Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Global analysis of depletion and recovery of seabed biota after bottom trawling disturbance
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Szostek, Claire L. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Ellis, Nick ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. - \ 2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (2017)31. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8301 - 8306.
logistic recovery model - systematic review - metaanalysis - impacts - trawling
Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity affecting seabed habitats. Here, we collate all available data for experimental and comparative studies of trawling impacts on whole communities of seabed macroinvertebrates on sedimentary habitats and develop widely applicable methods to estimate depletion and recovery rates of biota after trawling. Depletion of biota and trawl penetration into the seabed are highly correlated. Otter trawls caused the least depletion, removing 6% of biota per pass and penetrating the seabed on average down to 2.4 cm, whereas hydraulic dredges caused the most depletion, removing 41% of biota and penetrating the seabed on average 16.1 cm. Median recovery times posttrawling (from 50 to 95% of unimpacted biomass) ranged between 1.9 and 6.4 y. By accounting for the effects of penetration depth, environmental variation, and uncertainty, the models explained much of the variability of depletion and recovery estimates from single studies. Coupled with
large-scale, high-resolution maps of trawling frequency and habitat, our estimates of depletion and recovery rates enable the assessment of trawling impacts on unprecedented spatial scales.
The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management
Batary, P. ; Dicks, L.V. ; Kleijn, D. ; Sutherland, W.J. - \ 2015
Conservation Biology 29 (2015)4. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 1006 - 1016.
land-use intensity - ecosystem services - agricultural landscapes - farmland birds - biodiversity - metaanalysis - europe - benefits - intensification - pollinators
Over half of the European landscape is under agricultural management and has been for millennia. Many species and ecosystems of conservation concern in Europe depend on agricultural management and are showing ongoing declines. Agri-environment schemes (AES) are designed partly to address this. They are a major source of nature conservation funding within the European Union (EU) and the highest conservation expenditure in Europe. We reviewed the structure of current AES across Europe. Since a 2003 review questioned the overall effectiveness of AES for biodiversity, there has been a plethora of case studies and meta-analyses examining their effectiveness. Most syntheses demonstrate general increases in farmland biodiversity in response to AES, with the size of the effect depending on the structure and management of the surrounding landscape. This is important in the light of successive EU enlargement and ongoing reforms of AES. We examined the change in effect size over time by merging the data sets of 3 recent meta-analyses and found that schemes implemented after revision of the EU's agri-environmental programs in 2007 were not more effective than schemes implemented before revision. Furthermore, schemes aimed at areas out of production (such as field margins and hedgerows) are more effective at enhancing species richness than those aimed at productive areas (such as arable crops or grasslands). Outstanding research questions include whether AES enhance ecosystem services, whether they are more effective in agriculturally marginal areas than in intensively farmed areas, whether they are more or less cost-effective for farmland biodiversity than protected areas, and how much their effectiveness is influenced by farmer training and advice? The general lesson from the European experience is that AES can be effective for conserving wildlife on farmland, but they are expensive and need to be carefully designed and targeted.
Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease
Olivares, M. ; Albrecht, S. ; Palma, G. de; Desamparados Ferrer, M. ; Castillejo, G. ; Schols, H.A. ; Sanz, Y. - \ 2015
European Journal of Nutrition 54 (2015). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 119 - 128.
breast-milk - cytokine production - allergic disease - ce-lif - childhood - risk - oligosaccharides - infant - metaanalysis - bacteria
Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12) were collected. Cytokines and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) were analyzed by bead-arrays and flow cytometry and human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) were assessed by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection. Breast-milk microbiota composition was analyzed by conventional and quantitative real-time PCR. Result Breast milk from CD mothers showed significantly lower levels of interleukin (IL) 12p70 (P\\0.042), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1 (P\\0.018) and sIgA (P\\0.003) and almost significantly lower levels of interferon (IFN)-c (P\\0.058). Six mothers in each group belonged to the secretor Le(a-b?) type, one to the secretor Le(a-b-) type and five to the non-secretor Le(a?b-) type. CD mothers of non-secretor Le(a?b-) type showed increased Lacto-N-tetraose content (P\\0.042) compared with healthy mothers. CD mothers’ milk showed reduced gene copy numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. (P\\0.026) and B. fragilis group (P\\0.044). Conclusion CD mothers’ breast milk is characterized by a reduced abundance of immunoprotective compounds (TGF-b1 and sIgA) and bifidobacteria. The reduction in these components could theoretically diminish the protective effects of breast-feeding on the child’s future risk of developing CD.
Direct comparison of metabolic health effects of the flavonoids quercetin, hesperetin, epicatechin, apigenin and anthocyanins in high-fat-diet-fed mice
Hoek-van den Hil, E.F. ; Schothorst, E.M. van; Stelt, I. van der; Swarts, J.J.M. ; Vliet, M.A. van; Amolo, T. ; Vervoort, J.J.M. ; Venema, D.P. ; Hollman, P.C.H. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Keijer, J. - \ 2015
Genes & Nutrition 10 (2015)4. - ISSN 1555-8932 - 13 p.
cardiovascular-disease - mediterranean diet - c57bl/6j mice - obese mice - bioavailability - polyphenols - inflammation - metaanalysis - cholesterol - prevention
Dietary flavonoid intake is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, possibly by affecting metabolic health. The relative potency of different flavonoids in causing beneficial effects on energy and lipid metabolism has not been investigated. Effects of quercetin, hesperetin, epicatechin, apigenin and anthocyanins in mice fed a high-fat diet (HF) for 12 weeks were compared, relative to normal-fat diet. HF-induced body weight gain was significantly lowered by all flavonoids (17–29 %), but most by quercetin. Quercetin significantly lowered HF-induced hepatic lipid accumulation (71 %). Mesenteric adipose tissue weight and serum leptin levels were significantly lowered by quercetin, hesperetin and anthocyanins. Adipocyte cell size and adipose tissue inflammation were not affected. The effect on body weight and composition could not be explained by individual significant effects on energy intake, energy expenditure or activity. Lipid metabolism was not changed as measured by indirect calorimetry or expression of known lipid metabolic genes in liver and white adipose tissue. Hepatic expression of Cyp2b9 was strongly downregulated by all flavonoids. In conclusion, all flavonoids lowered parameters of HF-induced adiposity, with quercetin being most effective.
The relationship between fermented food intake and mortality risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort
Praagman, J. ; Dalmeijer, G.W. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Bueno-de Mesquita, H.B. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Beulens, J.W.J. - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015). - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 498 - 506.
coronary-heart-disease - lactic-acid bacteria - dairy-products - colorectal-cancer - consumption - stroke - metaanalysis - questionnaire - menaquinone - men
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between total and subtypes of bacterial fermented food intake (dairy products, cheese, vegetables and meat) and mortality due to all causes, total cancer and CVD. From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort, 34 409 Dutch men and women, aged 20–70 years who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline, were included. Baseline intakes of total and subtypes of fermented foods were measured with a validated FFQ. Data on the incidence and causes of death were obtained from the national mortality register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse mortality in relation to the quartiles of fermented food intake. After a mean follow-up of 15 (sd 2·5) years, 2436 deaths occurred (1216 from cancer and 727 from CVD). After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, education level, hypertension, smoking habit, BMI, and intakes of fruit, vegetables and alcohol, total fermented food intake was not found to be associated with mortality due to all causes (hazard ratio upper v. lowest quartile (HRQ4 v. Q1) 1·00, 95 % CI 0·88, 1·13), cancer (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·02, 95 % CI 0·86, 1·21) or CVD (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·04, 95 % CI 0·83, 1·30). Bacterial fermented foods mainly consisted of fermented dairy foods (78 %) and cheese (16 %). None of the subtypes of fermented foods was consistently related to mortality, except for cheese which was moderately inversely associated with CVD mortality, and particularly stroke mortality (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·59, 95 % CI 0·38, 0·92, Ptrend= 0·046). In conclusion, the present study provides no strong evidence that intake of fermented foods, particularly fermented dairy foods, is associated with mortality.
Prepregnancy dietary patterns and risk of developing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health
Schoenaker, D.A.J.M. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Callaway, L.K. ; Mishra, G.D. - \ 2015
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 102 (2015)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 94 - 101.
coronary-heart-disease - cardiovascular-disease - mediterranean diet - gestational hypertension - preeclampsia - metaanalysis - consumption - cohort - supplementation - prevention
Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs), including gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, are common obstetric complications associated with adverse health outcomes for the mother and child. It remains unclear how dietary intake can influence HDP risk. Objective: We investigated associations between prepregnancy dietary patterns and risk of HDPs. Design: We selected 3582 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, which is an observational population-based study. Women were not pregnant at baseline in 2003 and reported at least one live birth between 2003 and 2012. Diet was assessed by using a validated 101-item food-frequency questionnaire in 2003, and factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. HDPs were assessed by using the question, "Were you diagnosed or treated for hypertension during pregnancy?" Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate RRs (95% CIs) adjusted for dietary, reproductive, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. Results: During 9 y of follow-up of 3582 women, 305 women (8.5%) reported a first diagnosis of HDPs in 6149 pregnancies. We identified 4 dietary patterns labeled as meat, high-fat, and sugar; Mediterranean-style; fruit and low-fat dairy; and cooked vegetables. In the adjusted model, the meat, high-fat, and sugar, fruit and low-fat dairy, and cooked vegetable dietary patterns were not associated with HDP risk. The Mediterranean-style dietary pattern (characterized by vegetables, legumes, nuts, tofu, rice, pasta, rye bread, red wine, and fish) was inversely associated with risk of developing HDPs (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42, 0.81). Conclusions: In this population-based study of Australian women, we observed an independent protective dose-response association between prepregnancy consumption of a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and HDP risk. Additional studies are recommended to confirm our findings by prospectively examining whether the implementation of the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern before pregnancy has a role in the prevention of HDPs.
The association between vitamin D status and parameters for bone density and quality is modified by Body Mass Index
Sohl, E. ; Jongh, R.T. de; Swart, K.M.A. ; Enneman, A.W. ; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Dijk, S.C. van; Ham, A.C. ; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M. ; Velde, N. van der; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Velde, S.J. te; Lips, P. ; Schoor, N.M. van - \ 2015
Calcified Tissue International 96 (2015)2. - ISSN 0171-967X - p. 113 - 122.
quantitative ultrasound parameters - mineral density - postmenopausal women - d deficiency - physical performance - 25-hydroxyvitamin d - risk-assessment - older persons - population - metaanalysis
The association of vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD) and Quantitative Ultrasound measurements (QUS) has been inconsistent in previous studies, probably caused by moderating effects. This study explored (1) the association of vitamin D status with QUS and BMD, and (2) whether these associations were modified by body mass index (BMI), age, gender, or physical activity. Two-independent cohorts of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA-I, 1995/1996, aged =65; LASA-II, 2008/2009, aged 61–71) and baseline measurement of the B-vitamins for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures (B-PROOF) study (2008–2011, aged 65+) were used. QUS measurements [broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS)] were performed at the calcaneus in all three cohorts (N = 1,235, N = 365, N = 1319); BMD was measured by Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in B-PROOF (N = 1,162 and 1,192 for specific sites) and LASA-I (N = 492 and 503). The associations of vitamin D status with BUA and BMD were modified by BMI. Only in persons with low-to-normal BMI (
Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting exhibit poor pre-operative intakes of fruit, vegetables, dietary fibre, fish and vtiman D
Ruiz-Nunez, B. ; Hurk, Y.A.C. van den; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015). - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1466 - 1476.
cardiovascular-disease risk - low-grade inflammation - heart-disease - fatty-acids - eicosapentaenoic acid - gut microbiota - brain-function - life-style - metaanalysis - consumption
CHD may ensue from chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Diet is a modifiable risk factor for both, and its optimisation may reduce post-operative mortality, atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline. In the present study, we investigated the usual dietary intakes of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), emphasising on food groups and nutrients with putative roles in the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. From November 2012 to April 2013, we approached ninety-three consecutive patients (80 % men) undergoing elective CABG. Of these, fifty-five were finally included (84 % men, median age 69 years; range 46–84 years). The median BMI was 27 (range 18–36) kg/m2. The dietary intake items were fruits (median 181 g/d; range 0–433 g/d), vegetables (median 115 g/d; range 0–303 g/d), dietary fibre (median 22 g/d; range 9–45 g/d), EPA+DHA (median 0·14 g/d; range 0·01–1·06 g/d), vitamin D (median 4·9 µg/d; range 1·9–11·2 µg/d), saturated fat (median 13·1 % of energy (E%); range 9–23 E%) and linoleic acid (LA; median 6·3 E%; range 1·9–11·3 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes below recommendations were 62 % (fruits; recommendation 200 g/d), 87 % (vegetables; recommendation 150–200 g/d), 73 % (dietary fibre; recommendation 30–45 g/d), 91 % (EPA+DHA; recommendation 0·45 g/d), 98 % (vitamin D; recommendation 10–20 µg/d) and 13 % (LA; recommendation 5–10 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes above recommendations were 95 % (saturated fat; recommendation <10 E%) and 7 % (LA). The dietary intakes of patients proved comparable with the average nutritional intake of the age- and sex-matched healthy Dutch population. These unbalanced pre-operative diets may put them at risk of unfavourable surgical outcomes, since they promote a pro-inflammatory state. We conclude that there is an urgent need for intervention trials aiming at rapid improvement of their diets to reduce peri-operative risks.
Effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on bone mineral density and quantitative ultrasound parameters in older people with an elevated plasma homocysteine level: B-PROOF, a randomized controlled trial
Enneman, A.W. ; Swart, K.M.A. ; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Dijk, S.C. van; Ham, A.C. ; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M. ; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Meurs, J.B.J. van; Lips, P. ; Uitterlinden, A.G. ; Zillikens, M.C. ; Schoor, N.M. van; Velde, N. van der - \ 2015
Calcified Tissue International 96 (2015)5. - ISSN 0171-967X - p. 401 - 409.
placebo-controlled trial - postmenopausal women - fracture risk - turnover markers - elderly-women - metaanalysis - association - population - folate - bmd
High plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels are associated with increased osteoporotic fracture incidence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effect of Hcy-lowering vitamin B12 and folic acid treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included participants aged =65 years with plasma Hcy levels between 12 and 50 µmol/L. The intervention comprised 2-year supplementation with either a combination of 500 µg B12, 400 µg folic acid, and 600 IU vitamin D or placebo with 600 IU vitamin D only. In total, 1111 participants underwent repeated dual-energy X-ray assessment and 1165 participants underwent QUS. Femoral neck (FN) BMD, lumbar spine (LS) BMD, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were assessed. After 2 years, FN-BMD and BUA had significantly decreased, while LS-BMD significantly increased (all p <0.01) and SOS did not change in either treatment arm. No statistically significant differences between the intervention and placebo group were present for FN-BMD (p = 0.24), LS-BMD (p = 0.16), SOS (p = 0.67), and BUA (p = 0.96). However, exploratory subgroup analyses revealed a small positive effect of the intervention on BUA at follow-up among compliant persons >80 years (estimated marginal mean 64.4 dB/MHz for the intervention group and 61.0 dB/MHz for the placebo group, p = 0.04 for difference). In conclusion, this study showed no overall effect of treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid on BMD or QUS parameters in elderly, mildly hyperhomocysteinemic persons, but suggests a small beneficial effect on BUA in persons >80 years who were compliant in taking the supplement.
Sustainability of milk production in the Netherlands - A comparison between raw organic, pasteurised organic and conventional milk
Asselt, E.D. van; Capuano, E. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2015
International Dairy Journal 47 (2015). - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 19 - 26.
life-cycle assessment - environmental impacts - production systems - dairy farms - tool - metaanalysis - agriculture - consumption - indicators - quality
Consumer preferences are changing, resulting in an increased demand for both organic milk and raw milk due to their perceived higher nutritional value and positive contribution to animal welfare. To compare the advantages and disadvantages of these products with conventional pasteurised milk, a sustainability assessment was performed incorporating social, environmental and economic factors. The assessment showed that raw organic milk gave the highest overall sustainability score. This is due to, for example, a high score for animal welfare and a high score for the environmental factors due to the omission of the pasteurisation step compared with conventional milk. The latter may pose human health risks due to the possible presence of pathogens in raw milk. As the approach followed is transparent, it allows policy makers to discuss the outcome of the sustainability assessment both with stakeholders and the general public, which will facilitate the decision making process.
Global patterns of plant root colonization intensity by mycorrhizal fungi explained by climate and soil chemistry
Soudzilovskaia, N.A. ; Douma, J.C. ; Akhmetzhanova, A.A. ; Bodegom, P.M. van; Cornwell, W.K. ; Moens, E.J. ; Treseder, K.K. ; Tibbett, M. ; Wang, Y.P. ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. - \ 2015
Global Ecology and Biogeography 24 (2015)3. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 371 - 382.
ectomycorrhizal fungi - arbuscular mycorrhizas - ecosystem development - temperature stress - growth-responses - cold-storage - nitrogen - phosphorus - carbon - metaanalysis
Aim Most vascular plants on Earth form mycorrhizae, a symbiotic relationship between plants and fungi. Despite the broad recognition of the importance of mycorrhizae for global carbon and nutrient cycling, we do not know how soil and climate variables relate to the intensity of colonization of plant roots bymycorrhizal fungi. Here we quantify the global patterns of these relationships. Location Global. Methods Data on plant root colonization intensities by the two dominant types of mycorrhizal fungi world-wide, arbuscular (4887 plant species in 233 sites) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (125 plant species in 92 sites),were compiled frompublished studies. Data for climatic and soil factors were extracted from global datasets. For a given mycorrhizal type, we calculated at each site the mean root colonization intensity bymycorrhizal fungi across all potentiallymycorrhizal plant species found at the site, and subjected these data to generalized additive model regression analysis with environmental factors as predictor variables. Results We show for the first time that at the global scale the intensity of plant root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi strongly relates to warm-season temperature, frost periods and soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and is highest at sites featuring continental climates with mild summers and a high availability of soil nitrogen. In contrast, the intensity of ectomycorrhizal infection in plant roots is related to soil acidity, soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and seasonality of precipitation, and is highest at sites with acidic soils and relatively constant precipitation levels. Main conclusions We provide the first quantitative global maps of intensity of mycorrhizal colonization based on environmental drivers, and suggest that environmental changes will affect distinct types of mycorrhizae differently. Future analyses of the potential effects of environmental change on global carbon and nutrient cycling via mycorrhizal pathways will need to take into account the relationships discovered in this study.
