- S. Chereau (1)
- G. Dervilly-Pinel (1)
- C. Elliott (1)
- M.L. Essers (1)
- M.J. Groot (1)
- J.D. Klis van der (1)
- J.J.P. Lasaroms (1)
- A. Lommen (1)
- T. Meijer (1)
- M.W.F. Nielen (3)
- G. Pinel (1)
- L. Rambaud (2)
- E. Vinyeta (1)
- S. Weigel (1)
Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester: effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair
Groot, M.J. ; Lasaroms, J.J.P. ; Bennekom, E.O. van; Meijer, T. ; Vinyeta, E. ; Klis, J.D. van der; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2012
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 29 (2012)5. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 727 - 735.
mass-spectrometry - testosterone - castration - steroids - pigs - 19-nortestosterone - metabolism - estradiol - carcass - boars
The effect of 17ß-19-nortestosterone (17ßNT) treatment of barrows on residue levels and growth was evaluated. Five barrows were treated three times during the fattening period with 17ßNT phenylpropionate (Nandrosol, nandrolone phenylpropionate 50¿mg/ml,1¿mg/kg body weight). Another five barrows were untreated and five boars (untreated) were kept as positive control. Boars and treated barrows showed a 13 and 9% improvement in growth compared to untreated barrows, with mean final body weights of 121.6, 117.8 and 109.0¿kg, respectively. The bulbourethral glands of the treated barrows were three times heavier than untreated barrows. The histology of the prostate and bulbourethral gland of the treated barrows was comparable to the boars, whereas the control barrows showed atrophic glands. Levels of 17ßNT ester in hair from treated barrows were high, whereas boars and untreated barrows did not show levels above LLQ. It is concluded that analysis of hair can detect illegal treatment with 17ßNT ester in barrows. The size of the bulbourethral gland can also be used for screening in the slaughterhouse.
Assessment of two complementary liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics strategies for the screening of anabolic steroid treatment in calves
Dervilly-Pinel, G. ; Weigel, S. ; Lommen, A. ; Chereau, S. ; Rambaud, L. ; Essers, M.L. ; Antignac, J.P. ; Nielen, M.W.F. ; Bizec, B. Le - \ 2011
Analytica Chimica Acta 700 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 144 - 154.
human urine - bovine urine - nandrolone metabolites - gas - cattle - metabonomics - hair - 19-norandrosterone - 19-nortestosterone - 17-beta-estradiol
Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of “cocktails” composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17ß-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17ß-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for discriminating anabolic treated animals from control ones. Such an approach may therefore open a new way for the screening of anabolic steroid administration through targeted monitoring of relevant biomarkers highlighted as a result of the metabolomics study.
Elimination kinetic of 17B-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17B-nandrolone laureate ester metabolites in calves' urine
Pinel, G. ; Rambaud, L. ; Cacciatore, G. ; Bergwerff, A. ; Elliott, C. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2008
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 110 (2008)1-2. - ISSN 0960-0760 - p. 30 - 38.
tandem mass-spectrometry - anabolic-steroids - bovine urine - nandrolone metabolites - gas - 19-nortestosterone - confirmation - residues - cattle - horse
Efficient control of the illegal use of anabolic steroids must both take into account metabolic patterns and associated kinetics of elimination; in this context, an extensive animal experiment involving 24 calves and consisting of three administrations of 17 beta-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17 beta-nandrolone laureate esters was carried out over 50 days. Urine samples were regularly collected during the experiment from all treated and non-treated calves. For sample preparation, a single step high throughput protocol based on 96-well C-18 SPE was developed and validated according to the European Decision 2002/657/EC requirements. Decision limits (CC alpha) for steroids were below 0.1 mu g L-1, except for 19-norandrosterone (CC alpha = 0.7 mu g L-1) and estrone (CC alpha = 0.3 mu g L-1). Kinetics of elimination of the administered 17 beta-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17 beta-nandrolone laureate were established by monitoring 17 beta-estradiol, 17 alpha-estradiol, estrone and 17 beta-nandrolone, 17 alpha-nandrolone, 19-noretiocholanolone, 19-norandrostenedione, respectively. All animals demonstrated homogeneous patterns of elimination both from a qualitative (metabolite profile) and quantitative point of view (elimination kinetics in urine). Most abundant metabolites were 17 alpha-estradiol and 17 alpha-nandrolone (> 20 and 2 mg L-1, respectively after 17 beta-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17 beta-nandrolone laureate administration) whereas 17 beta-estradiol, estrone, 17 beta-nandrolone, 19-noretiocholanolone and 19-norandrostenedione were found as secondary metabolites at concentration values up to the mu g L-1 level. No significant difference was observed between male and female animals. The effect of several consecutive injections on elimination profiles was studied and revealed a tendency toward a decrease in the biotransformation of administered steroid 17 beta form. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.