Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Determinants of cooperative pig farmers' safe production behaviour in China — Evidences from perspective of cooperatives' services
Ji, Chen ; Chen, Qin ; Trienekens, Jacques ; Wang, Hai Tao - \ 2018
Journal of Integrative Agriculture 17 (2018)10. - ISSN 2095-3119 - p. 2345 - 2355.
China - farmer cooperative - farmers' safe production behaviour - pig sector

Farmers' production behaviour is a key to ensuring the safety and quality of their final products, and cooperatives play an important role in shaping that behaviour. This paper aims to explore the determinants of pig farmers' safe production behaviour, giving special focus from the perspective of cooperatives' services. This study adopted cross sectional survey data from 27 pig cooperatives and their 540 farmers in China to test the influence of cooperatives' services on farmers' safe production behaviour. The hypotheses were tested using a logit regression model. The findings indicated that although the number of services is not a key determinant of farmers' safe production behaviour, service quality matters. When a cooperative is strongly capable of involving more farmers in certain services, and provides certain services in more frequency, member farmers behave more safely. The results also show that veterinarian and pig-selling services play an important role in ensuring farmers' safe production behaviour. For this study, the quality of cooperatives' services is implied to have a positive impact on farmers' safe production behaviour. Leaders/managers of cooperatives must try to improve the quality of their services instead of merely attempting to provide a large number of services. For government officials and policy makers, designing policies that encourage cooperatives to improve their service quality is important. This research contributes to the scant literature on how cooperative services could help farmers engage in safer production behaviour, which would improve the safety of pork products in the future.

Does certified food production reduce agro chemical use in China?
Nie, Zihan ; Heerink, Nico ; Tu, Qin ; Jin, Shuqin - \ 2018
China Agricultural Economic Review 10 (2018)3. - ISSN 1756-137X - p. 386 - 405.
China - Fertilizer - Food certification - Pesticide

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of adopting certified food production on chemical fertilizer and pesticide use in China. Design/methodology/approach: The authors estimate fixed effect models to track the changes in agro chemical consumption at household level over time and evaluate the effect of certified food production, using an unbalanced panel data set covering 4,830 households in six provinces over the period 2005–2013. Findings: On average, the authors do not find significant effects of certified food production on either chemical fertilizer or pesticide consumption among Chinese farmers. The effects are heterogeneous across villages, but the heterogeneous effects show no clear pattern that is consistent with different types of certification. The findings are robust to the use of alternative panel structure and certification indicators. The lack of knowledge about certification among farmers, the price premium and differences in regulation enforcement across regions may explain why the authors do not find negative effects on agro chemical use. Practical implications: This study suggests that careful inspections and strong enforcement of certified food production is needed to ensure that the environmental goals of certified food production can be achieved and the reputation of certification in China can be improved. The inspection of certification producers and the enforcement of current regulations should be stricter for the further healthy development of certified food production in China. Originality/value: This study is the first attempt to systematically evaluate the impact of food certification on the use of agro chemicals in Chinese agriculture.

What drives public acceptance of chemical industrial park policy and project in China?
He, Guizhen ; Boas, Ingrid J.C. ; Mol, Arthur P.J. ; Lu, Yonglong - \ 2018
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 138 (2018). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 1 - 12.
Chemical industrial park - China - Industrial policy - Public acceptance

Chemical industrial park (CIP) policy is becoming a vital national strategy of circular economy in China and a means to enhance energy and resource efficiency, environmental performance, and economic competitiveness. It also aims to avoid environmental risks of the decentralized chemical plants that have been a subject of public protests as local citizens’ fear for chemical pollution and human's health. Public acceptance is therefore a major factor determining the success of CIP policy and project. This paper aims to investigate what drives public acceptance and rejection of chemical industrial park policies and projects in China. Our focus is on citizens in three coastal cities located in high environmental and risk sensitive areas: Dalian at Liaoning Province, Maoming at Guangdong Province, and Xiamen at Fujian Province. This is where several chemical industrial parks are (proposed) located. Based on surveys in these three representative cities, we have examined the nature and level of public acceptance towards chemical industrial park policies and projects. Results show that respondents were more positive towards the national policy, but more negative of CIP policy at the city and project level. Public acceptance of CIP policy and project was significantly influenced by factors including income, environmental value, perceived risks, procedural justice, distributive justice, benefits of CIP, and the residential distance to a CIP project. The identified factors provide a basis for anticipating and understanding likely public acceptance and should be considered in decision-making of CIP policy and project.