The Effects of Repeated Exposure to Graphic Fear Appeals on Cigarette Packages: A Field Experiment
Dijkstra, A. ; Bos, C. - \ 2015
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 29 (2015)1. - ISSN 0893-164X - p. 82 - 90.
public-health campaigns - warning labels - smoking-cessation - disengagement beliefs - behavior-change - smokers - impact - messages - metaanalysis - adolescents
Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on cigarette packages. In this field-experiment, 118 smokers were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions with either graphic fear appeals or textual warnings on their cigarette packages. During 3 weeks, fear and disgust were assessed 6 times. The intention to quit smoking after 3 weeks and quitting activity during the 3 weeks were the dependent measures. The effects of 3 pretest individual difference moderators were tested: disengagement beliefs, number of cigarettes smoked a day, and readiness to quit. Three weeks of exposure to the graphic fear appeals led to a stronger intention to quit, but only when smokers scored low on disengagement beliefs, or were heavier smokers. In addition, smokers low in disengagement more often reported to have cut down on smoking in the graphic condition. There were no indications of habituation of fear and disgust over the 3 weeks. The effects of graphic fear appeals depended on smokers' characteristics: The moderators may explain the mixed findings in the literature. The lack of habituation may be caused by the renewal of the graphics every few days. The used field-experimental design with natural repeated exposure to graphics is promising.
Fatty acid and triglycerides profiling of retail organic, conventional and pasture milk: Implications for health and authenticity
Capuano, E. ; Gravink, R. ; Boerrigter-Eenling, G.R. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
International Dairy Journal 42 (2015). - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 58 - 63.
conjugated linoleic acids - coronary-heart-disease - fresh grass - dairy-products - cows - verification - metaanalysis - cholesterol - systems
Retail full fat high temperature short time pasteurised conventional, organic and “weidemelk” (Dutch quality label for milk from cows on pasture at least 6 h per day, 120 days per year) milk samples were collected on 2 sampling dates in winter and 4 sampling dates in summer 2013 and analysed for the fatty acid (FA) and the triglyceride (TAG) profile by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection. FA profile of organic milk was significantly different from that of conventional and “weidemelk” milk both in summer and in winter and the differences between conventional and “weidemelk” milk were less remarkable or negligible. Analogously, the TAG profile of organic milk was different from that of the other two groups but the differences were weaker compared with FA profile. The differences in FA composition of retail full fat milk may have implications for consumers' health and may be used for the authentication of retail organic milk.
Fructose consumption in the Netherlands: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010
Sluik, D. ; Engelen, A.I.P. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2015
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (2015). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 475 - 481.
controlled feeding trials - fatty liver-disease - soft drink consumption - multiple source method - corn syrup - intake distributions - dietary-intake - metaanalysis - obesity - sugar
Background/objectives: Despite the worldwide scientific and media attention, the actual fructose consumption in many non-US populations is not clear. The aim of this study was to estimate the fructose consumption and its main food sources in a representative sample of the general Dutch population. Subjects/methods: In all, 3817 children and adults aged 7–69 years from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Values for fructose content of the products were assigned using several food composition tables. Diet was assessed with two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The Multiple Source Method was used to take into account day-to-day variation and to estimate the habitual fructose consumption. Results: Median habitual fructose intake was 46¿g/day, with an interquartile range of 35–60¿g/day. In boys, the highest median intake was observed among 14- to 18-year olds: 61¿g/day. In girls, those aged 9–13 years reported the highest median intake: 56¿g/day. Of total fructose intake, 67% was consumed in the form of sucrose and 33% was consumed as free fructose. Soft drinks constituted the main food source of total fructose (13–29% across age and sex categories), followed by juices (9–12%), fruit (9–18%), cake and cookies (9–11%) and dairy products (6–10%). Conclusions: Fructose comprised 9% of the mean daily energy intake in the general Dutch population aged 7–69 years. The fructose consumption was somewhat lower than most recent figures from the US. The main food sources of fructose were soft drinks, juices and fruit.
Dairy products and the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study
Praagman, J. ; Franco, O.H. ; Ikram, M.A. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Engberink, M.F. ; Rooij, F.J.A. van; Hofman, A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2015
European Journal of Nutrition 54 (2015)6. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 981 - 990.
dietary-protein sources - cardiovascular-disease - consumption - population - women - cohort - food - metaanalysis - definitions - death
Purpose We examined whether consumption of total dairy and dairy subgroups was related to incident stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a general older Dutch population. Methods The study involved 4,235 participants of the Rotterdam Study aged 55 and over who were free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes at baseline (1990–1993). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups in relation to incident CVD events. Results Median intake of total dairy was 397 g/day, which mainly comprised low-fat dairy products (median intake of 247 g/day). During a median follow-up time of 17.3 years, 564 strokes (182 fatal) and 567 CHD events (350 fatal) occurred. Total dairy, milk, low-fat dairy, and fermented dairy were not significantly related to incident stroke or fatal stroke (p > 0.2 for upper vs. lower intake categories). High-fat dairy was significantly inversely related to fatal stroke (HR of 0.88 per 100 g/day; 95 % CI 0.79, 0.99), but not to incident stroke (HR of 0.96 per 100 g/day; 95 % CI 0.90, 1.02). Total dairy or dairy subgroups were not significantly related to incident CHD or fatal CHD (HRs between 0.98 and 1.05 per 100 g/day, all p > 0.35). Conclusions In this long-term follow-up study of older Dutch subjects, total dairy consumption or the intake of specific dairy products was not related to the occurrence of CVD events. The observed inverse association between high-fat dairy and fatal stroke warrants confirmation in other studies.
Ecological contrasts drive responses of wintering farmland birds to conservation management
Hammers, M. ; Muskens, G.J.D.M. ; Kats, R.J.M. van; Teunissen, W.A. ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2015
Ecography 38 (2015)8. - ISSN 0906-7590 - p. 813 - 821.
agri-environment schemes - agricultural intensification - biodiversity - populations - grassland - food - metaanalysis - communities - diversity - declines
In the past decades, large-scale conservation programs have been implemented to halt the decline of farmland species. The mechanisms explaining the effectiveness of these programs remain poorly understood. Here we test the recent hypothesis that the effects of conservation management are determined by the ecological contrasts in limiting resources they create relative to the baseline situation. We examine responses of wintering seed-eating farmland birds to the experimental establishment of winter food plots in areas with contrasting food availability. We found that farmland bird abundance and species richness were strongly positively related to seed availability, regardless of compositional differences between agricultural landscapes. In line with the ecological contrast hypothesis, the responses of wintering farmland birds increased with increasing conservation induced contrast in a key limiting resource. Both contrasts and relative responses were negatively related to baseline food availability, but the absolute bird density in food plots was unrelated to baseline food availability. This indicates that both relative and absolute effects of conservation management need to be considered to properly evaluate the effectiveness of conservation management.
No effect on n-3 fatty acids supplementation on NT-proBNP after myocardial infaction: THe Alpha Omega Trial
Hoogeveen, E.K. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kromhout, D. ; Sant, P. van 't; Gemen, E.F. ; Giltay, E.J. - \ 2015
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 22 (2015)5. - ISSN 2047-4873 - p. 648 - 655.
brain natriuretic peptide - chronic heart-failure - glomerular-filtration-rate - serum creatinine - cystatin c - stability - risk - omega-3-fatty-acids - metaanalysis - mortality
BACKGROUND: heart failure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, for which n-3 fatty acids may have beneficial effects. We examined the effect of marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on N-Terminal-pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker of heart failure. METHODS: we randomly assigned 4837 post-myocardial infarction patients, aged 60-80 years (82% men), to margarines supplemented with a targeted additional intake of 400¿mg/day EPA and DHA, 2¿g/day ALA, EPA-DHA plus ALA, or placebo for 40 months. In a random selection of 639 patients, NT-proBNP was determined both at baseline and at the end of follow-up. NT-proBNP was loge-transformed and analysed by type of treatment using analysis of covariance adjusting for baseline NT-proNBP. RESULTS: patients consumed on average 19.8¿g margarine/day, providing an additional amount of 238¿mg/day EPA with 158¿mg/day DHA, 1.98¿g/day ALA, or both, in the active-treatment groups. In the placebo group, the geometric mean level NT-proBNP increased from 245¿ng/l (95%-confidence interval [CI]: 207-290) to 294¿ng/l (95%-CI: 244-352) after 40 months (p¿=¿0.001). NT-proBNP levels were not affected by ALA (+8% versus placebo; 95%-CI: -8% to +25%; p¿=¿0.34), EPA-DHA (+2% versus placebo; 95%-CI: -14% to +18%; p¿=¿0.78), nor EPA-DHA plus ALA (+9% versus placebo; 95%-CI: -8% to +25%; p¿=¿0.31) treatment. CONCLUSIONS: supplementation with modest amounts of EPA-DHA, with or without ALA, did not have a significant effect on NT-proBNP levels in patients with a history of myocardial infarction.
The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial
Yuan, J.Y.F. ; Smeele, R.J.M. ; Harington, K.D. ; Loon, F.M. van; Wanders, A.J. ; Venn, B.J. - \ 2014
Nutrition Journal 13 (2014). - ISSN 1475-2891
type-2 diabetes-mellitus - desk-top guide - dietary fiber - digestive tolerance - insulin - foods - metaanalysis - glucose - index
Background: Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and sensory effects of adding fiber to bread. Methods: A double-blind pair of randomized crossover trials with a two-week washout in which two fiber-containing breads were compared with control bread. The functional fiber (fruit fiber and FibreMax (TM)) was added to yield 10 g fiber per serve (two slices). Eighty participants (n = 37 fruit fiber and n = 43 FibreMax (TM)) consumed one serve of bread (fiber or control) followed three hours later by a pasta meal consumed ad libitum. Outcome measures included glycemia, satiety, palatability, gastrointestinal wellbeing, visual appeal and subsequent energy intake of the pasta meal. Multivariate regression was undertaken to test for differences between treatment and control for blood glucose, satiety, and cumulative energy intake. Satiety responses were also compared by splitting the data into an immediate response after eating (0-30 min) and a return to hunger analysis (30-180 min). A Wilcoxon sign rank test was used for the first component (0-30 min) and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the second component (30-180 min). Between treatment differences for gastrointestinal wellbeing were tested using Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: Consumption of the fruit fiber bread reduced postprandial glycemia by 35% (95% CI 13 to 51; P = 0.004) and cumulative energy intake by 368 kJ (95% CI 163 to 531; P = 0.001). There was little influence on satiety and the bread was rated as having poor taste and smell whilst generating feelings of nausea in some participants. FibreMax (TM) enriched bread reduced glycemia by 43% (95% CI 17 to 61; P = 0.004) without influence on energy intake or satiety. Apart from a lower visual appeal, the FibreMax (TM) bread was palatable. Neither bread caused gastrointestinal discomfort related to flatulence or bloating. Conclusions: Enriching bread with 10 g of functional fiber per serve is feasible although reformulation is needed to create not only an acceptable bread, but a desirable product.
Sufficient sleep duration contributes to lower cardiovascular disease risk in addition to four traditional lifestyle factors: the MORGEN study
Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P. ; Spijkerman, A.M.W. ; Kromhout, D. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. - \ 2014
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 21 (2014)11. - ISSN 2047-4873 - p. 1367 - 1375.
cause-specific mortality - all-cause mortality - mediterranean diet - primary prevention - prospective cohort - myocardial-infarction - physical-activity - japanese men - women - metaanalysis
Background The contribution of sufficient sleep duration to lower CVD risk in addition to sufficient physical activity, a healthy diet, (moderate) alcohol consumption, and non-smoking has not been investigated yet. Design The MORGEN study is a prospective cohort study including 8128 men and 9759 women aged 20-65 years, free of CVD at baseline. Methods Sufficient physical activity (3.5h/week cycling or sports), a healthy diet (Mediterranean Diet Score 5), (moderate) alcohol consumption (1 beverage/month), non-smoking, and sufficient sleep duration (7 hours) were assessed by self-administered questionnaires between 1994 and 1997. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were ascertained through linkage with national registers. Hazard ratios and preventable proportions were calculated adjusted for age, sex, and educational level. Results During 10-14 years of follow up, 607 composite CVD events (fatal CVD, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke) occurred, of which 129 were fatal. Those with the four traditional healthy lifestyle factors had a 57% lower risk of composite CVD (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.31-0.59) and a 67% lower risk of fatal CVD (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.16-0.68) compared with those with none or one healthy lifestyle factor. Sleeping sufficiently in addition to the four traditional lifestyle factors resulted in a 65% lower risk of composite CVD (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.23-0.52), and an 83% lower risk of fatal CVD (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.43). Conclusions Sufficient sleep and adherence to all four traditional healthy lifestyle factors was associated with lower CVD risk. When sufficient sleep duration was added to the traditional lifestyle factors, the risk of CVD was further reduced.
Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices
Salmon, S.J. ; Fennis, B.M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Vet, E. de - \ 2014
Health Psychology 33 (2014)2. - ISSN 0278-6133 - p. 103 - 109.
physical-activity - limited-resource - ego depletion - behavior - interventions - metaanalysis - adolescents - success
OBJECTIVE: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting high self-control, this study exploits situations of low self-control, by strategically using the tendency under these conditions to rely on heuristics (simple decision rules) as quick guides to action. More specifically, the authors associated healthy food products with the social proof heuristic (i.e., normative cues that convey majority endorsement for those products). METHOD: One hundred seventy-seven students (119 men), with an average age of 20.47 years (SD = 2.25) participated in the experiment. This study used a 2 (low vs. high self-control) × 2 (social proof vs. no heuristic) × 2 (trade-off vs. control choice) design, with the latter as within-subjects factor. The dependent variable was the number of healthy food choices in a food-choice task. RESULTS: In line with previous studies, people made fewer healthy food choices under low self-control. However, this negative effect of low self-control on food choice was reversed when the healthy option was associated with the social proof heuristic. In that case, people made more healthy choices under conditions of low self-control. CONCLUSION: Low self-control may be even more beneficial for healthy food choices than high self-control in the presence of a heuristic. Exploiting situations of low self-control is a new and promising method to promote health on impulse.
Psychosocial correlates of the motivation to abstain from sexual intercourse among Indonesian adolescents
Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Ruiter, R.A.C. ; Damayanti, R. ; Rijsdijk, E. ; Eiling, E. ; Bos, A.E.R. ; Kok, G. - \ 2014
Tropical Medicine and International Health 19 (2014)1. - ISSN 1360-2276 - p. 74 - 82.
planned behavior - hiv prevention - condom use - predictors - model - intentions - metaanalysis - attitudes - efficacy - students
ObjectivesAdolescents in Indonesia have limited access to sexuality education, resulting in increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies. This study aimed to understand psychosocial correlates of sexual abstinence intentions to inform future sexuality education. MethodsData were collected in 79 secondary schools among 2315 students, aged 14-20years, in Jambi, Lampung, Jakarta and Bali. A self-completed questionnaire measured attitudes, risk perception, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions towards sexual abstinence. ResultsSignificant associations with intention to abstain from sexual intercourse were found for experience with sexual intercourse, perceived behavioural control, attitude and subjective norms of peers and parents, explaining 31% of the variance in abstinence intention. ConclusionsTo promote adolescents' informed sexual decision-making, sexuality education programmes in Indonesia may benefit from addressing past sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control, subjective norms of peers and attitudes.
Maternal and paternal infant representations: A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants
Tooten, A. ; Hall, R.A.S. ; Hoffenkamp, H.N. ; Braeken, J. ; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M. ; Bakel, H.J.A. van - \ 2014
Infant Behavior and Development 37 (2014)3. - ISSN 0163-6383 - p. 366 - 379.
disorganized attachment - early-childhood - insightfulness - birth - preschoolers - metaanalysis - narratives - resolution - behavior - emotion
Objective: Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed toward disrupted attachment representations. Method: Mothers and fathers of term infants (>= 37 weeks of gestational age, n=71), moderately preterm infants (>= 32-37 weeks of gestational age, n = 62) and very preterm infants (
Land management implications for ecosystem services in a South African rangeland
Petz, K. ; Glenday, J. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. - \ 2014
Ecological Indicators 45 (2014). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 692 - 703.
semiarid succulent thicket - eastern cape - biodiversity loss - scale - 21st-century - conservation - metaanalysis - restoration - vegetation - resources
In South Africa, restoration and sustainable management of historically overgrazed and degraded rangelands are promoted to increase biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. This study evaluates different land management scenarios in terms of ecosystem services in a South African rangeland, the Baviaanskloof catchment. As measured data were limited, we used simple models to quantify and map the effect of the different combination of agricultural, nature conservation and restoration practices on multiple ecosystem services. The land management scenarios were evaluated against management targets set for individual ecosystem services. Results highlight how the provision of ecosystem services is related to land management as unmanaged, pristine ecosystems provide a different mix of ecosystem services than ecosystems recently restored or managed as grazing lands. Results also indicate that historically overgrazed lands provide no forage, may retain 40% less sediment and have 38% lower biodiversity, while providing 60% more fuel wood and supplying two and half times more water (i.e. retaining less water), than pristine or restored lands. We conclude that a combination of light grazing, low input agriculture, nature conservation and restoration is the best for the sufficient provision of multiple ecosystem services. Applying such mixed management would improve biodiversity, ecotourism and maintain forage production and regulating services on farmers' land. This management option also fits into and further optimizes local decision-makers' vision regarding the future management of the area. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Medication-Related Fall Incidents in an Older, Ambulant Population: The B-PROOF Study
Ham, A.C. ; Swart, K.M.A. ; Enneman, A.W. ; Dijk, S.C. van; Araghi, S.O. ; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Brouwer, E.M. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Schoor, N.M. van; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Lips, P. ; Uitterlinden, A.G. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Stricker, B.H. ; Velde, N. van der; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
Drugs & Aging 31 (2014)12. - ISSN 1170-229X - p. 917 - 927.
randomized controlled-trial - risk-increasing drugs - primary-care database - physical performance - ophthalmic timolol - psychotropic-drugs - case-series - people - metaanalysis - community
Background Medication use is a potentially modifiable risk factor for falling; psychotropic and cardiovascular drugs have been indicated as main drug groups that increase fall risk. However, evidence is mainly based on studies that recorded falls retrospectively and/or did not determine medication use at the time of the fall. Therefore, we investigated the associations indicated in the literature between medication use and falls, using prospectively recorded falls and medication use determined at the time of the fall. Methods Data from the B-PROOF (B-vitamins for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures) study were used, concerning community-dwelling elderly aged >= 65 years. We included 2,407 participants with pharmacy dispensing records. During the 2- to 3-year follow-up, participants recorded falls using a fall calendar. Cox proportional hazard models were applied, adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, health status variables and concomitant medication use. Results During follow-up, 1,147 participants experienced at least one fall. Users of anti-arrhythmic medication had an increased fall risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.32) compared with non-users. Similarly, non-selective beta-blocker use was associated with an increased fall risk (HR 1.41 [95 % CI 1.12-1.78]), while statin use was associated with a lower risk (HR 0.81 [95 % CI 0.71-0.94]). Benzodiazepine use (HR 1.32 [95 % CI 1.02-1.71]), and antidepressant use (HR 1.40 [95 % CI 1.07-1.82]) were associated with an increased fall risk. Use of other cardiovascular and psychotropic medication was not associated with fall risk. Conclusion Our results strengthen the evidence for an increased fall risk in community-dwelling elderly during the use of anti-arrhythmics, non-selective beta-blockers, benzodiazepines, and antidepressant medication. Clinicians should prescribe these drugs cautiously and if possible choose safer alternatives for older patients.
Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study
Boers, I. ; Muskiet, F.A.J. ; Berkelaar, E. ; Schut, E. ; Penders, R. ; Hoenderdos, K. ; Jong, M.C. de; Wichers, H.J. - \ 2014
Lipids in Health and Disease 13 (2014). - ISSN 1476-511X - 13 p.
obese postmenopausal women - mediterranean-like diet - ischemic-heart-disease - hunter-gatherer - cardiovascular-disease - life-style - macronutrient - 21st-century - metaanalysis - individuals
Background The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a Paleolithic-type diet and may provide new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome. In addition, more information on feasibility and designing an innovative dietary research program on the basis of a Palaeolithic-type diet was obtained. Methods Thirty-four subjects, with at least two characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, were randomized to a two weeks Palaeolithic-type diet (n¿=¿18) or an isoenergetic healthy reference diet, based on the guidelines of the Dutch Health Council (n¿=¿14). Thirty-two subjects completed the study. Measures were taken to keep bodyweight stable. As primary outcomes oral glucose tolerance and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal circumference, blood pressure, glucose, lipids) were measured. Secondary outcomes were intestinal permeability, inflammation and salivary cortisol. Data were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Results Subjects were 53.5 (SD9.7) year old men (n¿=¿9) and women (n¿=¿25) with mean BMI of 31.8 (SD5.7) kg/m2. The Palaeolithic-type diet resulted in lower systolic blood pressure (-9.1 mmHg; P¿=¿0.015), diastolic blood pressure (-5.2 mmHg; P¿=¿0.038), total cholesterol (-0.52 mmol/l; P¿=¿0.037), triglycerides (-0.89 mmol/l; P¿=¿0.001) and higher HDL-cholesterol (+0.15 mmol/l; P¿=¿0.013), compared to reference. The number of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome decreased with 1.07 (P¿=¿0.010) upon the Palaeolithic-type diet, compared to reference. Despite efforts to keep bodyweight stable, it decreased in the Palaeolithic group compared to reference (-1.32 kg; P¿=¿0.012). However, favourable effects remained after post-hoc adjustments for this unintended weight loss. No changes were observed for intestinal permeability, inflammation and salivary cortisol. Conclusions We conclude that consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet for two weeks improved several cardiovascular risk factors compared to a healthy reference diet in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
Kennis delen onder leraren: Een onderzoek naar de relaties tussen Occupational Self-Efficacy, Werk bevlogenheid, Human Resource Management en Kennis delen
Vermeulen, M. ; Runhaar, P.R. ; Konermann, J. ; Sanders, K. - \ 2014
Pedagogische Studiën 91 (2014)6. - ISSN 0165-0645 - p. 397 - 410.
job resources - performance - behavior - organizations - commitment - metaanalysis - motivation - workplace - community - exchange
Knowledge sharing is one of the professionalizetion processes and is an important factor in the competition between organizations and for innovation processes to sustain. In this study the central theme is the way knowledge sharing is affected by occupational self-efficacy (OSE), work engagement and High Commitment HRM (HC-HRM). In investigating these relations the AMO framework is used. The research data were obtained by 126 teachers from one secondary school. However from the regression analyses it was learned that the relationship between the variables OSE, HC HRM and work engagement with knowledge sharing was more complex than expected. Additional analyses by means of a three-way interaction analysis suggests that the combination of high experienced HC-HRM and low experienced OSE or the other way around is, related to more knowledge sharing. The findings are important for managers who want to promote processes of knowledge sharing in their school organization.
Letter to the Editor: Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement Fatty acids with coronary risk
Geleijnse, J.M. ; Brouwer, I.D. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2014
Annals of Internal Medicine 161 (2014)6. - ISSN 0003-4819 - p. 457 - 458.
heart-disease - metaanalysis - prevention
Gains to species diversity in organically farmed fields are not propagated at the farm level
Schneider, M.K. ; Lüscher, G. ; Jeanneret, P. ; Jongman, R.H.G. - \ 2014
Nature Communications 5 (2014). - ISSN 2041-1723 - 9 p.
agri-environment schemes - different spatial scales - biodiversity conservation - conventional agriculture - european habitats - food-production - land-use - management - landscape - metaanalysis
Organic farming is promoted to reduce environmental impacts of agriculture, but surprisingly little is known about its effects at the farm level, the primary unit of decision making. Here we report the effects of organic farming on species diversity at the field, farm and regional levels by sampling plants, earthworms, spiders and bees in 1470 fields of 205 randomly selected organic and nonorganic farms in twelve European and African regions. Species richness is, on average, 10.5% higher in organic than nonorganic production fields, with highest gains in intensive arable fields (around þ45%). Gains to species richness are partly caused by higher organism abundance and are common in plants and bees but intermittent in earthworms and spiders. Average gains are insignificant þ4.6% at the farm and þ3.1% at the regional level, even in intensive arable regions. Additional, targeted measures are therefore needed to fulfil the commitment of organic farming to benefit farmland biodiversity.
Stimulating Informal Learning Activities Through Perceptions of Performance Appraisal Quality and Human Resource Management System Strength: A Two-Wave Study
Bednall, T. ; Sanders, K. ; Runhaar, P.R. - \ 2014
Academy of Management Learning & Education 13 (2014)1. - ISSN 1537-260X - p. 45 - 61.
firm performance - professional-development - employee perceptions - work practices - hr practices - feedback - organizations - teachers - model - metaanalysis
Employees' participation in informal learning activities benefits their workplace performance, and ultimately their long-term career development. While research has identified several individual- and organizational-level factors that promote participation, to date, the role of human resource management (HRM) in facilitating informal learning activities is not well understood. We investigate the effects of perceptions of performance appraisal quality and HRM system strength on three informal learning activities: reflection on daily activities, knowledge sharing with colleagues, and innovative behavior. Using a sample of 238 employees from 54 work teams, we examine over a year changes in levels of participation in the informal learning activities. Performance appraisal quality was found to be positively associated with increased participation in each activity over time, and HRM system strength positively moderated these relationships. Implications of the findings for educational institutions and other organizations are discussed.
Applying Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based intervention aimed at improved psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda
Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Kok, G. ; Weyusya, J. ; Bos, A.E.R. ; Ruiter, R.A.C. ; Rijsdijk, E. ; Nshakira, N. ; Bartholomew, L.K. - \ 2014
Health Education Research 29 (2014)4. - ISSN 0268-1153 - p. 598 - 610.
hiv-1 infection - parenting teens - rural uganda - pregnancy - stigma - metaanalysis - adolescents - prevention - behavior - program
Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in rural Uganda. We used Intervention Mapping (IM) for systematically developing a theory and evidence-based comprehensive health promotion programme. A planning group consisting of community leaders, teenage mothers, staff of a community-based organization and a health promotion professional was involved in the six steps of IM: needs assessment, programme objectives, methods and applications, intervention design, planning for adoption and implementation and planning for evaluation. The programme includes five intervention components: community awareness raising, teenage mother support groups, formal education and income generation, counselling, and advocacy. The intervention components are based on a variety of theoretical methods, including entertainment education, persuasive communication, mobilization of social networks and social action. In conclusion, IM facilitated the planning group to structure the iterative, bottom-up, participatory design of the project in a real-life setting and to use evidence and theory. The article provides suggestions for the planning of support interventions for unmarried teenage mothers.
Colorectal cancer risk variants on 11q23 and 15q13 are associated with unexplained adenomatous polyposis
Hes, F.J. ; Ruano, D. ; Nieuwenhuis, M. ; Tops, C.M.J. ; Schrumpf, M. ; Nielsen, M. ; Huijts, P.E. ; Wijnen, J. ; Wagner, A. ; Gomet Garcia, E.B. ; Sijmons, R.H. ; Menko, F.H. ; Letteboer, T.G. ; Hoogerbrugge, N. ; Harryvan, J.L. ; Kampman, E. ; Morreau, H. ; Vasen, H.F. ; Wezel, T.G. van - \ 2014
Journal of Medical Genetics 51 (2014)1. - ISSN 0022-2593 - p. 55 - 60.
genome-wide association - susceptibility loci - genetic-variants - apc - mutations - hereditary - families - metaanalysis - mechanisms - phenotype
Background Colorectal adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and is frequently caused by germline mutations in APC or MUTYH. However, in about 20–30% of patients no underlying gene defect can be identified. In this study, we tested if recently identified CRC risk variants play a role in patients with >10 adenomas. Methods We analysed a total of 16 SNPs with a reported association with CRC in a cohort of 252 genetically unexplained index patients with >10 colorectal adenomas and 745 controls. In addition, we collected detailed clinical information from index patients and their first-degree relatives (FDRs). Results We found a statistically significant association with two of the variants tested: rs3802842 (at chromosome 11q23, OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.0) and rs4779584 (at chromosome 15q13, OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.9). The majority of index patients (84%) had between 10 and 100 adenomas and 15% had >100 adenomas. Only two index patients (1%), both with >100 adenomas, had FDRs with polyposis. Forty-one per cent of the index patients had one or more FDRs with CRC. Conclusions These SNPs are the first common, low-penetrant variants reported to be associated with adenomatous polyposis not caused by a defect in the APC, MUTYH, POLD1 and POLE genes. Even though familial occurrence of polyposis was very rare, CRC was over-represented in FDRs of polyposis patients and, if confirmed, these relatives will therefore benefit from surveillance.
Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort
Dossus, L. ; Boutron-Ruault, M.C. ; Kaaks, R. ; Gram, I.T. ; Vilier, A. ; Fervers, B. ; Manjer, J. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Olsen, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Chang-Claude, J. ; Boeing, H. ; Steffen, A. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Lagiou, P. ; Sarantopoulou, M. ; Palli, D. ; Berrino, F. ; Tumino, R. ; Vineis, P. ; Mattiello, A. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2014
International Journal of Cancer 134 (2014)8. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 1871 - 1888.
environmental tobacco-smoke - postmenopausal women - california teachers - 1st childbirth - never smokers - exposure - metaanalysis - association - carcinogens - reanalysis
Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative life-time measures of passive smoking suggest an association between passive smoking dose and breast cancer risk. We conducted a study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition to examine the association between passive and active smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer and possible effect modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Among the 322,988 women eligible for the study, 9,822 developed breast cancer (183,608 women with passive smoking information including 6,264 cases). When compared to women who never smoked and were not being exposed to passive smoking at home or work at the time of study registration, current, former and currently exposed passive smokers were at increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.16 [1.05–1.28], 1.14 [1.04–1.25] and 1.10 [1.01–1.20], respectively). Analyses exploring associations in different periods of life showed the most important increase in risk with pack-years from menarche to FFTP (1.73 [1.29–2.32] for every increase of 20 pack-years) while pack-years smoked after menopause were associated with a significant decrease in breast cancer risk (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34–0.82 for every increase of 20 pack-years). Our results provide an important replication, in the largest cohort to date, that smoking (passively or actively) increases breast cancer risk and that smoking between menarche and FFTP is particularly deleterious.
From research to action: enhancing crop yield through wild pollinators
Garibaldi, A. ; Carvalheiro, L.G. ; Leonhardt, S.D. ; Aizen, M.A. ; Blaauw, B.R. ; Isaacs, R. ; Kuhlman, M. ; Kleijn, D. ; Klein, A.M. ; Kremen, C. ; Morandin, L. ; Scheper, J.A. ; Winfree, R. - \ 2014
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12 (2014)8. - ISSN 1540-9295 - p. 439 - 447.
bee abundance - ecosystem services - agricultural landscapes - diversity - communities - populations - resources - responses - metaanalysis - management
Recent evidence highlights the value of wild-insect species richness and abundance for crop pollination worldwide. Yet, deliberate physical importation of single species (eg European honey bees) into crop fields for pollination remains the mainstream management approach, and implementation of practices to enhance crop yield (production per area) through wild insects is only just beginning. With few exceptions, studies measuring the impacts of pollinator-supporting practices on wild-insect richness and pollination service success – particularly in relation to long-term crop yield and economic profit – are rare. Here, we provide a general framework and examples of approaches for enhancing pollinator richness and abundance, quantity and quality of pollen on stigmas, crop yield, and farmers' profit, including some benefits detected only through long-term monitoring. We argue for integrating the promotion of wild-insect species richness with single-species management to benefit farmers and society.
Identifying the ‘if’ for ‘if-then’ plans: Combining implementation intentions with cue-monitoring targeting unhealthy snacking behaviour
Verhoeven, A.A.C. ; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Vet, E. de; Fennis, B.M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2014
Psychology and Health 29 (2014)12. - ISSN 0887-0446 - p. 1476 - 1492.
habit strength - interventions - metaanalysis - breaking - enhance - weight - trial - power
Implementation intentions aimed at changing unwanted habits require the identification of personally relevant cues triggering the habitual response in order to be effective. To facilitate successful implementation intention formation, in the present study, planning was combined with cue-monitoring, a novel way to gain insight into triggers for unhealthy snacking. It was tested whether keeping a cue-monitoring diary and tailoring implementation intentions accordingly improves plan effectiveness. A 2 Monitoring (cue-monitoring, control)¿×¿2 Planning (implementation intention, goal intention) between subjects design was adopted. Participants (N = 161) monitored their unhealthy snacking behaviour for a week using either a cue-monitoring or a control diary. Participants then formulated a goal intention or an implementation intention tailored to their personal cue. Snacking frequency and caloric intake from unhealthy snacks were examined using a seven-day snack diary. The results did not indicate an interaction but yielded a main effect of Monitoring. Cue-monitoring either or not combined with implementation intentions reduced unhealthy snacking behaviour compared with control. Findings emphasise the effectiveness of cue-monitoring, suggesting that on the short term, cue-monitoring suffices to decrease unhealthy snacking, without additional benefit from planning. Future research should examine whether supplementing cue-monitoring with implementation intentions is required to establish long-term behaviour change maintenance.
Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance
Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Brouwer, E.M. ; Rest, O. van de; Veld, P.H. in 't; Enneman, A.W. ; Dijk, S.C. van; Ham, A.C. ; Swart, K.M.A. ; Velde, N. van der; Schoor, N.M. van; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Uitterlinden, A.G. ; Lips, P. ; Kessels, R.P.C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
Neurology 83 (2014)23. - ISSN 0028-3878 - p. 2158 - 2166.
folic-acid supplementation - randomized controlled-trial - placebo-controlled trial - alzheimers-disease - elderly-patients - double-blind - homocysteine - metaanalysis - impairment - folate
Objective: We investigated the effects of 2-year folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on cognitive performance in elderly people with elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 2,919 elderly participants (65 years and older) with Hcy levels between 12 and 50 µmol/L. Participants received daily either a tablet with 400 µg folic acid and 500 µg vitamin B12 (B-vitamin group) or a placebo tablet. Both tablets contained 15 µg vitamin D3. Data were available for global cognitive functioning assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (n = 2,556), episodic memory (n = 2,467), attention and working memory (n = 759), information processing speed (n = 731), and executive function (n = 721). Results: Mean age was 74.1 (SD 6.5) years. Hcy concentrations decreased 5.0 (95% confidence interval -5.3 to -4.7) µmol/L in the B-vitamin group and 1.3 (-1.6 to -0.9) µmol/L in the placebo group. Cognitive domain scores did not differ over time between the 2 groups, as determined by analysis of covariance. Mini-Mental State Examination score decreased with 0.1 (-0.2 to 0.0) in the B-vitamin group and 0.3 (-0.4 to -0.2) in the placebo group (p = 0.05), as determined by an independent t test. Conclusions: Two-year folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation did not beneficially affect performance on 4 cognitive domains in elderly people with elevated Hcy levels. It may slightly slow the rate of decline of global cognition, but the reported small difference may be attributable to chance. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that 2-year supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 in hyperhomocysteinemic elderly people does not affect cognitive performance.
