, in long term CSTR operations, calcium addition did not show a positive effect on hydrolysis inhibition. On the other hand, enzyme addition helped to reverse the negative effect of HA.

The microbial communities involved in AD were also studied. Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 dealt with microbial community analyses with 16S rRNA next generation sequencing. In Chapter 5, five replicate reactors were monitored during the start-up period. Transient feeding strategy was used to acclimatise anaerobic sludge to efficient cellulose and xylan degradation. During the experiment, Bacteriodales, Clostridiales and Anaerolineales became dominant bacterial populations while, Methanobacteriaceae and Methanospirillaceae were the dominant archaeal populations within the reactors. In Chapter 6, the microbial population dynamics in the presence and absence of HA were monitored. Microbiological analyses showed that the abundance of hydrolytic/fermentative bacterial groups such as Clostridiales, Bacteroidales and Anaerolineales was significantly lowered by the presence of HA. HA also affected the archaeal populations. Mostly hydrogenotrophic methanogens were negatively affected by HA.

In conclusion, this thesis confirms that HA inhibit the hydrolysis and methanogenesis within both batch incubations and CSTR systems. Microbial populations were also affected by HA. Therefore, hydrolytic enzyme addition can be an option to mitigate HA inhibition and enhance hydrolysis and methanogenesis during conversion of biomass to biogas.

Artificial photosynthesis : for the conversion of sunlight to fuel
Purchase, R. ; Vriend, H. ; Groot, H. de; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2015
Leiden : Leiden University (Groene grondstoffen ) - ISBN 9789462575240 - 53
zonne-energie - brandstoffen - duurzame energie - fotosynthese - hernieuwbare energie - technieken - biobased economy - solar energy - fuels - sustainable energy - photosynthesis - renewable energy - techniques
The goal of this booklet is to raise awareness of the concept of artificial photosynthesis and its potential to become an additional and significant new option in our longer-term energy future.
Advancing CapMix for electricity generation : system operation, cell design and material selection
Liu, F. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Bert Hamelers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573079 - 164
hernieuwbare energie - bio-energie - energiebronnen - capacitantie - vermenging - zout water - zoet water - elektrodialyse - biobased economy - renewable energy - bioenergy - energy sources - capacitance - mixing - saline water - fresh water - electrodialysis

ABSTRACT

Capacitive energy extraction of the mixing process, also referred as Capacitive Mixing (CapMix), is a novel and promising technology that can convert salinity gradient power into electricity directly. This technology uses two porous activated carbon electrodes. The energy extraction is directly linked to the mixing process, while no emission of greenhouse gases and no thermal pollution occur. This emerging CapMix technology is still immature. In order to transform the proof-of-principle into a viable technology, many questions remain to be answered, not only in science (i.e. understanding what is happening), but also in technology (i.e. how to design and manufacture the system). In this thesis, the author investigated the optimized way to operate the system. Moreover, models were developed to understand the physical-chemical process; material including ion exchange membranes and activated carbon electrodes were evaluated; and the innovative cell design was made.

Kunstmatige fotosynthese : voor de omzetting van zonlicht naar brandstof
Purchase, R. ; Vriend, H. ; Groot, H.J.M. de; Bos, H.L. - \ 2015
Leiden : Universiteit Leiden - ISBN 9789462573994 - 53
zonne-energie - brandstoffen - duurzame energie - fotosynthese - hernieuwbare energie - technieken - biobased economy - solar energy - fuels - sustainable energy - photosynthesis - renewable energy - techniques
Deze uitgave is bedoeld voor iedereen die geïnteresseerd is in wereldwijde ontwikkelingen op het gebied van duurzame energievoorziening. Het is een beschrijving van de mogelijkheden van solar fuels, brandstoffen die direct uit zonlicht worden geproduceerd en die een substantieel onderdeel kunnen gaan uitmaken van onze toekomstige energievoorziening.
Bioelectrochemical methane production from CO2
Eerten-Jansen, M.C.A.A. van - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Annemiek ter Heijne. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570061 - 189
methaanproductie - hernieuwbare energie - kooldioxide - elektrochemie - technieken - methane production - renewable energy - carbon dioxide - electrochemistry - techniques

