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Quantifying within-plant spatial heterogeneity in carbohydrate availability in cotton using a local-pool model
Gu, Shenghao ; Zhang, Lizhen ; Yan, Zhenzhen ; Werf, Wopke Van Der; Evers, Jochem B. - \ 2018
Annals of Botany 121 (2018)5. - ISSN 0305-7364 - p. 1005 - 1017.
allocation - Carbohydrate - fruit - Gossypium hirsutum L - local pool - phytomer
Background and Aims Within-plant spatial heterogeneity in the production of and demand for assimilates may have major implications for the formation of fruits. Spatial heterogeneity is related to organ age, but also to position on the plant. This study quantifies the variation in local carbohydrate availability for the phytomers in the same cohort using a cotton growth model that captures carbohydrate production in phytomers and carbohydrate movement between phytomers. Methods Based on field observations, we developed a functional-structural plant model of cotton that simulates production and storage of carbohydrates in individual phytomers and transport of surplus to other phytomers. Simulated total leaf area, total above-ground dry mass, dry mass distribution along the stem, and dry mass allocation fractions to each organ at the plant level were compared with field observations for plants grown at different densities. The distribution of local carbohydrate availability throughout the plant was characterized and a sensitivity analysis was conducted regarding the value of the carbohydrate transport coefficient. Key Results The model reproduced cotton leaf expansion and dry mass allocation across plant densities adequately. Individual leaf area was underestimated at very high plant densities. Best correspondence with measured plant traits was obtained for a value of the transport coefficient of 0.1 d -1. The simulated translocation of carbohydrates agreed well with results from C-labelling studies. Moreover, simulation results revealed the heterogeneous pattern of local carbohydrate availability over the plant as an emergent model property. Conclusions This modelling study shows how heterogeneity in local carbohydrate production within the plant structure in combination with limitations in transport result in heterogeneous satisfaction of demand over the plant. This model provides a tool to explore phenomena in cotton that are thought to be determined by local carbohydrate availability, such as branching pattern and fruit abortion in relation to climate and crop management.
Exergy efficiency from staple food ingredients to body metabolism : The case of carbohydrates
Rodriguez-Illera, Marta ; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V. ; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M. - \ 2017
Journal of Cleaner Production 142 (2017). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 4101 - 4113.
Bioavailability - Carbohydrate - Exergy - Food-chain - Glycemic index - Metabolism
One of the methods to evaluate the efficiency in the production of foods is using exergy, the share of useful energy, and exergy analysis. In this paper, we propose a link between exergy analysis and nutrition to account for the exergy efficiency (exergy of output per exergy of input) in the metabolism of nutrients from foods in the human body. For this, we analyzed the exergy efficiency of four different chains of carbohydrate-rich products based on semi-industrial preparation processes and we included nutrient bioavailability through the use of several bioavailability indicators, including the glycemic index and protein digestibility. The least exergy efficient chain changed when not only looking at the exergy losses of the food processing chains, but also including the bioavailability and conversion of nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main molecule for energy storage in the body. When including only the processing chain, white bread presented the highest exergy loss, whereas the lowest values pointed to the spaghetti chain when also including metabolism both because of its preprocessing chain and its low bioavailability. In contrast, cooked potatoes were found to be an efficient source of ATP due to both a high metabolic efficiency and low process exergy losses. The carbohydrate bioavailability had a strong influence on the overall exergy efficiency of the studied cases, which shows the importance of including bioavailability aspects in the sustainability assessment of industrial food processing chains.