Wetlands Retention and Optimal Management of Waterfowl Habitat under Climate Change
Withey, P. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 39 (2014)1. - ISSN 1068-5502 - p. 1 - 18.
northern prairie wetlands - us - metaanalysis - temperature - impacts - canada - yields
We develop a positive mathematical programming model to investigate the impact of climate change on land use in the prairie pothole region of western Canada, with particular focus on wetlands retention. We examine the effect of climate change and biofuel policies that are implemented to mitigate climate change on wetlands retention. Simulation results indicate that a drier climate could decrease wetlands by as much as 38% if the externality benefits of wetlands are considered, but by nearly 80% if they are not. Reductions in wetlands are most pronounced in the south-central areas of the region.
Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fetuin-A levels in men and women: post-hoc analyses of three open-label randomized crossover trials
Joosten, M.M. ; Schrieks, I.C. ; Hendriks, H.F.J. - \ 2014
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 6 (2014). - ISSN 1871-4021 - 5 p.
community-dwelling adults - insulin-resistance - cardiovascular-disease - rancho bernardo - older-adults - risk - association - metaanalysis - expression - biomarkers
Background Fetuin-A, a liver-derived glycoprotein that impairs insulin-signalling, has emerged as a biomarker for diabetes risk. Although moderate alcohol consumption has been inversely associated with fetuin-A, data from clinical trials are lacking. Thus, we evaluated whether moderate alcohol consumption decreases circulating levels of fetuin-A. Methods We analyzed data of three separate open-label, randomized, crossover trials: 1) 36 postmenopausal women consuming 250 ml white wine (25 g alcohol) or white grape juice daily for 6 weeks, 2) 24 premenopausal women consuming 660 ml beer (26 g alcohol) or alcohol-free beer daily for 3 weeks, and 3) 24 young men consuming 100 ml vodka (30 g alcohol) orange juice or only orange juice daily for 4 weeks. After each treatment period fasting blood samples were collected. Results Circulating fetuin-A concentrations decreased in men after vodka consumption (Mean¿±¿SEM: 441¿±¿11 to 426¿±¿11 µg/ml, p¿=¿0.02), but not in women after wine (448¿±¿17 to 437¿±¿17 µg/ml, p¿=¿0.16) or beer consumption (498¿±¿15 to 492¿±¿15 µg/ml, p¿=¿0.48) compared to levels after each corresponding alcohol-free treatment. Post-hoc power analyses indicated that the statistical power to detect a similar effect as observed in men was 30% among the postmenopausal women and 31% among the premenopausal women. Conclusions In these randomized crossover trials, moderate alcohol consumption decreased fetuin-A in men but not in women. This sex-specific effect may be explained by the relatively short intervention periods or the low statistical power in the trials among women.
Association of dietary pattern and body weight with blood pressure in Jiangsu Province, China
Qin, Y. ; Boonstra, A. ; Pan, X. ; Zhao, J. ; Yuan, B. ; Dai, Yue ; Zhou, M. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kok, F.J. ; Shi, Z. - \ 2014
BMC Public Health 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 16 p.
randomized controlled-trials - public-health - global burden - risk-factors - meat intake - mass index - hypertension - sodium - adults - metaanalysis
Background To identify risk factors, associations between dietary patterns, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a Chinese population. Methods Dietary intake was assessed in 2518 adults by a 3-day 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Salt and oil intake was assessed by weighing records. Four dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Overweight and obesity was determined according to the Chinese cut-offs for BMI. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure¿=¿140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure¿=¿90 mmHg. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Results Of the subjects, 26.7% had high blood pressure. Subjects with overweight and obesity were more likely to have high blood pressure than those with normal weight (PR, 95% CI: 1.60, 1.40-1.87; 2.45, 2.11-2.85, respectively). Subjects with a ‘traditional’ dietary pattern were more likely to have high blood pressure (P for trend¿=¿0.001), whereas those with a ‘macho’ or ‘sweet tooth’ dietary pattern were less likely to have high blood pressure (P for trend¿=¿0.004 and ¿9 g/d, and blood pressure increased with salt intake (P for trend
Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health
Hendriksen, M.A.H. ; Hoogenveen, R.T. ; Hoekstra, J. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Raaij, J.M.A. van - \ 2014
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99 (2014)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 446 - 453.
cardiovascular-disease - blood-pressure - sodium restriction - cost-effectiveness - dietary-sodium - iodine intake - hypertension - metaanalysis - mortality - interventions
Background: Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of salt-reduction strategies related to processed foods for the Dutch population. Design: Three salt-reduction scenarios were developed: 1) substitution of high-salt foods with low-salt foods, 2) a reduction in the sodium content of processed foods, and 3) adherence to the recommended maximum salt intake of 6 g/d. Health outcomes were obtained in 2 steps: after salt intake was modeled into blood pressure levels, the Chronic Disease Model was used to translate modeled blood pressures into incidences of cardiovascular diseases, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and life expectancies. Health outcomes of the scenarios were compared with health outcomes obtained with current salt intake. Results: In total, 4.8% of acute myocardial infarction cases, 1.7% of congestive heart failure cases, and 5.8% of stroke cases might be prevented if salt intake meets the recommended maximum intake. The burden of disease might be reduced by 56,400 DALYs, and life expectancy might increase by 0.15 y for a 40-y-old individual. Substitution of foods with comparable low-salt alternatives would lead to slightly higher salt intake reductions and thus to more health gain. The estimates for sodium reduction in processed foods would be slightly lower. Conclusion: Substantial health benefits might be achieved when added salt is removed from processed foods and when consumers choose more low-salt food alternatives.
Effect of daily vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation on fracture incidence in elderly individuals with an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration: B-PROOF, a randomized controlled trial
Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Swart, K.M.A. ; Enneman, A.W. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Dijk, S.C. van; Ham, A.C. ; Brouwer, E.M. ; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Sohl, E. ; Meurs, J.B.J. van; Zillikens, M.C. ; Schoor, N.M. van; Velde, N. van der; Brug, J. ; Uitterlinden, A.G. ; Lips, P. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1578 - 1586.
hip fracture - osteoporotic fractures - bone turnover - d deficiency - risk - metaanalysis - folate - level - women
Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations are a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Lowering homocysteine with combined vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation may reduce fracture risk. Objective: This study [B-vitamins for the PRevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures (B-PROOF)] aimed to determine whether vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation reduces osteoporotic fracture incidence in hyperhomocysteinemic elderly individuals. Design: This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 2919 participants aged =65 y with elevated homocysteine concentrations (12–50 µmol/L). Participants were assigned to receive daily 500 µg vitamin B-12 plus 400 µg folic acid or placebo supplementation for 2 y. Both intervention and placebo tablets also contained 600 IU vitamin D3. The primary endpoint was time to first osteoporotic fracture. Exploratory prespecified subgroup analyses were performed in men and women and in individuals younger than and older than age 80 y. Data were analyzed according to intention-to-treat and per-protocol principles. Results: Osteoporotic fractures occurred in 61 persons (4.2%) in the intervention group and 75 persons (5.1%) in the placebo group. Osteoporotic fracture risk was not significantly different between groups in the intention-to-treat analyses (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.21) or per-protocol analyses (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.21). For persons >80 y, in per-protocol analyses, osteoporotic fracture risk was lower in the intervention group than in the placebo group (HR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.74). The total number of adverse events (including mortality) did not differ between groups. However, 63 and 42 participants in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively, reported incident cancer (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.31). Conclusions: These data show that combined vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation had no effect on osteoporotic fracture incidence in this elderly population. Exploratory subgroup analyses suggest a beneficial effect on osteoporotic fracture prevention in compliant persons aged >80 y. However, treatment was also associated with increased incidence of cancer, although the study was not designed for assessing cancer outcomes. Therefore, vitamin B-12 plus folic acid supplementation cannot be recommended at present for fracture prevention in elderly people. The B-PROOF study was registered with the Netherlands Trial Register ( as NTR1333 and at as NCT00696414.
Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving
Martin-Tereso, J. ; Wijlen, H. ter; Laar, H. van; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 98 (2014)4. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 775 - 784.
anion difference - milk fever - dry period - hypocalcemia - metaanalysis - absorption - disorders - nutrition - health - cattle
Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows by a reduction of Ca intake and by a reduction of the availability of dietary Ca. In the presence of a negative control, rumen-protected rice bran (2.8 kg/day) was compared with a lowered DCAD diet (from 269 to 4 meq/kg DM) in their effect to prevent milk fever. In a randomized block design, 45 multiparous Holstein cows joined the trial sequentially from 21 days before the expected calving date and were observed until the 8th week of lactation. Feed and nutrient intakes were recorded, and Ca, P, Mg in serum and urine, urine pH, serum NEFA and milk production in early lactation were compared. Feeding rumen-protected rice bran before calving improved the recovery of calcaemia after calving and had a positive effect on DMI after calving. The moderately low DCAD diet did not positively influence serum Ca at calving. Calcaemia recovered even later than in control, and cows showed reduced DMI post-calving and higher NEFA levels in the first 36 h after calving. This moderate reduction of DCAD did not provide an intermediate prevention level indicating that DCAD needs to be reduced to the recommended levels to prevent milk fever. Rumen-protected rice bran may be a suitable feed to reduce hypocalcaemia post-partum and can be included in pre-calving compound feeds representing a palatable alternative to anionic salts.
Partly replacing meat protein with soy protein alters insulin resistance and blood lipids in postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity
Nielen, M. van; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Rietman, A. ; Siebelink, E. ; Mensink, M.R. - \ 2014
The Journal of Nutrition 144 (2014)9. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1423 - 1429.
randomized controlled-trials - metabolic syndrome - isoflavone supplementation - dietary-protein - elderly-women - weight-loss - metaanalysis - pressure - health - cholesterol
Increasing protein intake and soy consumption appear to be promising approaches to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the effect of soy consumption on insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, and other characteristics of MetS is not frequently studied in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects of a 4-wk strictly controlled weight-maintaining moderate high-protein diet rich in soy on insulin sensitivity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We performed a randomized crossover trial of 2 4-wk diet periods in 15 postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity to test diets with 22 energy percent (En%) protein, 27 En% fat, and 50 En% carbohydrate. One diet contained protein of mixed origin (mainly meat, dairy, and bread), and the other diet partly replaced meat with soy meat analogues and soy nuts containing 30 g/d soy protein. For our primary outcome, a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) was performed at the end of both periods. Plasma total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein were assessed, and blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and intrahepatic lipid content were measured at the start and end of both periods. Compared with the mixed-protein diet, the soy-protein diet resulted in greater insulin sensitivity [FSIGT: insulin sensitivity, 34 ± 29 vs. 22 ± 17 (mU/L)-1 · min-1, P = 0.048; disposition index, 4974 ± 2543 vs. 2899 ± 1878, P = 0.038; n = 11]. Total cholesterol was 4% lower after the soy-protein diet than after the mixed-protein diet (4.9 ± 0.7 vs. 5.1 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.001), and LDL cholesterol was 9% lower (2.9 ± 0.7 vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.004; n = 15). Thus, partly replacing meat with soy in a moderate high-protein diet has clear advantages regarding insulin sensitivity and total and LDL cholesterol. Therefore, partly replacing meat products with soy products could be important in preventing MetS. This trial was registered at as NCT01694056.
There is an I in nature: The crucial role of the self in nature conservation
Lokhorst, A.M. ; Hoon, C. ; Rutte, R.J.M. le; Snoo, G.R. de - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 39 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 121 - 126.
pro-environmental behavior - planned behavior - place attachment - ecosystem services - social identity - group norms - farmers - connectedness - metaanalysis - connections
In this paper we analyze the social-psychological determinants of private nature conservation. As a theoretical framework we use the Theory of Planned Behavior, to which the concepts connectedness to nature, self-identity, and place attachment were added. 94 landowners participated in our survey. Results of this pilot study show that perceived behavioral control, self-identity and connectedness to nature are the key factors influencing the intention to conserve. The more farmers feel that they are capable of conserving nature on their farm, the more they see themselves as conservationists, and the more they feel connected to nature, the more likely they are to intend to conserve. An important finding is that self-identity mediates the relation between CNS and conservation intentions. This implies that with an increased connectedness to nature, people come to see themselves as conservationists and this in turn influences their intentions. Of course, these results need to be replicated and validated across different contexts. We discuss the implications of this study for future research and policy.
“When the going gets tough, who keeps going?” Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect
Salmon, S.J. ; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Fennis, B.M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2014
Frontiers in Psychology 5 (2014). - ISSN 1664-1078 - 8 p.
limited-resource account - trait self-control - strength model - metaanalysis - impulsivity - performance - behavior
Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion.
Glycated hemoglobin measurement and prediction of cardiovascular disease
Angelantonio, E. Di; Gao, P. ; Khan, H. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2014
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 311 (2014)12. - ISSN 0098-7484 - p. 1225 - 1233.
statistical-methods - diabetes-mellitus - risk score - task-force - glucose - guidelines - metaanalysis - mortality - adults
(For a complete list of authors see The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration in the Article Information) Importance The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. Objective To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Analysis of individual-participant data available from 73 prospective studies involving 294¿998 participants without a known history of diabetes mellitus or CVD at the baseline assessment. Main Outcomes and Measures Measures of risk discrimination for CVD outcomes (eg, C-index) and reclassification (eg, net reclassification improvement) of participants across predicted 10-year risk categories of low (
Changes in the global value of ecosystem services
Costanza, R. ; Groot, R.S. de; Sutton, P. ; Ploeg, S. van der; Anderson, S.J. ; Kubiszewski, I. ; Farber, S. ; Turner, R.K. - \ 2014
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 26 (2014). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 152 - 158.
benefit transfer - land-use - metaanalysis - tradeoffs - economics - gdp
In 1997, the global value of ecosystem services was estimated to average $33 trillion/yr in 1995 $US ($46 trillion/yr in 2007 $US). In this paper, we provide an updated estimate based on updated unit ecosystem service values and land use change estimates between 1997 and 2011. We also address some of the critiques of the 1997 paper. Using the same methods as in the 1997 paper but with updated data, the estimate for the total global ecosystem services in 2011 is $125 trillion/yr (assuming updated unit values and changes to biome areas) and $145 trillion/yr (assuming only unit values changed), both in 2007 $US. From this we estimated the loss of eco-services from 1997 to 2011 due to land use change at $4.3–20.2 trillion/yr, depending on which unit values are used. Global estimates expressed in monetary accounting units, such as this, are useful to highlight the magnitude of eco-services, but have no specific decision-making context. However, the underlying data and models can be applied at multiple scales to assess changes resulting from various scenarios and policies. We emphasize that valuation of eco-services (in whatever units) is not the same as commodification or privatization. Many eco-services are best considered public goods or common pool resources, so conventional markets are often not the best institutional frameworks to manage them. However, these services must be (and are being) valued, and we need new, common asset institutions to better take these values into account.
Effect of resistance-type exercise training with or without protein supplementation on cognitive functioning in frail and pre-frail elderly: Secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Rest, O. van de; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Tieland, C.A.B. ; Adam, J.J. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Loon, L.J.C. van; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 136-137 (2014). - ISSN 0047-6374 - p. 85 - 93.
older-adults - alzheimers-disease - physical-activity - aerobic exercise - dietary-protein - performance - memory - strength - metaanalysis - impairment
Physical activity has been proposed as one of the most effective strategies to prevent cognitive decline. Protein supplementation may exert an additive effect. The effect of resistance-type exercise training with or without protein supplementation on cognitive functioning in frail and pre-frail elderly people was assessed in a secondary analysis. Two 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention studies were carried out in parallel. Subjects performed a resistance-type exercise program of two sessions per week (n = 62) or no exercise program (n = 65). In both studies, subjects were randomly allocated to either a protein (2 × 15 g daily) or a placebo drink. Cognitive functioning was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery focusing on the cognitive domains episodic memory, attention and working memory, information processing speed, and executive functioning. In frail and pre-frail elderly, resistance-type exercise training in combination with protein supplementation improved information processing speed (changes in domain score 0.08 ± 0.51 versus -0.23 ± 0.19 in the non-exercise group, p = 0.04). Exercise training without protein supplementation was beneficial for attention and working memory (changes in domain scores 0.35 ± 0.70 versus -0.12 ± 0.69 in the non-exercise group, p = 0.02). There were no significant differences among the intervention groups on the other cognitive tests or domain scores.
The use of predefined diet quality scores in the context of CVD risk during urbanization in the South African Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study
Dolman, R.C. ; Wentzel-Viljoen, E. ; Jerling, J.C. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Kruger, A. ; Pieters, M. - \ 2014
Public Health Nutrition 17 (2014)8. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1706 - 1716.
cardiovascular-disease - nutrition transition - income countries - blood-pressure - beta-carotene - lung-cancer - population - metaanalysis - mortality - calcium
Objective Urbanization is generally associated with increased CVD risk and accompanying dietary changes. Little is known regarding the association between increased CVD risk and dietary changes using approaches such as diet quality. The relevance of predefined diet quality scores (DQS) in non-Western developing countries has not yet been established. Design The association between dietary intakes and CVD risk factors was investigated using two DQS, adapted to the black South African diet. Dietary intake data were collected using a quantitative FFQ. CVD risk was determined by analysing known CVD risk factors. Setting Urban and rural areas in North West Province, South Africa. Subjects Apparently healthy volunteers from the South African Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study population (n 1710). Results CVD risk factors were significantly increased in the urban participants, especially women. Urban men and women had significantly higher intakes of both macro- and micronutrients with macronutrient intakes well within the recommended CVD guidelines. While micronutrient intakes were generally higher in the urban groups than in the rural groups, intakes of selected micronutrients were low in both groups. Both DQS indicated improved diet quality in the urban groups and good agreement was shown between the scores, although they seemed to measure different aspects of diet quality. Conclusions The apparent paradox between improved diet quality and increased CVD risk in the urban groups can be explained when interpreting the cut-offs used in the scores against the absolute intakes of individual nutrients. Predefined DQS as well as current guidelines for CVD prevention should be interpreted with caution in non-Western developing countries.
Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men
Esser, D. ; Mars, M. ; Oosterink, E. ; Stalmach, A. ; Müller, M.R. ; Afman, L.A. - \ 2014
FASEB Journal 28 (2014)3. - ISSN 0892-6638 - p. 1464 - 1473.
flavanol-rich cocoa - endothelial function - mediated vasodilatation - cardiovascular health - postprandial lipemia - repeated exposure - metaanalysis - disease - atherosclerosis - prediction
Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45–70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (P
Estimating the mediating effect of different biomarkers on the relation of alcohol consumption with the risk of type 2 diabetes
Beulens, J.W.J. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Moons, K.G.M. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; A, D.L. van der; Groenwold, R.H.H. - \ 2013
Annals of Epidemiology 23 (2013)4. - ISSN 1047-2797 - p. 193 - 197.
coronary-heart-disease - food frequency questionnaire - high-density-lipoprotein - myocardial-infarction - postmenopausal women - insulin sensitivity - epic-nl - moderate - metaanalysis - validity
Purpose Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced type 2 diabetes risk, but the biomarkers that explain this relation are unknown. The most commonly used method to estimate the proportion explained by a biomarker is the difference method. However, influence of alcohol–biomarker interaction on its results is unclear. G-estimation method is proposed to accurately assess proportion explained, but how this method compares with the difference method is unknown. Methods In a case–cohort study of 2498 controls and 919 incident diabetes cases, we estimated the proportion explained by different biomarkers on the relation between alcohol consumption and diabetes using the difference method and sequential G-estimation method. Results Using the difference method, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol explained the relation between alcohol and diabetes by 78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41–243), whereas high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-7.5%; -36.4 to 1.8) or blood pressure (-6.9; -26.3 to -0.6) did not explain the relation. Interaction between alcohol and liver enzymes led to bias in proportion explained with different outcomes for different levels of liver enzymes. G-estimation method showed comparable results, but proportions explained were lower. Conclusions The relation between alcohol consumption and diabetes may be largely explained by increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not by other biomarkers. Ignoring exposure–mediator interactions may result in bias. The difference and G-estimation methods provide similar results.
Long-Term Physical Functioning and Its Association With Somatic Comorbidity and Comorbid Depression in Patients With Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Longitudinal Study
Hoek, J. ; Roorda, L.D. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Hees, J. van; Rupp, I. ; Tijhuis, G.J. ; Dekker, J. ; Bos, G.A.M. van den - \ 2013
Arthritis Care & Research 65 (2013)7. - ISSN 2151-464X - p. 1157 - 1165.
quality-of-life - chronic disease - health survey - co-morbidity - metaanalysis - prevalence - classification - outcomes - impact - sf-36
ObjectiveTo describe long-term physical functioning and its association with somatic comorbidity and comorbid depression in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MethodsLongitudinal data over a period of 11 years were collected from 882 patients with RA at study inclusion. Patient-reported outcomes were collected in 1997, 1998, 1999, 2002, and 2008. Physical functioning was measured with the Health Assessment Questionnaire and the physical component summary score of the Short Form 36 health survey. Somatic comorbidity was measured by a questionnaire including 12 chronic diseases. Comorbid depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. We distinguished 4 groups of patients based on comorbidity at baseline. ResultsSeventy-two percent of the patients at baseline were women. The mean +/- SD age was 59.3 +/- 14.8 years and the median disease duration was 5.0 years (interquartile range 2.0-14.0 years). For the total group of patients with RA, physical functioning improved over time. Patients with somatic comorbidity, comorbid depression, or both demonstrated worse physical functioning than patients without comorbidity at all data collection points. Both groups with comorbid depression had the lowest scores. Only patients with both somatic comorbidity and comorbid depression showed significantly less improvement in physical functioning over time. ConclusionBoth somatic comorbidity and comorbid depression were negatively associated with physical functioning during an 11-year followup period. Furthermore, their combination seems to be especially detrimental to physical functioning over time. These results emphasize the need to take somatic comorbidity and comorbid depression into account in the screening and treatment of patients with RA.
Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis
Crane-Droesch, A. ; Abiven, S. ; Jeffery, S.L. ; Torn, M.S. - \ 2013
Environmental Research Letters 8 (2013)4. - ISSN 1748-9326
black carbon - soil fertility - metaanalysis - charcoal - ecology - model - scale
Biochar may contribute to climate change mitigation at negative cost by sequestering photosynthetically fixed carbon in soil while increasing crop yields. The magnitude of biochar's potential in this regard will depend on crop yield benefits, which have not been well-characterized across different soils and biochars. Using data from 84 studies, we employ meta-analytical, missing data, and semiparametric statistical methods to explain heterogeneity in crop yield responses across different soils, biochars, and agricultural management factors, and then estimate potential changes in yield across different soil environments globally. We find that soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon were strong predictors of yield response, with low cation exchange and low carbon associated with positive response. We also find that yield response increases over time since initial application, compared to non-biochar controls. High reported soil clay content and low soil pH were weaker predictors of higher yield response. No biochar parameters in our dataset-biochar pH, percentage carbon content, or temperature of pyrolysis-were significant predictors of yield impacts. Projecting our fitted model onto a global soil database, we find the largest potential increases in areas with highly weathered soils, such as those characterizing much of the humid tropics. Richer soils characterizing much of the world's important agricultural areas appear to be less likely to benefit from biochar.
Effect of Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplementation on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): Results from the Alpha Omega Trial
Brouwer, I.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Klaasen, V.M. ; Smit, L.A. ; Giltay, E.J. ; Goede, J. de; Heijboer, A.C. ; Kromhout, D. ; Katan, M.B. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
n-3 fatty-acids - cancer risk - dietary-fat - metaanalysis - men - disease
Background: Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer. Methods: The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 262 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration,4 ng/mL. They received either 2 g per day of ALA or placebo in margarine spreads for 40 months. T-tests and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of ALA supplementation on changes in serum PSA (both continuously and as a dichotomous outcome, cut-off point: >4 ng/mL). Findings: Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: 20.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0.12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58). Interpretation: An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from 20.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer.
Common genetic loci influencing plasma homocysteine concentrations and their effect on risk of coronary artery disease
Meurs, J.B.J. van; Pare, G. ; Schwartz, S.M. ; Hazra, A. ; Tanaka, T. ; Vermeulen, S.H. ; Cotlarciuc, I. ; Yuan, X. ; Malarstig, A. ; Bandinelli, S. ; Bis, J.C. ; Morn, H. ; Brown, M.J. ; Chen, C. ; Chen, Y.D. ; Clarke, R.J. ; Dehghan, A. ; Erdmann, J. ; Ferrucci, L. ; Hamsten, A. ; Hofman, A. ; Hunten, D.J. ; Goel, A. ; Johnson, A.D. ; Kathiresan, S. ; Kampman, E. ; Kiel, D.P. ; Kiemeney, L.A. ; Chambers, J.C. ; Kraft, P. ; Lindemans, J. ; McKnight, B. ; Nelson, C.P. ; O'Donnell, C.J. ; Psaty, B.M. ; Ridken, P.M. ; Rivadeneira, F. ; Rose, L.M. ; Seedoif, U. ; Siscovick, D.S. ; Schunkert, H. ; Selhub, J. ; Ueland, P.M. ; Vollenweiden, P. ; Waeben, G. ; Waterworth, D.M. ; Watkins, H. ; Witteman, J.C.M. ; Heijen, M. den; Jacques, P. ; Uitterlinden, A.G. ; Koonet, J.S. ; Rader, D.J. ; Reilly, M.P. ; Moose, V. ; Chasman, D.I. ; Samani, N.J. ; Ahmadi, K.R. - \ 2013
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98 (2013)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 668 - 676.
genome-wide association - cardiovascular-disease - mendelian randomization - heart-disease - expression - metaanalysis - mthfr - polymorphism - women - identification
Background: The strong observational association between total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the null associations in the homocysteinelowering trials have prompted the need to identify genetic variants associated with homocysteine concentrations and risk of CAD. Objective: We tested whether common genetic polymorphisms associated with variation in tlicy are also associated with CAD. Design: We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on tHcy concentrations in 44,147 individuals of European descent. Polymolphisms associated with tHcy (P <10(-8)) were tested for association with CAD in 31,400 cases and 92,927 controls. Results: Common variants at 13 loci, explaining 5.9% of the variation in tHcy, were associated with tHcy concentrations, including 6 novel loci in or near MMACHC (2.1 X 10(-9)), SLC17A3 (1.0 x 10(-8)), GTPB10 (1.7 X 10(-8)), CUBN (7.5 X 10(-1)), HNFlA (1.2 x 10(-12)), and FUT2 (6.6 x 10(-9)), and variants previously reported at or near the MTHFR, MTR, CPS1, MUT, NOX4, DPEP1, and CBS genes. Individuals within the highest 10% of the genotype risk score (GRS) had 3-gmol/L higher mean tHcy concentrations than did those within the lowest 10% of the GRS (P = 1 X 10(-36)). The GRS was not associated with risk of CAD (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.04; P = 0.49). Conclusions: We identified several novel loci that influence plasma tHcy concentrations. Overall, common genetic variants that influence plasma tHcy concentrations are not associated with risk of CAD in white populations, which further refutes the causal relevance of moderately elevated tHey concentrations and tHcy-related pathways for CAD.
Teachers' organizational citizenship behaviour: Considering the roles of their work engagement, autonomy and leader–member exchange
Runhaar, P.R. ; Konermann, J. ; Sanders, K. - \ 2013
Teaching and Teacher Education 30 (2013). - ISSN 0742-051X - p. 99 - 108.
job-satisfaction - mediating role - moderating role - performance - schools - empowerment - perspective - context - metaanalysis - substitutes
The increasing demands that schools are confronted with recently, require teachers' commitment and contribution to school goals, regardless of formal job requirements. This study examines the influence of teachers' work context, in terms of autonomy and leader–membership exchange (LMX), on the relationship between their work engagement and organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs). A distinction is made between OCBI, targeted at benefits for the individual, and OCBO, targeted at benefits for the organization. Survey data from six Dutch schools for secondary education (n = 211), showed that autonomy and LMX both weakened the relationships between work engagement and OCBI and OCBO respectively.
Total antioxidant capacity of the diet and major neurologic outcomes in older adults
Devore, E.E. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Ikram, M.A. ; Heijer, T. den; Vernooij, M. ; Lijn, F. van der; Hofman, A. ; Niessen, W.J. ; Breteler, M.M.B. - \ 2013
Neurology 80 (2013)10. - ISSN 0028-3878 - p. 904 - 910.
food-frequency questionnaire - alzheimers-disease - cardiovascular-disease - hippocampal atrophy - ischemic-stroke - rotterdam - risk - dementia - metaanalysis - association
Objective: To evaluate total antioxidant capacity of the diet, measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, in relation to risks of dementia and stroke, as well as key structural brain volumes, in the elderly. Methods: We prospectively studied 5,395 participants in the Rotterdam Study, aged 55 years and older, who were dementia free and provided dietary information at study baseline; 5,285 individuals were also stroke free at baseline, and 462 were dementia and stroke free at the time of an MRI brain scan 5 years after baseline. Dietary data were ascertained using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and combined with food-specific FRAP measurements from published tables; this information was aggregated across the diet to obtain “dietary FRAP scores.” Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks of dementia and stroke, and multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used to estimate mean differences in structural brain volumes, across tertiles of dietary FRAP scores. Results: During a median 13.8 years of follow-up, we identified approximately 600 cases each of dementia and stroke. In multivariable-adjusted models, we observed no associations between dietary FRAP scores and risk of dementia (p trend = 0.3; relative risk = 1.12, 95% confidence interval = 0.91–1.38, comparing the highest vs lowest FRAP tertiles) or risk of stroke (p trend = 0.3; relative risk = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.75–1.11, comparing extreme FRAP tertiles); results were similar across subtypes of these outcomes. Dietary FRAP scores were unrelated to brain tissue volumes as well. Conclusions: Total antioxidant capacity of the diet, measured by dietary FRAP scores, does not seem to predict risks of major neurologic diseases
Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
Abbas, S. ; Linseisen, J. ; Rohrmann, S. ; Chang-Claude, J. ; Peeters, P.H. ; Engel, P. ; Brustad, M. ; Lund, E. ; Skeie, G. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2013
Nutrition and Cancer 65 (2013)2. - ISSN 0163-5581 - p. 178 - 187.
french e3n cohort - dairy-products - sunlight exposure - adolescent diet - women - micronutrients - calibration - metaanalysis - prevention
Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 yr, 7760 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified among 319,985 women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of vitamin D intake, HR and 95% CI were 1.07 (0.87–1.32) and 1.02 (0.90–1.16) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. The corresponding HR and 95% CIs for calcium intake were 0.98 (0.80–1.19) and 0.90 (0.79–1.02), respectively. For calcium intake in postmenopausal women, the test for trend was borderline statistically significant (Ptrend = 0.05). There was no significant interaction between vitamin D and calcium intake and cancer risk (Pinteraction = 0.57 and 0.22 in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). In this large prospective cohort, we found no evidence for an association between dietary vitamin D or calcium intake and breast cancer risk.
Impact of multi-micronutrient supplementation on growth and morbidity of HIV-infected South African children
Raaij, J.M.A. van; Villiers, F.P.R. de; Kok, F.J. - \ 2013
Nutrients 5 (2013)10. - ISSN 2072-6643 - p. 4079 - 4092.
vitamin-a supplementation - randomized controlled-trial - infants born - zinc - mortality - metaanalysis - childhood - appetite - disease - mothers
Poor growth, micronutrient deficiencies and episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections occur frequently in HIV-infected children. We investigated whether multi-micronutrient supplementation would improve the growth performance and reduce the number of episodes of diarrhea and/or of respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected children. In a double-blind randomized trial, HIV-infected South African children aged 4–24 months (n = 201) were assigned to receive multi-micronutrient supplements or placebo daily for six months. The children were assessed for respiratory symptoms or diarrhea bi-weekly; weights and heights were measured monthly. In total, 121 children completed the six month follow up study period (60%). A total of 43 children died; 27 of them had received supplements. This difference in mortality was not statistically significant (p = 0.12). Weight-for-height Z-scores improved significantly (p <0.05) among children given supplements compared with those given placebo (0.40 (0.09–0.71)) versus -0.04 (-0.39–0.31) (mean (95% CI)). Height-for-age Z-scores did not improve in both treatment groups. The number of monthly episodes of diarrhea in the placebo group (0.36 (0.26–0.46)) was higher (p = 0.09) than in the supplement group (0.25 (0.17–0.33)) and the number of monthly episodes of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher (p <0.05) among children on placebos (1.01 (0.83–1.79)) than those on supplements (0.66 (0.52–0.80)). Multi-micronutrient supplements significantly improved wasting and reduced the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory symptoms.
Disentangling biodiversity and climatic determinants of wood production
Vila, M. ; Carrillo-Gavilán, A. ; Vayreda, J. ; Bugmann, H. ; Fridman, J. ; Grodzki, W. ; Haase, J. ; Kunstler, G. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Trasobares, A. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)2. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
species richness - ecosystem function - current knowledge - forest diversity - metaanalysis - complementarity - plantations - populations - sensitivity - mortality
Background - Despite empirical support for an increase in ecosystem productivity with species diversity in synthetic systems, there is ample evidence that this relationship is dependent on environmental characteristics, especially in structurally more complex natural systems. Empirical support for this relationship in forests is urgently needed, as these ecosystems play an important role in carbon sequestration. Methodology/Principal Findings - We tested whether tree wood production is positively related to tree species richness while controlling for climatic factors, by analyzing 55265 forest inventory plots in 11 forest types across five European countries. On average, wood production was 24% higher in mixed than in monospecific forests. Taken alone, wood production was enhanced with increasing tree species richness in almost all forest types. In some forests, wood production was also greater with increasing numbers of tree types. Structural Equation Modeling indicated that the increase in wood production with tree species richness was largely mediated by a positive association between stand basal area and tree species richness. Mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation affected wood production and species richness directly. However, the direction and magnitude of the influence of climatic variables on wood production and species richness was not consistent, and vary dependent on forest type. Conclusions - Our analysis is the first to find a local scale positive relationship between tree species richness and tree wood production occurring across a continent. Our results strongly support incorporating the role of biodiversity in management and policy plans for forest carbon sequestration.
Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer risk: results from a European cohort
Bamia, C. ; Lagiou, P. ; Buckland, G. ; Grioni, S. ; Agnoli, C. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2013
European Journal of Epidemiology 28 (2013)4. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 317 - 328.
physical-activity - rectal cancers - epic cohort - nutrition - adherence - patterns - survival - health - metaanalysis - population
The authors investigated the association of adherence to Mediterranean diet with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was expressed through two 10-unit scales, the Modified Mediterranean diet score (MMDS) and the Centre-Specific MMDS (CSMMDS). Both scales share the same dietary components but differ in the cut-off values that were used for these components in the construction of the scales. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the associations of these scales with CRC incidence were estimated. After 5,296,617 person-years of follow-up, 4,355 incident CRC cases were identified. A decreased risk of CRC, of 8 and 11 % was estimated when comparing the highest (scores 6–9) with the lowest (scores 0–3) adherence to CSMMDS and MMDS respectively. For MMDS the HR was 0.89 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.99). A 2-unit increment in either Mediterranean scale was associated with a borderline statistically significant 3 to 4 % reduction in CRC risk (HR for MMDS: 0.96; 95 % CI: 0.92, 1.00). These associations were somewhat more evident, among women, were mainly manifested for colon cancer risk and their magnitude was not altered when alcohol was excluded from MMDS. These findings suggest that following a Mediterranean diet may have a modest beneficial effect on CRC risk.