Nowadays, most of our energy and fuels are produced from fossil resources. Fossil resources are, however, finite and their use results in emissions that affect the environment and human health. For reasons of energy security and environmental sustainability, there is therefore a need to produce energy and fuels from renewable resources. However, currently several challenges need to be overcome before renewable resources can be implemented on a large scale for the production of renewable energy and fuels. At the moment, all the renewable resources can be converted into electricity. However, renewable electricity is often produced intermittently. Therefore, excess renewable electricity, when supply does not meet demand, needs to be stored not to get lost. On the other hand, fuels can currently only be produced directly from biomass. There are, however, discussions about whether sufficient biomass can be produced in a sustainable way to cover the global demand.

A methane-producing Bioelectrochemical system (BES) is a novel technology to store excess renewable electricity in the form of methane, independent of biomass. Key principle of the methane-producing BES is the use of microorganisms as catalysts for the reduction of CO2 and electricity into methane. At the start of this thesis, the methane-producing BES was at its infancy, and for implementation of the technology a more thorough understanding of the technology was needed. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the principles and perspectives of bioelectrochemical methane production from CO2. Focus was on the main bottlenecks limiting system’s performance.

In Chapter 2, the performance of a flat-plate methane-producing BES that was operated for 188 days was studied. The methane production rate and energy efficiency were investigated with time to elucidate the main bottlenecks limiting system’s performance. Using water as electron donor at the anode, methane production rate was 0.12 mL CH4/m2 cathode per day and overall energy efficiency was 3.1% at -0.55 V vs. Normal Hydrogen Electrode (NHE) cathode potential during continuous operation. Analysis of the internal resistance showed that in the short term, cathode and anode losses were dominant, but with time also pH gradient and transport losses became important.

Since the cathode energy losses were dominant, in Chapter 3, the microbial community that catalyses the reduction of CO2 into methane was studied. The microbial community was dominated by three phylotypes of methanogenic archaea, being closely related to Methanobacterium palustre and Methanobacterium aarhusense, and six phylotypes of bacteria. Besides methanogenic archaea, the bacteria seemed to be associated with methane production, producing hydrogen as intermediate. Biomass density varied greatly with part of the electrode being covered by a thick biofilm, whereas only clusters of biomass were found on other parts of the electrode.

Based on the microbial community it seemed that methane was produced indirectly using hydrogen as electron donor. Therefore, the electron transfer mechanisms of bioelectrochemical methane production were investigated in Chapter 4. Understanding the electron transfer mechanisms could give insight in methods to steer the process towards higher rate. A mixed culture methane-producing biocathode was developed that produced 5.2 L methane/m2 cathode per day at -0.7 V vs. NHE cathode potential. To elucidate the formation of intermediates, methanogenic archaea in the biocathode were inhibited with 2-bromethanesulfonate. Methane was primarily produced indirectly using hydrogen and acetate as electron donor, whereas methane production via direct electron transfer hardly occurred.

Besides producing methane, a BES could also be used to produce higher value organics, such as medium chain fatty acids. Currently, medium chain fatty acids are produced by fermenting (low-grade) organic biomass using an external electron donor, such as hydrogen and/or ethanol. A BES could provide the electrons in-situ, either as the electrode directly or indirectly via hydrogen. In Chapter 5, medium chain fatty acids production in a BES at -0.9 V vs. NHE cathode potential was demonstrated, without addition of an external electron mediator. Caproate (six carbon atoms), butyrate (four carbon atoms), and smaller fractions of caprylate (eight carbon atoms) were the main products formed from acetate (two carbon atoms). In-situ produced hydrogen was likely electron donor for the reduction of acetate. Electron and carbon balances revealed that 45% of the electrons in electric current and acetate, and 31% of the carbon in acetate were recovered in the formed products.

