- Teris A. Beek van (1)
- Martin Alewijn (1)
- Rita Boerrigter-Eenling (2)
- Edoardo Capuano (1)
- Samuel Heenan (1)
- Daniel Joulain (1)
- Alex Koot (1)
- Nikolaos Nenadis (1)
- S.M. Ruth van (1)
- Saskia Ruth Van (1)
- Saskia Ruth van (1)
- Yannick Weesepoel (1)
- Maria Z. Tsimidou (1)
The essential oil of patchouli, Pogostemon cablin : A review
Beek, Teris A. van; Joulain, Daniel - \ 2018
Flavour and Fragrance Journal 33 (2018)1. - ISSN 0882-5734 - p. 6 - 51.
Adulteration - Composition - Odour - Patchoulol - Steam distillation - Toxicology
The leaves of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae) are the source of patchouli essential oil, which is - with an annual production of about 1300 tonnes - an important and unique commodity in the fragrance industry. All the literature pertaining to patchouli was critically reviewed with an emphasis on the qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of the oil but also harvesting, fermentation, drying, distillation, used analytical techniques, sensory aspects including molecules responsible for the odour, adulteration and toxicological aspects, i.e., skin sensitisation, are discussed. In total 72 constituents have been convincingly identified in the oil and another 58 tentatively. The main constituent is the sesquiterpene patchoulol. For this review over 600 papers were consulted and in the supplementary information all patchouli-related references not relevant enough to be cited in the paper itself are listed.
New approaches towards discrimination of fresh/chilled and frozen/thawed chicken breasts by HADH activity determination : Customized slope fitting and chemometrics
Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita ; Alewijn, Martin ; Weesepoel, Yannick ; Ruth, Saskia van - \ 2017
Meat Science 126 (2017). - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 43 - 49.
Adulteration - HADH - Multivariate statistics - Poultry - Slope fitting
Fresh/chilled chicken breasts retail at a higher price than their frozen/thawed counterparts. Verification of the fresh/thawed status of chicken meat is determined by measuring β-hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A-hydrogenase (HADH) activity present in meat intra-cellular liquids spectrophotometrically. However, considerable numbers of reference samples are required for the current arithmetic method, adding to laboratory costs. Therefore, two alternative mathematical approaches which do not require such reference samples were developed and evaluated: curve fitting and multivariate classification. The approaches were developed using 55 fresh/thawed fillet samples. The performance of the methods was examined by an independent validation set which consisted of 16 samples. Finally, the approach was tested in practice in a market study. With the exception of two minor false classifications, both newly proposed methods performed equally well as the classical method. All three methods were able to identify two apparent fraudulent cases in the market study. Therefore, the experiments showed that the costs of HADH measurements can be reduced by adapting alternative mathematics.
Applicability of PTR-MS in the quality control of saffron
Nenadis, Nikolaos ; Heenan, Samuel ; Tsimidou, Maria Z. ; Ruth, Saskia Van - \ 2016
Food Chemistry 196 (2016). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 961 - 967.
Adulteration - Bulk saffron adulterants - PTR-MS - Saffron - Saffron volatiles - Safranal
The applicability of the emerging non-destructive technique, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), was explored for the first time in the quality control of saffron. Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was achieved using a minute sample (35 mg). Fresh saffron was stored under selected conditions (25 and 40°C, aw = 0.64) over a five weeks period to produce lower quality material, which was used to prepare mixtures with fresh saffron. Analysis showed that the VOCs fingerprint changed upon storage, and the concentration of initially dominant VOC safranal decreased progressively. Examination of calculated and recorded fingerprints for various admixtures showed that PTR-MS VOCs analysis, in combination with chemometrics, could be used to screen for the presence of lower quality saffron in a commercial product in a few minutes. The technique can be used in a complementary fashion, adding to the battery of advanced analytical techniques available to address the quality and authenticity issues of saffron.
Targeted and Untargeted Detection of Skim Milk Powder Adulteration by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Capuano, Edoardo ; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita ; Koot, Alex ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
Food Analytical Methods 8 (2015)8. - ISSN 1936-9751 - p. 2125 - 2134.
Acid whey - Adulteration - Class modelling - Near-infrared spectroscopy - Skim milk powder - Starch
In the present study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was explored as a fast and reliable screening method for the detection of adulteration of skim milk powder (SMP). Sixty genuine SMP were adulterated with acid whey (1–25 % w/w), starch (2 and 5 %) and maltodextrin (2 and 5 %) for a total of 348 adulterated samples. Two chemometric approaches were employed. In the first approach, an untargeted one class model for genuine skim milk powder was developed by Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy. In the second approach, adulterant-specific regression models were developed to assess the amount of each adulterant by partial least square regression and principal component regression. The class modelling approach had the advantage that several adulterants could be detected with the same chemometric model, including situations where multiple adulterants are present in the test sample or where yet unknown adulterants are present. Regression models showed a better sensitivity with genuine SMP samples completely discriminated from samples adulterated with 5 % acid whey and 2 % of starch or maltodextrin. NIRS proved to be a useful tool for the rapid and cost-efficient untargeted and/or targeted detection of adulterations in SMP.