Dietary Supplement Use and Colorectal Adenoma Risk in Individuals with Lynch Syndrome: The GEOLynch Cohort Study
Heine-Bröring, R.C. ; Winkels, R.M. ; Botma, A. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Jung, A.Y. ; Kampman, E. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
cancer - prevention - validity - families - vitamin - gene - omega-3-fatty-acids - questionnaire - metaanalysis - population
Background and Aims: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high lifetime risk of developing colorectal tumors. In this prospective cohort study of individuals with Lynch syndrome, we examined associations between use of dietary supplements and occurrence of colorectal adenomas. Materials and Methods: Using data of 470 individuals with Lynch syndrome in a prospective cohort study, associations between dietary supplement use and colorectal adenoma risk were evaluated by calculating hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, and number of colonoscopies during person time. Robust sandwich covariance estimation was used to account for dependency within families. Results: Of the 470 mismatch repair gene mutation carriers, 122 (26.0%) developed a colorectal adenoma during an overall median person time of 39.1 months. 40% of the study population used a dietary supplement. Use of any dietary supplement was not statistically significantly associated with colorectal adenoma risk (HR = 1.18; 95% CI 0.80-1.73). Multivitamin supplement use (HR = 1.15; 95% CI 0.72-1.84), vitamin C supplement use (HR = 1.57; 95% CI 0.93-2.63), calcium supplement use (HR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.25-1.92), and supplements containing fish oil (HR = 1.60; 95% CI 0.79-3.23) were also not associated with occurrence of colorectal adenomas. Conclusion: This prospective cohort study does not show inverse associations between dietary supplement use and occurrence of colorectal adenomas among individuals with Lynch syndrome. Further research is warranted to determine whether or not dietary supplement use is associated to colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer risk in MMR gene mutation carriers.
Early life factors and adult mammographic density
Lokate, M. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Berg, S.W. van den; Peeters, P.H. ; Gils, C.H. van - \ 2013
Cancer Causes and Control 24 (2013)10. - ISSN 0957-5243 - p. 1771 - 1778.
breast-cancer risk - reported birth-weight - perinatal characteristics - parenchymal patterns - women - metaanalysis - cohort - etiology - validity - stem
Purpose Early life factors have shown to be related to breast cancer risk. The pathophysiological link could be mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Mammary gland development already starts in utero and early life factors might affect the number of mammary cells at risk. In this study, we investigated the association between early life factors and mammographic density in adulthood. Methods The study was conducted within 2,588, mainly postmenopausal women of the Prospect-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. This ongoing study recruited breast cancer screening participants who filled out extensive questionnaires. Information on the early life factors birth weight, gestational age, maternal and paternal age, multiple births, birth rank, exposure to parental smoking, and leg length as a proxy for growth at childhood was obtained using questionnaires. Generalized linear models and linear regression models were used to study the relation between early life factors and mammographic density. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Results Women who had an older mother (p = 0.06) or father (p = 0.002) at birth tended to have a higher mammographic density. Furthermore, greater leg length seemed to be related to higher mammographic density, although not statistically significantly (p = 0.16). After adjustment for confounders, none of the early life factors showed any statistically significant relationship with mammographic density in adulthood. Conclusion Although we cannot exclude small effects that go undetected due to measurement error in recall of early life factors, the results suggest that mammographic density is not a major pathway in any observed relationship between these early life events and breast cancer risk.
Effect evaluation of a two-year complex intervention to reduce loneliness in non-institutionalised elderly Dutch people
Honigh-de Vlaming, R. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Heinrich, J. ; Veer, P. van 't; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2013
BMC Public Health 13 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2458
friendship enrichment program - older-adult loneliness - social-isolation - health-promotion - risk-factors - support - metaanalysis - depression - design - women
Background: Public health policy calls for intervention programmes to reduce loneliness in the ageing population. So far, numerous loneliness interventions have been developed, with effectiveness demonstrated for few of these interventions. The loneliness intervention described in this manuscript distinguishes itself from others by including multiple intervention components and targeting individuals and their environment. Intervention components included a mass media campaign, information meetings, psychosocial group courses, social activities organised by neighbours, and training of intermediaries. The aim of this manuscript is to study the effects of this integrated approach on initial and long-term outcomes. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test intervention study was conducted among non-institutionalised elderly people aged 65 years and over to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention by comparing the intervention community and the control community. Data on outputs, initial and long-term outcomes, and the overall goal were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Data of 858 elderly people were available for the analyses. To assess the effect linear regression analyses with adjustments for age, gender, church attendance, and mental health were used. In addition, the process evaluation provided information about the reach of the intervention components. Results: After two years, 39% of the elderly people were familiar with the intervention programme. The intervention group scored more favourably than the control group on three subscales of the initial outcome, motivation (-4.4%, 95% CI-8.3-0.7), perceived social support (-8.2%, 95% CI-13.6-2.4), and subjective norm (-11.5%, 95% CI-17.4-5.4). However, no overall effects were observed for the long-term outcome, social support, and overall goal, loneliness. Conclusions: Two years after its initiation the reach of the intervention programme was modest. Though no effect of the complex intervention was found on social support and loneliness, more favourable scores on loneliness literacy subscales were induced.
Adapted dietary inflammatory index and its association with a summary score for low-grade inflammation and markers of glucose metabolism: the Cohort study on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht (CODAM) and the Hoorn study
Woudenbergh, G.J. van; Theofylaktopoulou, D. ; Kuijsten, A. ; Ferreira, I. ; Greevenbroek, M.M. ; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Ocké, M.C. ; Nijpels, G. ; Dekker, J.M. ; Blaak, E.E. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2013
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98 (2013)5. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1533 - 1542.
endothelial dysfunction - insulin-resistance - relative validity - population - risk - metaanalysis - fat - reproducibility - questionnaire - determinants
Background: Diet may be associated with the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on low-grade inflammation. Objectives: We investigated whether an adapted dietary inflammatory index (ADII) is associated with a summary score for low-grade inflammation and markers of glucose metabolism. In addition, we investigated the mediating role of inflammation in the association between ADII and markers of glucose metabolism. Design: We performed cross-sectional analyses of 2 Dutch cohort studies (n= 1024). An ADII was obtained by multiplying standardized energy-adjusted intakes of dietary components by literature-based dietary inflammatory weights that reflected the inflammatory potential of components. Subsequently, these multiplications were summed. Six biomarkers of inflammation were compiled in a summary score. Associations of the ADII (expressed per SD) with the summary score for inflammation and markers of glucose metabolism were investigated by using multiple linear regression models. Inflammation was considered a potential mediator in the analysis with markers of glucose metabolism. Results: A higher ADII was associated with a higher summary score for inflammation [beta-adjusted = 0.04 per SD (95% CI: 0.01, 0.07 per SD)]. The ADII was, also adversely associated with insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR): beta-adjusted = 3.5% per SD (95% CI: 0.6%, 6.-3% per SD)]. This association was attenuated after the inclusion of the summary score for inflammation [beta-adjusted+inflammation = 2.2% (95% CI: -0.6%, 5.0%)]. The ADII was also adversely associated with fasting glucose and postload glucose but not with glycated hemoglobin. Conclusion: The significant mediating role of low-grade inflammation in the association between the ADII and HOMA-IR suggests that inflammation might be one of the pathways through which diet affects insulin resistance.
Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration
Groot, R.S. de; Blignaut, J. ; Ploeg, S. van der; Aronson, J. ; Elmqvist, T. ; Farley, J. - \ 2013
Conservation Biology 27 (2013)6. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 1286 - 1293.
ecological restoration - south-africa - biodiversity - payments - services - opportunities - conservation - metaanalysis - indonesia - working
Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments.
Less is more: The effect of multiple implementation intentions targeting unhealthy snacking habits
Verhoeven, A.A.C. ; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Fennis, B.M. - \ 2013
European Journal of Social Psychology 43 (2013)5. - ISSN 0046-2772 - p. 344 - 354.
behavior-change - goal achievement - personal goals - past behavior - strength - plans - metaanalysis - breaking - number - power
Implementation intentions have been shown to effectively change counter-intentional habits. Research has, however, almost solely been concerned with the effectiveness of a single plan. In the present research, we investigated the behavioral and cognitive implications of making multiple implementation intentions targeting unhealthy snacking habits and its underlying processes, linking multiple habitual snacking cues to healthy alternatives. Study 1 revealed that formulating multiple implementation intentions was not effective in decreasing unhealthy snacking, whereas formulating a single plan successfully induced behavior change. By using a lexical decision task in Study 2, it was found that when making a single plan, but not multiple plans, the healthy alternative became cognitively more accessible in response to a critical cue prime than the habitual response. However, when making additional plans in an unrelated domain, the negative effects of making multiple plans were absent. In sum, the current findings suggest that formulating multiple implementation intentions is ineffective when changing unwanted behavior. These reduced effects of multiple implementation intentions do not occur when making the plan but are rather due to interference in the enacting phase of the planning process.
Soil biotic legacy effects of extreme weather events influence plant invasiveness
Meisner, A. ; Deyn, G.B. de; Boer, W. de; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (2013)24. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 9835 - 9838.
drying-rewetting frequency - terrestrial ecosystems - microbial biomass - communities - feedback - productivity - invasibility - metaanalysis - disturbance - resilience
Climate change is expected to increase future abiotic stresses on ecosystems through extreme weather events leading to more extreme drought and rainfall incidences [Jentsch A, et al. (2007) Front Ecol Environ 5(7):365–374]. These fluctuations in precipitation may affect soil biota, soil processes [Evans ST, Wallenstein MD (2012) Biogeochemistry 109:101–116], and the proportion of exotics in invaded plant communities [Jiménez MA, et al. (2011) Ecol Lett 14:1277–1235]. However, little is known about legacy effects in soil on the performance of exotics and natives in invaded plant communities. Here we report that drought and rainfall effects on soil processes and biota affect the performance of exotics and natives in plant communities. We performed two mesocosm experiments. In the first experiment, soil without plants was exposed to drought and/or rainfall, which affected soil N availability. Then the initial soil moisture conditions were restored, and a mixed community of co-occurring natives and exotics was planted and exposed to drought during growth. A single stress before or during growth decreased the biomass of natives, but did not affect exotics. A second drought stress during plant growth resetted the exotic advantage, whereas native biomass was not further reduced. In the second experiment, soil inoculation revealed that drought and/or rainfall influenced soil biotic legacies, which promoted exotics but suppressed natives. Our results demonstrate that extreme weather events can cause legacy effects in soil biota, promoting exotics and suppressing natives in invaded plant communities, depending on the type, frequency, and timing of extreme events.
Homocysteine and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C -> T polymorphism in relation to muscle mass and strength, physical performance and postural sway
Swart, K.M.A. ; Enneman, A.W. ; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Dijk, S.C. van; Brouwer, E.M. ; Ham, A.C. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Velde, N. van der; Brug, J. ; Meurs, J.B.J. van; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Uitterlinden, A.G. ; Lips, P. ; Schoor, N.M. van - \ 2013
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67 (2013). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 743 - 748.
older persons - randomized-trials - meaningful change - bone turnover - risk - association - adults - fracture - consequences - metaanalysis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Elevated plasma homocysteine has been linked to reduced mobility and muscle functioning in the elderly. The relation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C -> T polymorphism with these associations has not yet been studied. This study aimed to investigate (1) the association of plasma homocysteine and the MTHFR 677C -> T polymorphism with muscle mass, handgrip strength, physical performance and postural sway; (2) the interaction between plasma homocysteine and the MTHFR 677C -> T polymorphism. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Baseline data from the B-PROOF study (n = 2919, mean age = 74.1 +/- 6.5) were used. Muscle mass was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry, handgrip strength with a handheld dynamometer, and physical performance with walking-, chair stand- and balance tests. Postural sway was assessed on a force platform. The data were analyzed using regression analyses with plasma homocysteine levels in quartiles. RESULTS: There was a significant inverse association between plasma homocysteine and handgrip strength (quartile 4: regression coefficient B = -1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.96; -0.32) and physical performance score (quartile 3: B = -0.53, 95% CI = -0.95; -0.10 and quartile 4: -0.94; 95% CI = -1.40; -0.48) in women only, independent of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid. No association was observed between the MTHFR 677C -> T polymorphism and the outcomes. High plasma homocysteine in the 677CC and 677CT genotypes, but not in the 677TT genotype, was associated with lower physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations are associated with reduced physical performance and muscle strength in older women. There is an urgent need for randomized controlled trials to examine whether lowering homocysteine levels might delay physical decline.
Regulatory fit effects for injunctive versus descriptive social norms: Evidence from the promotion of sustainable products
Melnyk, V. ; Herpen, E. van; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
Marketing Letters 24 (2013)2. - ISSN 0923-0645 - p. 191 - 203.
consumer-behavior - planned behavior - feeling right - focus - persuasion - metaanalysis - conformity
Consumers face marketing messages using social norms in many situations where different goals are dominant. This research examines moderating effects of regulatory focus for descriptive and injunctive norms in the promotion of sustainable products. More specifically, it shows that descriptive norms have a better fit with a promotion than prevention focus, while this is not the case for injunctive norms. Three experiments examine consequences for perceived message fluency, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Experiment 1 investigates regulatory focus when induced before a normative message, whereas Experiments 2 and 3 investigate regulatory elements ingrained in the message itself. Results show that messages with descriptive norms are perceived as more fluent and have a stronger impact on attitudes and intentions when promotion goals are salient than when prevention goals are salient. Unlike descriptive norms, injunctive norms are not affected by regulatory focus. Marketers using descriptive norms should develop message wording and context accordingly.
Allured or alarmed: Counteractive control responses to food temptations in the brain
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Kroese, F.M. ; Evers, C. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2013
Behavioural Brain Research 248 (2013). - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 41 - 45.
self-regulatory-success - menstrual-cycle phase - primary visual-cortex - attentional control - inhibitory control - goal activation - fmri - metaanalysis - reliability - validity
Typically, it is believed that palatable, high caloric foods signal reward and trigger indulgent responses. However, Counteractive Control Theory suggests that, to the extent that people are concerned about their weight, a confrontation with palatable foods should also trigger ‘alarm bell responses’ which promote successful self-control. Our study is the first to investigate such counteractive control processes in the brain employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a sample of successful self-regulators. Indeed, besides the traditional finding that foods elicit heightened attention as witnessed by greater activation of primary visual cortex, we found that viewing palatable foods elicited brain activation in areas associated with self-regulation. Crucially, brain activation in self-regulation areas was related to diet importance. Thus, our results are the first to show that food cues not only evoke hedonic brain responses; in successful self-regulators they also trigger alarm bell responses, which may reflect the neural processes underlying successful self-control.
Nutritional Genetics: The Case of Alcohol and the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in relation to homocysteine in a Black South African Population
Nienaber-Rousseau, C. ; Pisa, P.T. ; Venster, C.S. ; Ellis, S.M. ; Kruger, A. ; Moss, S. ; Boonstra, A. ; Towers, G.W. - \ 2013
Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics 6 (2013)2. - ISSN 1661-6499 - p. 61 - 72.
coronary-heart-disease - cardiovascular risk-factors - plasma total homocysteine - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase - consumption - hyperhomocysteinemia - folate - determinants - metaanalysis - frequency
Background/Aims: It is unknown whether the effect of alcohol consumption on homocysteine (Hcy) is modulated by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T. We explored this hypothesized effect by analyzing cross-sectional data of 1,827 black South Africans. Methods: Total Hcy concentrations were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay and the genotype through polymerase chain reaction-based RFLP analysis. Results: Subjects harboring the 677 TT genotype had the highest Hcy. Among subjects harboring the 677 CC genotype, men had higher Hcy (p = 0.04). Age and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) correlated best (r = 0.26 and r = 0.27; p <0.05), while the percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and the B vitamins correlated weakly (r <0.1; p <0.05) with Hcy. Hcy was positively associated with the reported alcohol intake (p = 0.01). There was no interaction between alcohol consumption and the MTHFR 677 CC or CT genotypes (p > 0.05) for Hcy concentrations; however, an interaction was determined for GGT and the MTHFR genotype (p = 0.02). Age, GGT, gender, MTHFR and vitamin B6 explained 16.8% of the variation in Hcy (p <0.01). Conclusion: The determined interactions might result in differences in the risk conveyed through Hcy with regard to disease development in those with unfavorable GGT concentrations.
Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes
Struijk, E.A. ; Heraclides, A. ; Witte, D.R. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Toft, U. ; Lau, C.J. - \ 2013
Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 23 (2013)9. - ISSN 0939-4753 - p. 822 - 828.
vitamin-k - consumption - mellitus - women - disease - men - phylloquinone - menaquinones - metaanalysis - association
Background and aim A high intake of dairy has been linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The relationship between dairy intake and glucose metabolism is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups and T2D and measures of glucose metabolism. Methods and results A total of 5953 Danish men and women aged 30–60 years without baseline diabetes or cardiovascular diseases were included in this prospective analysis. The dairy intake at baseline was categorised into low-fat dairy, full-fat dairy, milk and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), HbA1c, insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B) were considered at 5-year follow-up. In the maximally-adjusted model (demographics, lifestyle factors, dietary factors and waist), cheese intake was inversely associated with 2hPG (ß = -0.048, 95% CI -0.095; -0.001). Fermented dairy intake was inversely associated with FPG (ß = -0.028, 95% CI -0.048; -0.008) and HbA1c (ß = -0.016, 95% CI -0.030; -0.001). Total dairy intake and the dairy subgroups were not related to HOMA-IR and HOMA-B in the maximally-adjusted model. Furthermore, there was no significant association between intake of total dairy or any of the dairy subgroups and incidence of T2D. Conclusion Our data suggest a modest beneficial effect of cheese and fermented dairy on glucose regulation measures; however, this did not translate into a significant association with incident T2D.
Adherence to the mediterranean diet and risk of breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort study
Buckland, G. ; Travier, N. ; Cottet, V. ; Gonzalez, C.A. ; Lujan-Barroso, L. ; Agudo, A. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Lagiou, P. ; Trichopoulos, D. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2013
International Journal of Cancer 132 (2013)12. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 2918 - 2927.
postmenopausal women - fatty-acid - patterns - estrogen - population - metaanalysis - calibration - rationale - validity - disease
Epidemiological evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet (MD) could reduce the risk of breast cancer (BC). As evidence from the prospective studies remains scarce and conflicting, we investigated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of BC among 335,062 women recruited from 1992 to 2000, in ten European countries, and followed for 11 years on average. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted relative Mediterranean diet (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for BC risk factors. A total of 9,009 postmenopausal and 1,216 premenopausal first primary incident invasive BC were identified (5,862 estrogen or progesterone receptor positive [ER+/PR+] and 1,018 estrogen and progesterone receptor negative [ER-/PR-]). The arMED was inversely associated with the risk of BC overall and in postmenopausal women (high vs. low arMED score; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.94 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 1.00] ptrend = 0.048, and HR = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.87, 0.99] ptrend = 0.037, respectively). The association was more pronounced in ER-/PR- tumors (HR = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.65, 0.99] ptrend = 0.043). The arMED score was not associated with BC in premenopausal women. Our findings show that adherence to a MD excluding alcohol was related to a modest reduced risk of BC in postmenopausal women, and this association was stronger in receptor-negative tumors. The results support the potential scope for BC prevention through dietary modification.