In Chapter 6, the present performance of methane-producing BESs was evaluated. Analysis of the performances reported in literature did not reveal an increase with time. Based on the main bottlenecks that limit system’s performance as found in this thesis, methods to increase performance were discussed. Besides, we showed that our envisioned first application is to upgrade CO2 in biogas of anaerobic digestion to additional methane. Finally, the feasibility of production of higher-value organics, such as medium chain fatty acids, in BES was discussed.

Parkstad Limburg Energietransitie (PALET): Achtergronddocument Hernieuwbare Energieopwekking
Stremke, S. ; Oudes, H.H. - \ 2014
Stadsregio Parkstad Limburg - 53
energie - hernieuwbare energie - duurzame energie - regionale ontwikkeling - landschap - zuid-limburg - biobased economy - energy - renewable energy - sustainable energy - regional development - landscape
De Stadsregio Parkstad Limburg oriënteert zich op de transitie van een bijna nog volledig fossiele energievoorziening in 2013 naar een duurzame en klimaatbestendige regio, waarbij de te behalen doelen voor wat betreft energiebesparing en opwekking van het aandeel duurzame energie en de CO2-reductie op zodanige wijze worden onderbouwd dat deze recht doen aan de landschappelijke kwaliteit en de potentiële bronnen van duurzame energie in Parkstad.
Stimuleren van Groene Groei. Verkenning van initiatieven voor circulaire en emissiearme economie
Brouwer, F.M. ; Verburg, R.W. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI 2014-011) - ISBN 9789086156740 - 98
economische ontwikkeling - energiebesparing - hernieuwbare energie - energiebeleid - katoen - textiel - duurzame ontwikkeling - melkveehouderij - biobased economy - overheidsbeleid - nederland - economic development - energy saving - renewable energy - energy policy - cotton - textiles - sustainable development - dairy farming - government policy - netherlands
Het Kabinet heeft in 2013 een groene groeistrategie geformuleerd. In opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) heeft het LEI een onderzoek uitgevoerd om de kansen en belemmeringen voor vergroening voor enkele voorbeelden uit te werken. De volgende drie casussen zijn uitgewerkt: energiebesparing en decentrale opwekking van hernieuwbare elektriciteit; verduurzaming van en hergebruik in de katoenketen; vergroening als voorwaarde voor groei in de zuivelsector.
Energie en klimaat in de Agrosectoren
Moerkerken, A. ; Gerlagh, T. ; Jong, G. de; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2014
Utrecht : Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland
energie - landbouwsector - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - energieproductie in de landbouw - hernieuwbare energie - biobased economy - energy - agricultural sector - energy consumption - energy saving - agricultural energy production - renewable energy
Dit rapport beschrijft de voortgang van het convenant ‘schone en zuinige agrosectoren’, ook wel Agroconvenant genoemd. Dit convenant is in 2008 gesloten en bevat afspraken die de agrosectoren en de overheid hebben gemaakt op het gebied van energiebesparing, hernieuwbare energie en reductie van broeikasgassen in de landbouwsectoren. Agrarische ondernemers hebben sinds de start van het convenant vele initiatieven ontplooid. De overheid zette vele instrumenten in om de doelen uit het convenant te helpen realiseren. Voorjaar 2014 evalueren de deelnemers de werking en de resultaten van het convenant.
Parkstad Limburg Energietransitie (PALET): Ambitiedocument
Delheij, V. ; Straten, R. van der; Stremke, S. ; Oudes, H.H. ; Broers, W. ; Kimman, J. ; Bongers, J. ; Janssen, F. ; Weusten, P. ; Hugtenburg, J. ; Meeuwsen, A. - \ 2014
Stadsregio Parkstad Limburg - 38
energiebesparing - energie - hernieuwbare energie - regionale ontwikkeling - toekomst - verandering - zuid-limburg - biobased economy - energy saving - energy - renewable energy - regional development - future - change
