Evaluating the effect of storage conditions on the shelf life of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)
Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz ; Dekker, Matthijs ; Boekel, Tiny van; Verkerk, Ruud - \ 2017
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 80 (2017). - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 523 - 530.
Ascorbic acid - Fungal growth - Modelling - Shelf life - Survival analysis - β-carotene
Cape gooseberry is the fruit of the plant Physalis peruviana L. and has gained commercial and scientific interest for its contents of health-promoting compounds. An integral approach to estimate shelf life of cape gooseberry was conducted taking into account physicochemical, microbiological and nutritional changes and consumer acceptance. The experiments were performed for 5 independent harvest times during two years (2014–2015). The conditions of storage were temperatures of 4, 8 and 12 °C and a relative humidity of 80%. Fruit with (Y) and without calyx (N) were packed into polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays and polypropylene (PP) baskets, respectively. The experiment was conducted for a total of 76 d or shorter when the fruit was spoilt earlier. Fruit with the calyx showed a longer shelf life, while 8 °C was the temperature that gave longer shelf lives irrespective of the calyx presence. The critical quality attribute of shelf life without calyx was fungal growth, which determined consumer acceptance; weight loss was the most critical quality attribute for the fruit with calyx. Studying various quality attributes in an integral way appeared to give a better understanding of the shelf life.
Thermal stability of phytochemicals, HMF and antioxidant activity in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)
Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz ; Verkerk, Ruud ; Boekel, Tiny van; Dekker, Matthijs - \ 2017
Journal of Functional Foods 32 (2017). - ISSN 1756-4646 - p. 46 - 57.
Ascorbic acid - DPPH assay - Flavonoids - Health-promoting compounds - Heat treatment - Modelling - β-carotene
Cape gooseberry is a fruit recognised for having relevant contents of health-promoting compounds. Changes in the content of phytochemicals (ascorbic acid, β-carotene, catechin and epicatechin), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and antioxidant activity of this fruit were studied at various temperatures and times. Ascorbic acid degradation was described by a first order reaction. β-carotene was not degraded and followed an isomerization reaction from 80 °C onwards. Formation of HMF was described with a consecutive zero together with a first order reaction model. The contents of catechin and epicatechin increased at 40 °C. More than three competing reactions did not allow to make kinetic modelling. Antioxidant activity followed fractional first order conversion model. Comparison with kinetics found in other fruits showed that health-promoting compounds of cape gooseberry are relatively more stable to heat treatment. This makes cape gooseberry suitable for the preparation of foods (jam, juices and dehydrated fruit) with relevant health-promoting compounds contents.
Health-promoting compounds in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) : Review from a supply chain perspective
Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz ; Dekker, Matthijs ; Verkerk, Ruud ; Boekel, Tiny van - \ 2016
Trends in Food Science and Technology 57 (2016)part A. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 83 - 92.
Antioxidant activity - Flavonoids - Phenolic compounds - Phytochemicals - Supply chain - Vitamin C - β-carotene
Background The fruit of Physalis peruviana L., known as Cape Gooseberry (CG) is a source of a variety of compounds with potential health benefits. Therefore, CG has been subject of scientific and commercial interest. Scope and approach This review paper evaluates changes of such health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity in CG, based on published literature and from a supply chain perspective, considering pre-harvest, post-harvest, processing (thermal and not thermal) and storage steps to give an insight of contents at consumption stage. Key findings and conclusions CG has vitamin C (20 and 35 mg 100 g−1 FW), β-carotene (up to 2.0 mg.100 g−1 FW), total phenolic compounds TPC (50–250 gallic acid equivalents.100 g−1 FW), phenolic acids (caffeic, gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p-cumaric acids), flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, myricetin, kaempferol, catechin and epicatechin) and antioxidant activity. There is not yet evidence of presence of physalins and withanolides in CG as previous review papers have stated. The ripeness stage of CG is a relevant factor affecting the content of many phytochemicals. Vitamin C and β-carotene contents are directly proportional to ripeness stage. The reported data in literature showed a large variation, likely caused by different raw material properties (origin, ripeness stage, growing conditions etc.) and differences in the employed analytical methods. Thermal and non-thermal processing have an effect on the extractability of the phytochemicals but also on the decrease of compounds and antioxidant activity. Relative stability to certain phytochemicals to processing suggest an opportunity to add value to supply chain with processed food containing health-promoting compounds.
A multidisciplinary research agenda for the acceptance of Golden Rice
Bongoni, Radhika ; Basu, Soutrik - \ 2016
Nutrition & Food Science 46 (2016)5. - ISSN 0034-6659 - p. 717 - 728.
Consumer acceptance - GM foods - Golden Rice - Vitamin A - β-carotene
Purpose: The world is facing serious global food security challenges such as the need for sufficient food for a growing population and an exponential growth in nutrient deficiency disorders. Agricultural biotechnology, such as genetically modified (GM) crops, offers itself as a promising solution to address one or more of these issues. Golden Rice (GR) is an example of a GM crop which contains high amount of β-carotene, a compound which is an antioxidant and a precursor of vitamin A. In spite of GR’s promised potential benefits in combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) disorders it is still not cultivated. This viewpoint paper aims to present the reader with a need for multidisciplinary research agenda, the outcomes of which can contribute towards the acceptance of GR. Design/methodology/approach: This viewpoint paper is based on an extensive literature review to identify the “gaps” which contributed to low acceptance of GR. This paper presents a systematic discussion on the importance of GR in tackling VAD and discusses controversies around GR and a scientific approach to tackle them. Findings: The literature review clearly indicates that there is a huge gap in information substantiating the potential of GR for consumers as well as for the farming community. Addressing these issues can substantially increase the acceptance and cultivation of GR. This viewpoint paper proposes food technologists’ and social scientists’ research agenda for GR and further indicates how the involvement of other research disciplines can improve the acceptance of GR. Originality/value: The literature review indicates the potential of GR in tackling VAD disorders but clearly lacks information to substantiate these arguments. This paper presents authors’ opinions, urging scientists to take up a multidisciplinary research approach to emancipate GR from the clutches of GM food controversies.
Food design strategies to increase vegetable intake : The case of vegetable enriched pasta
Oliviero, Teresa ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2016
Trends in Food Science and Technology 51 (2016). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 58 - 64.
Functional food - Glucoraphanin - Pasta - Vitamin C - β-carotene
Background: Public campaigns promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables had limited results as consumers habits are difficult to modify. The incorporation of fruits and vegetables into regularly eaten products is a food design strategy that leads to several advantages. Pasta is a staple food eaten daily or weekly that constitutes a dominant moiety of the diet in many countries. Moreover, dried pasta is an affordable, long shelf-life product that can well preserve phytochemicals. Scope and approach: With this viewpoint article, all the production and cooking steps of pasta enriched with vegetables are analysed, highlighting their effect on its quality. Alternative processing conditions are proposed based on the findings of the existing literature and on data obtained on pasta enriched with broccoli and with carrot. Finally, recommendations to food companies to design and manufacture such pasta are provided. Key findings and conclusions: Considering the portion size and the percentage of vegetables that can be added, vegetable pasta can significantly contribute to the recommended vegetable intake per day. However, production and cooking of pasta affect its nutritional value: bioactive compounds occurring in vegetables can leach into boiling water or can be thermally degraded. Moreover, the incorporation of vegetables has a dilution effect of the gluten network, leading to changing of pasta sensorial attributes and to a potential increase of the glycaemic index for a higher starch granules swelling. Therefore, such approach is successful only if processing conditions are optimized to keep in the final product the desired nutritional characteristics of the vegetables.