The Effect of Climate Change on Wetlands and Waterfowl in Western Canada: Incorporating Cropping Decisions into a Bioeconomic Model
Withey, P. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2013
Natural Resource Modeling 26 (2013)3. - ISSN 0890-8575 - p. 305 - 330.
northern prairie wetlands - metaanalysis - management
We extend an earlier bioeconomic model of optimal duck harvest and wetland retention in the Prairie Pothole Region of Western Canada to include cropping decisions. Instead of a single state equation, the model has two state equations representing the population dynamics of ducks and the amount of wetlands. We use the model to estimate the impact of climate change on wetlands and waterfowl, including direct climate effects as well as land use change due to biofuel policies aimed at mitigating climate change. The model predicts that climate change will reduce wetlands by 37–56% from historic levels. Land use change due to biofuel policies is expected to reduce wetlands by between 35% and 45% from historic levels, whereas direct climate effects will range from a reduction of 2–11%, depending on the future climate scenario. This result indicates that models that neglect the effect of land use changes underestimate the effect of climate change on wetlands. Further, wetlands loss is geographically heterogeneous, with losses being the largest in Saskatchewan.
Telomere length behaves as biomarker of somatic redundancy rather than biological age
Boonekamp, J.J. ; Simons, M.J.P. ; Hemerik, L. ; Verhulst, S. - \ 2013
Aging Cell 12 (2013)2. - ISSN 1474-9718 - p. 330 - 332.
vascular mortality - individual data - blood-pressure - oldest-old - metaanalysis - adults
Biomarkers of aging are essential to predict mortality and aging related diseases. Paradoxically, age itself imposes a limitation on the use of known biomarkers of aging, because their associations with mortality generally diminish with age. How this pattern arises is however not understood. With meta-analysis we show that human leucocyte telomere length (TL) predicts mortality, and that this mortality association diminishes with age, as found for other biomarkers of aging. Subsequently, we demonstrate with simulation models that this observation cannot be reconciled with the popular hypothesis that TL is proportional to biological age. Using the reliability theory of aging we instead propose that TL is a biomarker of somatic redundancy, the body's capacity to absorb damage, which fits the observed pattern well. We discuss to what extent diminishing redundancy with age may also explain the observed diminishing mortality modulation with age of other biomarkers of aging. Considering diminishing somatic redundancy as the causal agent of aging may critically advance our understanding of the aging process, and improve predictions of life expectancy and vulnerability to aging-related diseases.
Reference intervals for common carotid intima-media thickness measured with echotracking: relation with risk factors
Engelen, L. ; Ferreira, I. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Franco, O.H. ; Grobbee, D.E. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Twisk, J.W.R. ; Dekker, J.J.A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2013
European Heart Journal 34 (2013)30. - ISSN 0195-668X - p. 2368 - 2380.
coronary-heart-disease - cardiovascular-disease - atherosclerosis risk - prospective cohort - vascular-disease - sex-differences - task-force - metaanalysis - artery - ultrasound
Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCIMT) is widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, given its predictive association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The interpretation of CCIMT values has been hampered by the absence of reference values, however. We therefore aimed to establish reference intervals of CCIMT, obtained using the probably most accurate method at present (i.e. echotracking), to help interpretation of these measures. Methods and results We combined CCIMT data obtained by echotracking on 24 871 individuals (53% men; age range 15–101 years) from 24 research centres worldwide. Individuals without CVD, cardiovascular risk factors (CV-RFs), and BP-, lipid-, and/or glucose-lowering medication constituted a healthy sub-population (n ¼ 4234) used to establish sex-specific equations for percentiles of CCIMT across age.With these equations, we generated CCIMT Z-scores in different reference subpopulations, thereby allowing for a standardized comparison between observed and predicted (‘normal’) values from individuals of the same age and sex. In the sub-population without CVD and treatment (n ¼ 14 609), and in men and women, respectively, CCIMT Z-scores were independently associated with systolic blood pressure [standardized bs 0.19 (95% CI: 0.16–0.22) and 0.18 (0.15–0.21)], smoking [0.25 (0.19–0.31) and 0.11 (0.04–0.18)], diabetes [0.19 (0.05–0.33) and 0.19 (0.02–0.36)], total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio [0.07 (0.04–0.10) and 0.05 (0.02–0.09)], and body mass index [0.14 (0.12–0.17) and 0.07 (0.04–0.10)]. Conclusion We estimated age- and sex-specific percentiles of CCIMT in a healthy population and assessed the association of CVRFs with CCIMT Z-scores, which enables comparison of IMT values for (patient) groups with different cardiovascular risk profiles, helping interpretation of such measures obtained both in research and clinical settings.
Age at menopause, reproductive life span, and type 2 diabetes risk results from the EPIC-interAct Study
Brand, J.S. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Onland-Moret, N. ; Sharp, S.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2013
Diabetes Care 36 (2013)4. - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 1012 - 1019.
breast-cancer risk - body-size - cardiovascular-disease - prospective cohort - womens health - transition - reproducibility - metaanalysis - endometrial - nutrition
OBJECTIVEAge at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSData were obtained from the InterAct study, a prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 3,691 postmenopausal type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,408 subcohort members were included in the analysis, with a median follow-up of 11 years. Prentice weighted Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, known risk factors for diabetes, and reproductive factors, and effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, and smoking was studied.RESULTSMean (SD) age of the subcohort was 59.2 (5.8) years. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.32 (95% CI 1.04-1.69), 1.09 (0.90-1.31), 0.97 (0.86-1.10), and 0.85 (0.70-1.03) for women with menopause at ages 0.05).CONCLUSIONSEarly menopause is associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes.
Exercise self-identity: interactions with social comparison and exercise behaviour
Verkooijen, K.T. ; Bruijn, G.J. de - \ 2013
Psychology, Health & Medicine 18 (2013)4. - ISSN 1354-8506 - p. 490 - 499.
vigorous physical-activity - planned behavior - reasoned action - metaanalysis - norms - variables
Possible interactions among exercise self-identity, social comparison and exercise behaviour were explored in a sample of 417 undergraduate students (Mean age¿=¿21.5, SD¿=¿3.0; 73% female). Two models were examined using self-report data; (1) a mediation model which proposed an association between social comparison and exercise behaviour mediated by exercise self-identity and (2) a moderation model proposing an association between exercise behaviour and self-identity moderated by social comparison. Results of the mediation analyses revealed partial mediation of the social comparison – exercise behaviour relationship by self-identity in females. Results of the moderation analyses revealed in males a significant interaction of social comparison with exercise behaviour in the prediction of self-identity – the positive association between exercise behaviour and exercise self-identity showed only significant among male students who believed to exercise equally much or less than peers. Possible explanations and implications for exercise promotion are discussed.
Temperature effects on pitfall catches of epigeal arthropods: a model and method for bias correction
Saska, P. ; Werf, W. van der; Hemerik, L. ; Luff, M.L. ; Hatten, T.D. ; Honek, A. - \ 2013
Journal of Applied Ecology 50 (2013)1. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 181 - 189.
carabid beetles - activity patterns - plant pathology - fallow field - coleoptera - metaanalysis - insects - ecology - density - weather
1.Carabids and other epigeal arthropods make important contributions to biodiversity, food webs and biocontrol of invertebrate pests and weeds. Pitfall trapping is widely used for sampling carabid populations, but this technique yields biased estimates of abundance (‘activity-density’) because individual activity – which is affected by climatic factors – affects the rate of catch. To date, the impact of temperature on pitfall catches, while suspected to be large, has not been quantified, and no method is available to account for it. This lack of knowledge and the unavailability of a method for bias correction affect the confidence that can be placed on results of ecological field studies based on pitfall data. 2.Here, we develop a simple model for the effect of temperature, assuming a constant proportional change in the rate of catch per °C change in temperature, r, consistent with an exponential Q10 response to temperature. We fit this model to 38 time series of pitfall catches and accompanying temperature records from the literature, using first differences and other detrending methods to account for seasonality. We use meta-analysis to assess consistency of the estimated parameter r among studies. 3.The mean rate of increase in total catch across data sets was 0·0863 ± 0·0058 per °C of maximum temperature and 0·0497 ± 0·0107 per °C of minimum temperature. Multiple regression analyses of 19 data sets showed that temperature is the key climatic variable affecting total catch. Relationships between temperature and catch were also identified at species level. Correction for temperature bias had substantial effects on seasonal trends of carabid catches. 4.Synthesis and Applications. The effect of temperature on pitfall catches is shown here to be substantial and worthy of consideration when interpreting results of pitfall trapping. The exponential model can be used both for effect estimation and for bias correction of observed data. Correcting for temperature-related trapping bias is straightforward and enables population estimates to be more comparable. It may thus improve data interpretation in ecological, conservation and monitoring studies, and assist in better management and conservation of habitats and ecosystem services. Nevertheless, field ecologists should remain vigilant for other sources of bias.
Dairy Intake and Coronary Heart Disease or Stroke – a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands
Dalmeijer, G.W. ; Struijk, E.A. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2013
International Journal of Cardiology 167 (2013)3. - ISSN 0167-5273 - p. 925 - 929.
food frequency questionnaire - blood-pressure - cardiovascular-disease - relative validity - risk - fat - reproducibility - metaanalysis - menaquinone - consumption
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total dairy intake and dairy subtypes (high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, milk and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy) with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. METHODS: EPIC-NL is a prospective cohort study among 33,625 Dutch men and women. At baseline (1993-1997), dairy intake was measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The incidence of both fatal and non-fatal CHD and stroke was obtained by linkage to the national registers. RESULTS: During 13years follow-up, 1648 cases of CHD and 531 cases of stroke were documented. Total dairy intake was not significantly associated with risk of CHD (hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) increase=0.99; 95%-CI: 0.94-1.05) or stroke (0.95; 0.85-1.05) adjusted for lifestyle and dietary factors. None of the dairy subtypes was to CHD, while only fermented dairy tended to be associated (p=0.07) with a lower risk of stroke (0.92; 0.83-1.01). Hypertension appeared to modify the association of total and low-fat dairy with CHD (p interaction
An appeal for the presentation of detailed human derived data for dose-response calculations in nutritional science
Jong, N. de; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. ; Verhagen, H. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Bokkers, B. ; Hoekstra, J. - \ 2013
Food and Chemical Toxicology 54 (2013). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 43 - 49.
continuous end-points - fish consumption - trend estimation - risk - stroke - metaanalysis - statement - quality - health - example
If a diet, food or food constituent is recognised to have both health benefits and health risks, the benefits have to be compared with the risks to develop coherent scientific evidence-based dietary advice. This means that both risk and benefit assessment should follow a similar paradigm and that benefits and risks are expressed in a common currency. Dose–response functions are vital for that purpose. However, the construction of these functions is often of second interest in the currently available (epidemiological) literature. In order to bring forward the potential of epidemiological studies for the construction of the dose–response functions for benefit–risk purposes, the scientific (nutrition and health) community is asked to expand on their data presentation, either by presenting more detailed data focusing on dose–response necessities, and/or by sharing primary data
Response to Hoenselaar from Pedersen et al.: The importance of reducing SFA intake to limit CHD risk
Pedersen, J.I. ; Norum, K.R. ; James, P.T. ; Brouwer, I.A. ; Katan, M.B. ; Clarke, R. ; Elmadfa, I. ; Kris-Etherton, P.M. ; Kromhout, D. ; Margetts, B.M. ; Mensink, R.P. ; Rayner, M. ; Uusitupa, M. - \ 2012
The British journal of nutrition 107 (2012)3. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 452 - 454.
cardiovascular-disease - cholesterol - metaanalysis - association - lipids - heart - fat
Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population
Na, Y. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Li, Y.P. ; Zhang, J. ; Fu, P. ; Ma, G.S. ; Yang, X.G. - \ 2012
Biomedical and environmental sciences 25 (2012)4. - ISSN 0895-3988 - p. 373 - 382.
coronary-heart-disease - insulin sensitivity - risk - women - metaanalysis - profile - index - men
Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low carbohydrate diet was scored according to the energy of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Results Of the 20 717 subjects, 1 332 were diagnosed with hyperglycemia and 662 were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Multivariate adjusted analysis showed that the highest score of type 2 diabetes patients was 2.75 (95% CI: 2.09-3.61). The score of type 2 diabetes patients was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.35-2.58) after further adjustment for their socioeconomic status and physical activity. No significant difference was found in the odds ratio after further adjustment for BMI, blood pressure, lipid level, and energy intake. No evidence was observed for the relation between high fat-low carbohydrate-diet score in type 2 diabetes patients due to high family income, less education, physical activity, overweight, hypertension, high TG, or low HDL level. Conclusion High fat-low carbohydrate diets, far different from traditional Chinese diets, are associated with the high incidence of type 2 diabetes in Chinese population.
Preaching to the choir? The influence of personal relevance on the effects of gain- and loss-framed health-promoting messages
Riet, J.P. van 't; Ruiter, R. de; Vries, H. de - \ 2012
Journal of Health Psychology 17 (2012)5. - ISSN 1359-1053 - p. 712 - 723.
parallel process model - self-affirmation - fear appeals - college-students - behavior - metaanalysis - risk - information - perceptions - persuasion
This article examines the moderating influence of personal relevance on the persuasive effects of gain- and loss-framed messages. We assessed current behaviour as a proxy for personal relevance, provided 169 participants with gain- and loss-framed messages advocating skin self-examination (SSE) and assessed intention to engage in SSE as the outcome measure. The results showed that loss-framed information was more persuasive than gain-framed information, but only for low-relevance participants. This suggests that loss-framed information might be mainly effective for recipients who need little persuading and, in fact, runs the risk of 'preaching to the choir'.
Avoidance orientation moderates the effect of threatening messages
Riet, J.P. van 't; Ruiter, R.A.C. ; Vries, H. de - \ 2012
Journal of Health Psychology 17 (2012)1. - ISSN 1359-1053 - p. 14 - 25.
protection motivation theory - fear appeals - individual-differences - behavioral activation - college-students - planned behavior - health messages - metaanalysis - responses - cognition
This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people's dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after which they were provided with either high- or low-threat messages about the consequences of drinking too much alcohol. The primary outcome measures were information acceptance, attitude and intention. Results showed that participants low in avoidance orientation were more likely to be persuaded by the low-threat message, whereas participants high in avoidance orientation were more likely to be persuaded by the high-threat message.
Determinants of antiretroviral therapy adherence in northern Tanzania: a comprehensive picture from the patient perspective
Lyimo, R.A. ; Bruin, M. de; Boogaard, J. van den; Hospers, H.J. ; Ven, A. van der; Mushi, D. - \ 2012
BMC Public Health 12 (2012). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 8 p.
hiv-infected patients - treatment outcomes - planned behavior - drug-resistance - haart-adherence - intervention - metaanalysis - support - impact - trials
Background - To design effective, tailored interventions to support antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, a thorough understanding of the barriers and facilitators of ART adherence is required. Factors at the individual and interpersonal level, ART treatment characteristics and health care factors have been proposed as important adherence determinants. Methods - To identify the most relevant determinants of adherence in northern Tanzania, in-depth interviews were carried out with 61 treatment-experienced patients from four different clinics. The interviews were ad-verbatim transcribed and recurrent themes were coded. Results - Coding results showed that the majority of patients had basic understanding of adherence, but also revealed misconceptions about taking medication after alcohol use. Adherence motivating beliefs were the perception of improved health and the desire to live like others, as well as the desire to be a good parent. A de-motivating belief was that stopping ART after being prayed for was an act of faith. Facilitators of adherence were support from friends and family, and assistance of home based care (HBC) providers. Important barriers to ART adherence were the use of alcohol, unavailability of food, stigma and disclosure concerns, and the clinics dispensing too few pills. Strategies recommended by the patients to improve adherence included better Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) services, recruitment of patients to become Home Based Care ( HBC) providers, and addressing the problem of stigma through education. Conclusion - This study underscores the importance of designing tailored, patient-centered adherence interventions to address challenges at the patient, family, community and health care level.
The Meaning of Adherence When Behavioral Risk Patterns Vary: Obscured Use- and Method-Effectiveness in HIV-Prevention Trials
Bruin, M. de; Viechtbauer, W. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
sexual-behavior - south-africa - male circumcision - infection - metaanalysis - women - men - prevalence - challenges - efficacy
Background Recently promising trials of innovative biomedical approaches to prevent HIV transmission have been reported. Participants' non-adherence to the prevention methods complicates the analyses and interpretation of trial results. The influence of variable sexual behaviors within and between participants of trials further obscures matters. Current methodological and statistical approaches in HIV-prevention studies, as well as ongoing debates on contradictory trial results, may fail to accurately address these topics. Methodology/Principal Findings Through developing a cumulative probability model of infection within HIV prevention trials, we demonstrate how adherence and sexual behavior patterns impact the overall estimate of effectiveness, the effectiveness of prevention methods as a function of adherence, and conclusions about methods' true effectiveness. Applying the model to summary-level data from the CAPRISA trial, we observe markedly different values for the true method effectiveness of the microbicide, and show that if the gel would have been tested among women with slightly different sexual behavior patterns, conclusions might well have been that the gel is not effective. Conclusions/Significance Relative risk and adherence analyses in HIV prevention trials overlook the complex interplay between adherence and sexual behavior patterns. Consequently, they may not provide accurate estimates of use- and method-effectiveness. Moreover, trial conclusions are contingent upon the predominant sexual behavior pattern of participants and cannot be directly generalized to other contexts. We recommend researchers to (re)examine their data and use the cumulative probability model to estimate the true method effectiveness, which might contribute to resolving current questions about contradictory trial results. Moreover, we suggest taking into account the issues raised in the design of future trials and in population models estimating the impact of large-scale dissemination of prevention methods. Comprehension of the topics described will help readers to better interpret (apparently contradictory) trial outcomes.
Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study
Aleksandrova, K. ; Boeing, H. ; Jenab, M. ; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B. ; Jansen, E. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Fedirko, V. ; Rinaldi, S. ; Romieu, I. ; Riboli, E. - \ 2012
Carcinogenesis 33 (2012)6. - ISSN 0143-3334 - p. 1211 - 1218.
coronary-heart-disease - metabolic syndrome - adipose-tissue - rectal-cancer - colon-cancer - women - metaanalysis - obesity - plasma - genes
Adiponectin-an adipose tissue-derived protein-may provide a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested case-control study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-0.95, P(trend) = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34-0.61, P(trend) <0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.68-1.22, P(trend) = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.26-0.60, P(trend) <0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.60-1.09, P(trend) = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms
Lipid-Related Markers and Cardiovascular Disease Prediction
Angelantonio, E. di; Gao, P. ; Pennells, L. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2012
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 307 (2012)23. - ISSN 0098-7484 - p. 2499 - 2506.
coronary-heart-disease - non-hdl cholesterol - myocardial-infarction - apolipoprotein-b - ldl cholesterol - a-i - risk - lipoprotein(a) - metaanalysis - prevention
Context The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated. Objective To determine whether adding information on apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein(a), or lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 to total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction. Design, Setting, and Participants Individual records were available for 165 544 participants without baseline CVD in 37 prospective cohorts (calendar years of recruitment: 1968-2007) with up to 15 126 incident fatal or nonfatal CVD outcomes (10 132 CHD and 4994 stroke outcomes) during a median follow-up of 10.4 years (interquartile range, 7.6-14 years). Man Outcome Measures Discrimination of CVD outcomes and reclassification of participants across predicted 10-year risk categories of low (
Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and ten years post-disaster -- a longitudinal study
Berg, B. van den; Wong, A. ; Velden, P.G. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Grievink, L. - \ 2012
BMC Psychiatry 12 (2012). - ISSN 1471-244X - 26 p.
posttraumatic-stress-disorder - symptoms - adults - metaanalysis - responses - services - impact - ptsd - bias
BackgroundDisaster experiences have been associated with higher prevalence rates of (mental) health problems. The objective of this study was to examine the independent relation between a series of single disaster experiences versus the independent predictive value of a accumulation of disaster experiences, i.e. a sum score of experiences and symptoms of distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Survivors of a fireworks disaster participated in a longitudinal study and completed a questionnaire three weeks (wave 1), eighteen months (wave 2) and four years post-disaster (wave 3). Ten years post-disaster (wave 4) the respondents consisted of native Dutch survivors only. Main outcome measures were general distress and symptoms of PTSD. Results Degree of disaster exposure (sum score) and some disaster-related experiences (such as house destroyed, injured, confusion) were related to distress at waves 2 and 3. This relation was mediated by distress at an earlier point in time. None of the individual disaster-related experiences was independently related to symptoms of distress. The association between the degree of disaster exposure and symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3 was still statistically significant after controlling for symptoms of distress and PTSD at earlier point in time. The variable ‘house destroyed’ was the only factor that was independently related to symptoms of PTSD at wave 2. Ten years after the disaster, disaster exposure was mediated by symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3. Disaster exposure was not independently related to symptoms of PTSD ten years post-disaster. Conclusions Until 4 years after the disaster, degree of exposure (a sum score) was a risk factor for PTSD symptoms while none of the individual disaster experiences could be identified as an independent risk factor. Ten years post-disaster, disaster exposure was no longer an independent risk factor for symptoms of PTSD. Since symptoms of PTSD and distress at earlier waves perpetuate the symptoms at later waves, health care workers should aim their resources at those who still have symptoms after one and a half year post-disaster, to prevent health problems at medium and long-term.
C-Reactive Protein, fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease prediction
Kromhout, D. - \ 2012
New England Journal of Medicine 367 (2012). - ISSN 0028-4793 - p. 1310 - 1320.
coronary-heart-disease - nonvascular mortality - practice guidelines - primary prevention - cost-effectiveness - statin therapy - risk profile - association - inflammation - metaanalysis
Background There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events. Full Text of Background... Methods We analyzed data from 52 prospective studies that included 246,669 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease to investigate the value of adding CRP or fibrinogen levels to conventional risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. We calculated measures of discrimination and reclassification during follow-up and modeled the clinical implications of initiation of statin therapy after the assessment of CRP or fibrinogen. Results The addition of information on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a prognostic model for cardiovascular disease that included age, sex, smoking status, blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total cholesterol level increased the C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, by 0.0050. The further addition to this model of information on CRP or fibrinogen increased the C-index by 0.0039 and 0.0027, respectively (P
Web-conferencing as a viable method for group decision research
Handgraaf, M.J.J. ; Milch, K.F. ; Appelt, K.C. ; Schuette, P. ; Yoskowitz, N.A. ; Weber, E.U. - \ 2012
Judgment and Decision Making 7 (2012)5. - ISSN 1930-2975 - p. 659 - 668.
computer-mediated communication - face-to-face - electronic propinquity - mechanical turk - metaanalysis - performance - information - accuracy - internet - trust
Studying group decision-making is challenging for multiple reasons. An important logistic difficulty is studying a sufficiently large number of groups, each with multiple participants. Assembling groups online could make this process easier and also provide access to group members more representative of real-world work groups than the sample of college students that typically comprise lab Face-to-Face (FtF) groups. The main goal of this paper is to compare the decisions of online groups to those of FtF groups. We did so in a study that manipulated gain/loss framing of a risky decision between groups and examined the decisions of both individual group members and groups. All of these dependent measures are compared for an online and an FtF sample. Our results suggest that web-conferencing can be a substitute for FtF interaction in group decision-making research, as we found no moderation effects of communication medium on individual or group decision outcome variables. The effects of medium that were found suggest that the use of online groups may be the preferred method for group research. To wit, discussions among the online groups were shorter, but generated a greater number of thought units, i.e., they made more efficient use of time.
The role of fatty acids from fish in the prevention of stroke
Goede, J. de; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2012
BMJ: British Medical Journal 345 (2012). - ISSN 0959-8138
myocardial-infarction - consumption - risk - metaanalysis - disease - events
Omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease. The final verdict?
Kromhout, D. - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Lipidology 23 (2012)6. - ISSN 0957-9672 - p. 554 - 559.
n-3 fatty-acids - randomized controlled-trials - postmyocardial infarction patients - fatal myocardial-infarction - fish consumption - cardiovascular-disease - eicosapentaenoic acid - risk - metaanalysis - mortality
Purpose of review: The fish fatty acids eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexenoic acid (DHA) may be protective against fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and sudden cardiac death. This review summarizes the recent findings of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. Recent findings: A recently published meta-analysis of 17 prospective cohort studies showed that eating fish once a week compared to eating less fish was associated with a 16% lower risk of fatal CHD. Epidemiologic studies with cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death as endpoint observed also an inverse relation with fish consumption. In contrast, a recently published meta-analysis of 14 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in cardiovascular patients did not show a protective effect of an additional amount of EPA-DHA on fatal CHD and sudden cardiac death. Subgroup analyses suggested that this could be because of a low absolute risk as a consequence of the state-of-the-art drug treatment. Summary: Eating fatty fish once or lean fish twice a week is recommended for both primary and secondary prevention of CHD. A definite statement cannot be made about the dosage of EPA-DHA required for secondary prevention of CHD
Antecedents of self identity and consequences for action control: An application of the theory of planned behaviour in the exercise domain
Bruijn, G.J. de; Verkooijen, K.T. ; Putte, B. van den; Vries, N.K. de - \ 2012
Psychology of Sports and Exercise 13 (2012)6. - ISSN 1469-0292 - p. 771 - 778.
vigorous physical-activity - continuation intentions - metaanalysis - salience - efficacy - identification - maintenance - personality - integration - validation
Objectives: To study whether exercise action control profiles should be usefully extended to include exercise identity. Further, this study investigated theory of planned behaviour antecedents of exercise identity. Design: Prospective data from 413 undergraduate students (M age ¼ 21.4; 73.5% females). Method: Validated questionnaires were used at baseline and follow-up two weeks later to assess exercise behaviour, intention, self-identity, and theory of planned behaviour concepts. Research questions were analysed using chi-square analysis, discriminant function analysis and structural equation modelling. Results were interpreted using p-values and effect sizes. Results: There was a higher proportion of exercise intenders in the strong exercise identity group than in the weak exercise identity group (81.9% vs. 14.5%) and a higher proportion of successful intenders in the high exercise identity group than in the low exercise identity group (45.5% vs. 18.2%). Affective attitude and perceived behavioural control (PBC) were the most important predictors of exercise action control. Regarding the antecedents of identity, results showed significant and small-sized associations for baseline affective attitude and perceived behavioural control and large-sized association for baseline self-identity. Conclusion: Exercise identity should be usefully employed to understand exercise motivation and action control. Affective attitude and perceived behavioural control facilitate action control and exercise identity development and are suggested to be taken into account when developing exercise interventions.
Glasshouse vs field experiments: do they yield ecologically similar results for assessing N impacts on peat mosses
Limpens, J. ; Granath, G. ; Gunnarsson, U. ; Rydin, H. ; Aerts, R. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Breeuwer, A.J.G. - \ 2012
New Phytologist 195 (2012)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 408 - 418.
nitrogen deposition - sphagnum mosses - metaanalysis - peatlands - carbon - scale - responses - ecology - cycle
• Peat bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) than any other terrestrial ecosystem today. Most of this C is associated with peat moss (Sphagnum) litter. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can decrease Sphagnum production, compromising the C sequestration capacity of peat bogs. The mechanisms underlying the reduced production are uncertain, necessitating multifactorial experiments. • We investigated whether glasshouse experiments are reliable proxies for field experiments for assessing interactions between N deposition and environment as controls on Sphagnum N concentration and production. We performed a meta-analysis over 115 glasshouse experiments and 107 field experiments. • We found that glasshouse and field experiments gave similar qualitative and quantitative estimates of changes in Sphagnum N concentration in response to N application. However, glasshouse-based estimates of changes in production – even qualitative assessments – diverged from field experiments owing to a stronger N effect on production response in absence of vascular plants in the glasshouse, and a weaker N effect on production response in presence of vascular plants compared to field experiments. • Thus, although we need glasshouse experiments to study how interacting environmental factors affect the response of Sphagnum to increased N deposition, we need field experiments to properly quantify these effects.
Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of gastric and esophageal cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
Jeurnink, S.M. ; Büchner, F.L. ; Bueno-de Mesquita, H.B. ; Siersema, P.D. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Numans, M.E. ; Dahm, C.C. ; Overvad, K. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Roswall, N. ; Clavel-Chapelon, F. ; Boutron-Ruault, M.C. ; Morois, S. ; Kaaks, R. ; Teucher, B. ; Boeing, H. ; Buijsse, B. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Benetou, V. ; Zylis, D. ; Palli, D. ; Sieri, S. ; Vineis, P. ; Tumino, R. ; Panico, S. ; Ocké, M.C. ; Peeters, P.H. ; Skeie, G. ; Brustad, M. ; Lund, E. ; Sanchez-Cantalejo, E. ; Navarro, C. ; Amiano, P. ; Ardanaz, E. ; Ramón Quirós, J. ; Hallmans, G. ; Johansson, I. ; Lindkvist, B. ; Regnér, S. ; Khaw, K.T. ; Wareham, N. ; Key, T.J. ; Slimani, N. ; Norat, T. ; Vergnaud, A.C. ; Romaguera, D. ; Gonzalez, C.A. - \ 2012
International Journal of Cancer 131 (2012)6. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. E963 - E973.
epic-eurgast - epidemiologic evidence - helicobacter-pylori - physical-activity - diet diversity - cereal fiber - vitamin-c - stomach - adenocarcinomas - metaanalysis
Diets high in vegetables and fruits have been suggested to be inversely associated with risk of gastric cancer. However, the evidence of the effect of variety of consumption is limited. We therefore investigated whether consumption of a variety of vegetables and fruit is associated with gastric and esophageal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Data on food consumption and follow-up on cancer incidence were available for 452,269 participants from 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.4 years, 475 cases of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas (180 noncardia, 185 cardia, gastric esophageal junction and esophagus, 110 not specified) and 98 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were observed. Diet Diversity Scores were used to quantify the variety in vegetable and fruit consumption. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to calculate risk ratios. Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in the consumption of vegetables and fruit combined and of fruit consumption alone were statistically significantly inversely associated with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (continuous hazard ratio per 2 products increment 0.88; 95% CI 0.79–0.97 and 0.76; 95% CI 0.62–0.94, respectively) with the latter particularly seen in ever smokers. Variety in vegetable and/or fruit consumption was not associated with risk of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas. Independent from quantity of consumption, more variety in vegetable and fruit consumption combined and in fruit consumption alone may decrease the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, residual confounding by lifestyle factors cannot be excluded
Health impacts of increasing alcohol prices in the European Union : a dynamic projection
Lhachimi, S.K. ; Cole, K.J. ; Nusselder, W.J. ; Smit, H.A. ; Baili, P. ; Bennett, K. ; Pomerleau, J. ; McKee, M. ; Charlesworth, K. ; Kulik, M.C. ; Mackenbach, J.P. ; Boshuizen, H.C. - \ 2012
Preventive Medicine 55 (2012)3. - ISSN 0091-7435 - p. 237 - 243.
mortality - policies - tax - metaanalysis - consumption - population - risk
Objective Western Europe has high levels of alcohol consumption, with corresponding adverse health effects. Currently, a major revision of the EU excise tax regime is under discussion. We quantify the health impact of alcohol price increases across the EU. Data and method We use alcohol consumption data for 11 member states, covering 80% of the EU-27 population, and corresponding country-specific disease data (incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality rate of alcohol related diseases) taken from the 2010 published Dynamic Modelling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA) database to dynamically project the changes in population health that might arise from changes in alcohol price. Results Increasing alcohol prices towards those of Finland (the highest in the EU) would postpone approximately 54,000 male and approximately 26,100 female deaths over 10 years. Moreover, the prevalence of a number of chronic diseases would be reduced: in men by approximately 97,800 individuals with diabetes, 65,800 with stroke and 62,200 with selected cancers, and in women by about 19,100, 23,500, and 27,100, respectively. Conclusion Curbing excessive drinking throughout the EU completely would lead to substantial gains in population health. Harmonisiation of prices to the Finnish level would, for selected diseases, achieve more than 40% of those gains
Personal hair dye use and the risk of bladder cancer: a case–control study from The Netherlands
Ros, M. ; Gago-Dominguez, M. ; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B. ; Kampman, E. ; Vermeulen, S.H. ; Kiemeney, L.A. - \ 2012
Cancer Causes and Control 23 (2012). - ISSN 0957-5243 - p. 1139 - 1148.
confers susceptibility - sequence variant - aromatic-amines - united-states - metaanalysis - carcinogenicity - phenylenediamine - identification - hairdressers - ingredients
Background - Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye use and bladder cancer risk remains inconclusive. Objective - In this study, we examined associations between personal use of permanent and temporary hair dyes and bladder cancer risk in a population-based case–control study involving 1,385 cases (n = 246 women) and 4,754 controls (n = 2,587 women). Methods - Participants filled out a questionnaire with regard to history of personal hair dye use and risk factors for bladder cancer. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, smoking status, duration of smoking and intensity of smoking. Results - Analyses were restricted to women as less than 5 % of all men in the study ever used hair dyes. About 50 % of the women ever used hair dyes. Use of temporary hair dyes (OR, 0.77; 95 % CI, 0.58–1.02) or use of permanent hair dyes (OR, 0.87; 95 % CI, 0.65–1.18) was not associated with bladder cancer risk. No clear association between hair dyes and bladder cancer risk was found when dye use was defined by type, duration or frequency of use, dye color, or extent of use. Also, results were similar for aggressive- and non-aggressive bladder cancer. Age, educational level, and smoking status did not modify the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk. Conclusions - The present study does not support an association between personal hair dye use and bladder cancer risk. Also, various types of hair dye, intensity of exposure to hair dyes or dye color do not appear to be important factors for bladder cancer development
Smoking increases the risk for colorectal adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome
Winkels, R.M. ; Botma, A. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Nagengast, F.M. ; Kleibeuker, J.H. ; Vasen, H.F.A. ; Kampman, E. - \ 2012
Gastroenterology 142 (2012)2. - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. 241 - 247.
microsatellite instability - cigarette-smoking - cancer-risk - lung-cancer - gene - hypermethylation - metaanalysis - mutations - carcinoma - families
Background & Aims Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk. Methods Using data from the GeoLynch cohort study, a prospective analysis of 386 subjects with Lynch syndrome, we calculated hazard ratios for the association between smoking and alcohol intake and development of colorectal adenoma. We used robust variance estimates in the calculation of 95% confidence intervals to account for dependency within families and adjusted for confounding by age, sex, smoking (in the analyses of alcohol intake), number of colonoscopies during the follow-up, colonic resection, and body mass index. Results During a median follow-up of 10 months, 58 subjects developed a histologically confirmed colorectal adenoma. The hazard ratio for current smokers was 6.13 (95% confidence interval, 2.84-13.22) and for former smokers was 3.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.49-6.16) compared with never smokers. Among ever smokers, a higher number of pack-years was associated with an increased risk for colorectal adenoma (P for trend = .03). There was a trend of alcohol intake increasing the risk of colorectal adenomas, although this was not statistically significant; the hazard ratio for the highest tertile of intake (median, 22 g/day) vs the lowest tertile (median, 0.4 g/day) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-3.43). Conclusions Among people with Lynch syndrome, current smokers have an increased risk of colorectal adenomas. Former smokers have a lower risk than current smokers, but greater risk than never smokers. Individuals with Lynch syndrome should be encouraged to avoid smoking
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