Dit ambitiedocument zet op basis van gefundeerd onderzoek uiteen hoeveel energie momenteel in de diverse sectoren wordt gebruikt, hoeveel daarop in de toekomst bespaard kan worden en hoeveel hernieuwbare energie in de diverse vormen acceptabel en ruimtelijk inpasbaar in de regio van Parkstad Limburg kan worden opgewekt. Het ambitiedocument biedt het inzicht dat het ruimtelijk realistisch is om in 2040 een hernieuwbaar energieneutrale regio te zijn.
Hernieuwbare energie in Noordwest-Europa. Desk-study naar ambities, beleid en sturingsmechanismen in enkele Europese landen
Visschedijk, P.A.M. ; Vries, E.A. de; Smit, A. ; Stuiver, M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2471) - 44
energiebeleid - overheidsbeleid - hernieuwbare energie - europese unie - energiebronnen - biobased economy - energy policy - government policy - renewable energy - european union - energy sources
Binnen de Europese Unie worden afspraken gemaakt omtrent het energiegebruik in de verschillende landen. Aan deze afspraken liggen afspraken uit het Kyoto-verdrag ten grondslag. Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving concludeerde dat het beleid rond de vermindering van de uitstoot van CO2 gedomineerd wordt door een nationale benadering terwijl gezamenlijke aanpak over landsgrenzen heen relatief weinig aandacht krijgt. Dit is dan ook een aanleiding om in deze studie te focussen op de aanpak binnen de verschillende landen. Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken had de wens om vooral te kijken naar landen die koploper zijn in het energiebeleid en enigszins vergelijkbaar zijn met Nederland. Er is gekozen het energiebeleid in beeld te brengen voor de vijf landen die in vergelijking met het aandeel energie uit hernieuwbare bronnen in 2005, de meest vooruitstrevende de bindende streefcijfers voor 2020 hebben. Dit zijn Verenigd Koninkrijk (+13,7%), Denemarken (+13,0%), Ierland (+12,9%), Frankrijk (+12,7%) en Duitsland (+12,2%).
Energielandschap in de gemeente Brummen; ideeën, mogelijkheden en kansen
Knaap, W.G.M. van der - \ 2013
Netherlands : Wageningen University - 171
landschap - landschapsplanning - landschapsarchitectuur - energie - hernieuwbare energie - biobased economy - veluwe - gelderland - landscape - landscape planning - landscape architecture - energy - renewable energy
In 2012 en 2013 hebben studenten van de universiteit Wageningen een onderzoek gedaan in onze gemeente rondom het thema 'energielandschap'. Onderzoeksopdracht vanuit de gemeente was: Welke mogelijkheden zijn er om de ontwikkeling en het gebruik van duurzame energie voor de korte en de middenllange termijn vorm te geven en aan te laten sluiten bij de kenmerken van het landschap en bij de wensen van bewoners en ondernemers ter plekke". Een groep van twaalf bereidwillige (en vrijwillige) deskundigen uit onze gemeentelijke samenleving hebben als een 'reisgids' de studenten door onze gemeente geloodst. Hierbij hebben de studenten contacten gezocht met instellingen, ondernemingen en bedrijven. Op 11 maart 2013 hebben de studenten een presentatie verzorgd van hun onderzoeksrapport. Op 16 juli 2013 heeft het college kennis genomen van dit rapport. Het college constateert dat het rapport ideeën biedt, maar ook mogelijkheden voor eventueel vervolgonderzoek door masterstudenten. Zo'n vervolgonderzoek kan dieper op dit onderwerp ingaan. Onderzoekresultaten van dit eventuele vervolgonderzoek zijn dan wellicht ook daadwerkelijk toepasbaar in onze gemeente.
Capacitive technology for energy extraction from chemical potential differences
Bastos Sales, B. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Bert Hamelers. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737380 - 120
capacitantie - bio-elektrische potentiaal - hernieuwbare energie - energiebronnen - zoutgehalte - elektrische kracht - temperatuur - capacitance - bioelectric potential - renewable energy - energy sources - salinity - electric power - temperature