Rhamnose synthase activity is required for pathogenicity of the vascular wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae
Santhanam, Partha ; Boshoven, Jordi C. ; Salas, Omar ; Bowler, Kyle ; Islam, M.T. ; Saber, Mojtaba Keykha ; Berg-Velthuis, Grardy van den; Bar-Peled, Maor ; Thomma, Bart P.H.J. - \ 2017
Molecular Plant Pathology 18 (2017)3. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 347 - 362.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) - Attachment - Carbohydrate - Root colonization - Tomato - UDP-rhamnose - Vascular wilt
The initial interaction of a pathogenic fungus with its host is complex and involves numerous metabolic pathways and regulatory proteins. Considerable attention has been devoted to proteins that play a crucial role in these interactions, with an emphasis on so-called effector molecules that are secreted by the invading microbe to establish the symbiosis. However, the contribution of other types of molecules, such as glycans, is less well appreciated. Here, we present a random genetic screen that enabled us to identify 58 novel candidate genes that are involved in the pathogenic potential of the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, which causes vascular wilt diseases in over 200 dicotyledonous plant species, including economically important crops. One of the candidate genes that was identified concerns a putative biosynthetic gene involved in nucleotide sugar precursor formation, as it encodes a putative nucleotide-rhamnose synthase/epimerase-reductase (NRS/ER). This enzyme has homology to bacterial enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the nucleotide sugar deoxy-thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-rhamnose, a precursor of L-rhamnose, which has been shown to be required for virulence in several human pathogenic bacteria. Rhamnose is known to be a minor cell wall glycan in fungi and has therefore not been suspected as a crucial molecule in fungal-host interactions. Nevertheless, our study shows that deletion of the VdNRS/ER gene from the V. dahliae genome results in complete loss of pathogenicity on tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants, whereas vegetative growth and sporulation are not affected. We demonstrate that VdNRS/ER is a functional enzyme in the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-rhamnose, and further analysis has revealed that VdNRS/ER deletion strains are impaired in the colonization of tomato roots. Collectively, our results demonstrate that rhamnose, although only a minor cell wall component, is essential for the pathogenicity of V. dahliae.
Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses
Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F.M. ; Dopheide, Janneke ; Geleijnse, Marianne ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Brink, Elizabeth J. ; Leeuw, Peter W. de; Baak, Marleen A. van - \ 2016
Physiological Reports 4 (2016)5. - ISSN 2051-817X - 10 p.
Acid load - Carbohydrate - Glomerular filtration rate - Kidney - Protein
Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function.
Effects of a high carbohydrate diet and arginine supplementation during the rearing period of gilts on osteochondrosis prevalence at slaughter
Koning, D.B. de; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Grevenhof, E.M. van; Weeren, P.R. van; Hazeleger, W. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2016
Livestock Science 188 (2016). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 91 - 102.
Arginine - Carbohydrate - Fat diet - Gilts - Osteochondrosis
Osteochondrosis (OC) is a consequence of necrotic growth cartilage formation early in life and suggested to be associated with lameness and premature culling of sows. Higher insulin, glucose, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with increased OC in horses and are affected by carbohydrates. If dietary composition can affect OC through metabolic parameters in sows, it could be a tool in practice to reduce OC prevalence. This study examined if OC prevalence in rearing gilts can be influenced by dietary carbohydrates and/or arginine by affecting IGF-1, insulin, glucose, and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Gilts (n=212; Dutch Large White x Dutch Landrace) were acquired after weaning (4 weeks of age). At 6 weeks of age, gilts were subjected to a 2×2 factorial treatment design of dietary carbohydrate and arginine level scale fed at pen level. Carbohydrate level consisted of 12.5% cornstarch and 12.5% dextrose added to a basal diet (C+) versus an isocaloric diet in which cornstarch and dextrose were replaced with 8.9% soya bean oil (C-). Arginine supplementation consisted of 0.8% arginine supplemented to a basal diet (A+) versus 1.64% alanine as the isonitrogenous control (A-). At 24 weeks of age, blood samples of in total 34 gilts around feeding were taken and assessed for insulin, glucose, IGF-1, and NO levels. After slaughter at 25 weeks of age, OC was scored on the elbow, knee, and hock joints. Gilts in the C- treatment had higher glucose and insulin levels 90 min after feeding onwards and higher IGF-1 levels than gilts in the C+ treatment (P