This thesis introduces the principle of Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan Potential (CDP) to exploit salinity gradients. It also shows the fundamental characterization and improvements of CDP. An alternative application of this technology aimed at thermal gradients was tested.

Chapter 2 introduces the principle and initial tests. The entropy increase of mixing two solutions of different salt concentrations can be harnessed to generate electrical energy. Worldwide, the potential of this resource, the controlled mixing of river and seawater, is enormous, but existing conversion technologies are still complex and expensive. Here we present a small-scale device that directly generates electrical power from the sequential flow of fresh and saline water, without the need of auxiliary processes or converters. The device consists of a sandwich of porous “supercapacitor” electrodes, ion-exchange membranes, and a spacer and can be further miniaturized or scaled-out. Our results demonstrate that alternating the flow of saline and fresh water through a capacitive cell allows direct autogeneration of voltage and current and consequently leads to power generation. Theoretical calculations aid in providing directions for further optimization of the properties of membranes and electrodes.

In Chapter 3, traditional electrochemical techniques (galvanostatic charge–discharge and cyclic voltammetry) were used to investigate intrinsic properties of this open system. This study demonstrates the feasibility to characterize the capacitive behavior of the cell in low concentration (0.5 M). Presence of membranes, as well as the possibility of having the electrolyte flowing through the cell was investigated. In the studied cell, the presence of membranes showed a limitation by the anion exchange membrane at low current densities but no effect at high current densities. The flow rate did not influence the capacitance of the system either.

Chapter 4uses again a stack of eight cells coupled in parallel to investigate the viability of this technology. An average power density of 0.055W/m2was obtained during the peak of the different cycles, though reasonable optimization suggests an expectation of 0.26W/m2at 6.2 A/m2. It was found that 83 ± 8% of the theoretical driving potential was obtained during the operating process. By studying the polarization curves during charging and discharging cycles, it was found that optimizing the feed fluid flow is currently among the most beneficial paths to make CDP a viable salinity difference power source. Another parallel route for increasing the efficiency is lowering the internal ohmic resistances of the cell by design modifications.

A modification is proposed in Chapter 5, approaching the electrodes geometry that has a relevant impact on internal resistance and overall performance in CDP. In this work, we present the first effort to use wire-shaped electrodes and its suitability for improving CDP. Analytical evaluation and electrical measurements confirm a strong nonlinear decrease in internal resistance for distances between electrodes smaller than 3 mm. We also demonstrate that we get more power per material invested when compared to traditional flat plate designs. These findings show the advantages of this design for further development of CDP into a mature technology.

Alternatively, in Chapter 6, we present a new principle for producing electricity from low temperature differences by using an affordable assembly combining ion exchange membranes and supercapacitor carbon electrodes. Our proposed design involves two isolated salty solutions, with equal concentration but different temperatures. The operation consists of an alternately and cyclic exposure of the electrodes to these electrolytes. This difference in temperature generates a thermomembrane potential that acts as a driving force for ionic adsorption/desorption cycles on the electrodes. Our simple system is interesting for exploiting the potential of low temperature waste heat. When two volumes with equal concentration have different temperatures, it is possible to immerse a pair of electrodes (anode and cathode) into the low temperature one and have ion adsorption. An electric current is then generated in the external circuit to achieve electro neutrality. After saturation, the same electrodes are immersed in the high T volume and then ions desorb from the electrodes and are released to the volume, leading to a reverse electric current in the external circuit compared to the first step. These experiments prove the principle and the direct dependence of the temperature gradient for energy extraction.

Finally, Chapter 7discusses the internal energy losses identified and faced throughout this thesis. We summarize the solutions encountered for the major contributions hindering the CDP performance and give suggestions to further develop the technology.

Energie voor de toekomst : samenwerking loont (interview Arend Krikke)
Hilgersom, M. ; Schellingerhout, R. ; Krikke, A.T. - \ 2013
Leiden : Omgevingsdienst West Holland
energie - duurzame energie - regionale ontwikkeling - energiebesparing - hernieuwbare energie - zuid-holland - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - projecten - biobased economy - publiek-private samenwerking - Nederland - energy - sustainable energy - regional development - energy saving - renewable energy - sustainability - projects - public-private cooperation - Netherlands
Uitgave met de resultaten van vier jaar samenwerken aan klimaatprojecten door verschillende gemeenten in Zuid-Holland en de Omgevingsdienst West-Holland. Het regionale Klimaatprogramma lipe van 2008 tot 2012 en staat bekend als Energie voor de toekomst. Door de bundeling van bedrijven, overheid en inwoners zijn in de regio veel resultaten bereikt on CO2-uitstoot te verminderen.
Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform
Meesters, K.P.H. ; Corré, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Patel, M.K. ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1441) - ISBN 9789461739827 - 68
oil plants - plant oils - palm oils - soyabean oil - rapeseed oil - sustainability - sustainability indicators - renewable energy - greenhouse gases - land use - biobased economy - biofuels - biopolymers - olieleverende planten - plantaardige oliën - palmoliën - sojaolie - raapzaadolie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - hernieuwbare energie - broeikasgassen - landgebruik - biobrandstoffen - biopolymeren
This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also three different products made from vegetable oil were evaluated: biodiesel, polyol (a raw material for production of PU foams) and resin. In the present study, sustainability of these products was evaluated through the following parameters: Non-Renewable Energy Usage (NREU) (GJ per ton of product); Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions (ton CO2-equivalent per ton of product); Land use (ha/ton vegetable oil) and NREU and GHG emission avoided (GJ or ton CO2-equivalent per hectare of land).
Integrated visions (part II): Envisioning Sustainable Energy Landscapes
Stremke, S. ; Koh, J. ; Neven, C.T. ; Boekel, A. - \ 2012
European Planning Studies 20 (2012)4. - ISSN 0965-4313 - p. 609 - 626.
landschapsarchitectuur - regionale planning - duurzame energie - hernieuwbare energie - klimaatverandering - zuid-nederland - landscape architecture - regional planning - sustainable energy - renewable energy - climatic change - south netherlands - design
ABSTRACT Climate change and resource depletion are driving the transition to renewable energy sources. Both the supply of renewables and the demand for energy are influenced by the physical environment and therefore concern spatial planning and landscape design. Envisioning the longterm development of alternative energy landscapes – that is sustainable energy landscapes – present spatial planners and landscape architects with new challenges. The first paper of this twopart series discussed several existing approaches to long-term regional planning and landscape design, and presented an alternative, five-step approach for the composition of integrated visions [Stremke, S., Kann, F. Van & Koh, J. (2012) Integrated Visions (part I): Methodological Framework, European Planning Studies, [20(2), pp. 305–320]. This paper illustrates how the fivestep approach was employed to compose a set of integrated visions for the development of sustainable energy landscapes in south of the Netherlands. The proposed five-step approach is then examined with respect to a set of criteria stressed in the planning and design literature.
Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. Creating benefits for farmers and society
Pedroli, G.B.M. ; Langeveld, H. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (AGRI-2010-EVAL-03 ) - 75
hernieuwbare energie - landbouw - plattelandseconomie - windenergie - zonne-energie - geothermische energie - biomassa - bio-energie - energieproductie in de landbouw - biobased economy - renewable energy - agriculture - rural economy - wind power - solar energy - geothermal energy - biomass - bioenergy - agricultural energy production
This report presents results of the project Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. It focuses on the (potential) role that on-farm generation of Renewable Energy in the EU-27 may play both in realisation of national and EU environmental targets as in (re)vitalising agriculture and rural economy in different regions of the Union. Renewable Energy (RE) in this respect includes the energy generated on farms by using wind, PV, solar thermal, hydro, geothermal or biomass resources.
Economic Analysis of Feed-in Tariffs for Generating Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources
Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2011
REPA
economie - wetgeving - energiebeleid - energie - hernieuwbare energie - vervangbare hulpbronnen - fossiele energie - vs - biobased economy - Nederland - economics - legislation - energy policy - energy - renewable energy - renewable resources - fossil energy - usa - Netherlands
Working paper over de economische aspecten van en mogelijkheden voor wetgeving om het gebruik van energie uit hernieuwbare bronnen in de Verenigde Staten te stimuleren.
Energie- en klimaatmonitor agrosectoren 2011
Moerkerken, A. ; Gerlagh, T. ; Jong, G. de; Verhoog, A.D. ; Both, D. ; Segers, R. - \ 2011
Utrecht [etc.] : Agentschap NL - 62
energie - hernieuwbare energie - broeikasgassen - emissie - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - energieproductie in de landbouw - veehouderij - akkerbouw - bosbouw - biobased economy - energy - renewable energy - greenhouse gases - emission - energy consumption - energy saving - agricultural energy production - livestock farming - arable farming - forestry
Onderzoek van Agenschap NL en WUR-LEI in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (EL&I). Uit de monitor blijkt dat de Nederandse land- en tuinbouwbedrijven meer elektriciteit produceren dan ze zelf verbruiken. De totale bijdrage van deze sectoren aan de in Nederland gebruikte duurzame energie is 44 procent. Ruim de helft van het energieverbruik van de land- en tuinbouwbedrijven zelf (uitgezonderd de glastuinbouw) is afkomstig uit hernieuwbare bronnen.
Proeftuin op boerderijschaal : thema energie (interview met Rommie van der Weide)
Bouwmeester, René ; Weide, R.Y. van der - \ 2011
Nieuwe Oogst : ledenblad LTO Noord. LTO Noord, ed. Oost/West 7 (2011)47. - ISSN 2210-4984 - p. 35 - 35.
proefboerderijen - hernieuwbare energie - bio-energie - duurzame energie - proefprojecten - biobased economy - experimental farms - renewable energy - bioenergy - sustainable energy - pilot projects
Als er een plek is waar de technische mogelijkheden van hernieuwbare brandstoffen worden verkend, dan is het bij Accres. Accres is een initiatief van Wageningen UR met energieleverancier Eneco als strategisch partner.
Kansen en bedreigingen voor mestvergisting en groengasproductie in de Gelderse landbouw : een eerste verkenning
Migchels, G. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Aarts, H.F.M. ; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Luttik, J. ; Sebek, L.B. ; Zwart, K.B. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 505) - 43
biobased economy - biogas - gelderland - vervangbare hulpbronnen - hernieuwbare energie - fermentatie - mestvergisting - broeikasgassen - emissie - digestaat - renewable resources - renewable energy - fermentation - manure fermentation - greenhouse gases - emission - digestate
Fermentation is a promising development in agriculture and beyond and anticipates to the desired availability of (locally produced) renewable sources of energy to replace fossil sources of energy.
Samenwerken aan duurzame regionale ontwikkeling in de Noordoostpolder : rapportage C2C Agropark Flevoland
Wolf, P.L. de - \ 2011
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Cluster Akkerbouw, Groene ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 38
glastuinbouw - teelt onder bescherming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bio-energie - hernieuwbare energie - cradle to cradle - bodemkwaliteit - organische stof - agrarische handel - logistiek - innovaties - regionale ontwikkeling - noordoostpolder - biobased economy - greenhouse horticulture - protected cultivation - sustainability - bioenergy - renewable energy - soil quality - organic matter - agricultural trade - logistics - innovations - regional development
“Er is pas sprake van innovatie als de schop in de grond gaat.” Dat is het motto van het TransForum project Cradle to Cradle (C2C) Agropark Flevoland geweest. In dit project waren ondernemers uit de Noordoostpolder, kennisinstellingen en regionale partijen betrokken. Zij hebben samen een ontwerp gemaakt van een C2C Agropark wat past bij het gebied en daarvan de haalbaarheid in grote lijnen beoordeeld. Er is gewerkt aan een aantal thema’s: 1. Energie en CO2. De betrokken glastuinders waren in het begin van het project vrijwel volledig afhankelijk van aardgas voor de verwarming van de kassen. Door de sterk gestegen gasprijs in 2008/2009 was de urgentie groot om (goedkopere) alternatieven te ontwikkelen. Het eerste idee was om samen met één of meer melkveehouders een co-vergistingsinstallatie te realiseren die energie levert aan de glastuinbouw. In de verdere uitwerking bleek dat een installatie op basis van mest minder goed past bij de situatie. De warmtevraag van de tuinders is groot en er zijn weinig veehouders in de buurt. Daarnaast is het product (digestaat) niet zo aantrekkelijk voor de plantaardige sectoren in de regio. Het ontwerp is daarom gewijzigd en nu gebaseerd op plantaardige reststromen, zoals GFT en ander groenafval uit de regio. Afhankelijk van het type installatie levert dit een aantrekkelijk product op voor bodemverbetering. Een van de deelnemers was een groot melkveebedrijf met een bestaande vergistingsinstallatie. De restwarmte van deze installatie werd niet benut, maar de glastuinbouw is te ver weg om de warmte daarheen af te zetten. Deze ondernemer heeft in het project een plan verkend om de warmte op het eigen bedrijf te benutten voor de verwerking van digestaat tot strooisel en het drogen van veevoerproducten van het land (gras/luzerne). 2. Bodemkwaliteit. De bodemkwaliteit is de basis voor een duurzame productie in de toekomst. Met name op de lichte gronden is het organische stofgehalte zover gedaald dat er problemen ontstaan in de teelt. Enkele ondernemers in Ens hebben daarom in het project een groep gevormd met huurders en verhuurders uit verschillende sectoren om een plan te maken voor duurzaam bodembeheer, gecombineerd met een training en veldexperimenten/demo’s. Daarnaast is een relatie gelegd met de vergistingsinstallatie die de tuinders van warmte moet voorzien. Deze installatie zou bij de juiste grondstoffen en een geschikte installatie ook een geschikte bodemverbeteraar op kunnen leveren. 3. Afzet en Logistiek. In het project zijn kansen verkend voor samenwerking in afzet en logistiek. In het project zijn twee sporen in beeld gebracht: efficiëntieverbetering en waarde-creatie. Er liggen wel kansen, bijvoorbeeld voor de realisatie van een multifunctioneel logistiek centrum bij Emmeloord. Deze kansen blijken relatief ver bij de ondernemers en hun corebusiness vandaan te staan en in sommige gevallen is sprake van concurrentiegevoeligheid. Het initiatief moet daarom waarschijnlijk van buiten de groep komen.
Mitigation/Adaptation: landscape architecture meets sustainable energy transition
Stremke, S. - \ 2009
landschapsarchitectuur - klimaatverandering - hernieuwbare energie - duurzame ontwikkeling - regionale ontwikkeling - biobased economy - energie - landscape architecture - climatic change - renewable energy - sustainable development - regional development - energy
Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to renewable energy sources are among the emerging fields of activity in landscape architecture. If landscape architects recognize the need for sustainable development on the basis of renewable energy sources, then how can we contribute to sustainable and aesthetic transformation of the human environment?
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