New geographical insights of the latest expansion of fusarium oxysporum f.Sp. Cubense tropical race 4 into the greater mekong subregion
Zheng, Si Jun ; García-Bastidas, Fernando A. ; Li, Xundong ; Zeng, Li ; Bai, Tingting ; Xu, Shengtao ; Yin, Kesuo ; Li, Hongxiang ; Fu, Gang ; Yu, Yanchun ; Yang, Liu ; Nguyen, Huy Chung ; Douangboupha, Bounneuang ; Khaing, Aye Aye ; Drenth, Andre ; Seidl, Michael F. ; Meijer, Harold J.G. ; Kema, Gert H.J. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
China - Fusarium wilt - Laos - Myanmar - Phytogeography - Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) - The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) - Vietnam
Banana is the most popular and most exported fruit and also a major food crop for millions of people around the world. Despite its importance and the presence of serious disease threats, research into this crop is limited. One of those is Panama disease or Fusarium wilt. In the previous century Fusarium wilt wiped out the “Gros Michel” based banana industry in Central America. The epidemic was eventually quenched by planting “Cavendish” bananas. However, 50 years ago the disease recurred, but now on “Cavendish” bananas. Since then the disease has spread across South-East Asia, to the Middle-East and the Indian subcontinent and leaped into Africa. Here, we report the presence of Fusariumoxysporumf.sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) in “Cavendish” plantations in Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam. A combination of classical morphology, DNA sequencing, and phenotyping assays revealed a very close relationship between the Foc TR4 strains in the entire Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), which is increasingly prone to intensive banana production. Analyses of single-nucleotide polymorphisms enabled us to initiate a phylogeography of Foc TR4 across three geographical areas—GMS, Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East revealing three distinct Foc TR4 sub-lineages. Collectively, our data place these new incursions in a broader agroecological context and underscore the need for awareness campaigns and the implementation of validated quarantine measures to prevent further international dissemination of Foc TR4.
Liberalizing rural-to-urban construction land transfers in China : Distribution effects
Tan, Rong ; Wang, Rongyu ; Heerink, Nico - \ 2018
China Economic Review (2018). - ISSN 1043-951X
China - Distribution - Land market - Tradable quotas
China's land market is characterized by a dual urban-rural system, with the government in control of rural-urban land transfers. In recent years, different types of pilot projects have been implemented to experiment with liberalizing markets for rural-urban construction land transfers. The objective of this study is to gain insights into the distributional effects of three different types of land liberalization rules by making a comparative analysis of three pilot projects carried out under each of these liberalization rules. We find that transfers facing more liberalized rules result in higher shares of land revenue flowing to the rural sector and thereby reduce the ruralurban income gap. But direct transfers between rural and urban land users also contribute to growing income inequality within the rural sector, as households living in urban fringes benefit relatively more from such transfers. A tradable quota system can reduce the impact of location on the price of land, and thereby contribute to a more equal distribution of the revenues of rural-urban land transfers within the rural sector.
How do land rental markets affect household income? Evidence from rural Jiangsu, P.R. China
Zhang, Lan ; Feng, Shuyi ; Heerink, Nico ; Qu, Futian ; Kuyvenhoven, Arie - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 74 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 151 - 165.
China - Household income - Income components - Income distribution - Land rental market - Quantile regression
The development of land rental markets in developing countries attracts much attention, but little is known about its impact on household income. This study empirically examines the effects of land rental decisions of farm households on their income and income components, i.e. farm, off-farm and transfer income, taking into account potential endogeneity of land rental decisions. Rural household survey data for 1080 households in 128 villages in Jiangsu Province, China are used to estimate these effects. Quantile regressions are used to examine to what extent effects differ between income groups. Results indicate that lessor households surprisingly obtain lower total income as compared to autarkic households. Among the lessee households, who gain on average from land rentals, the lower income groups obtain the largest total income gains. As to the sources of income, no significant differences in off-farm income between transacting households (i.e. lessee or lessor households) and autarkic households are found while differences in farm income between transacting households are as expected. Transfer income of lessor households is significantly lower than that of autarkic households. We explain these findings from some typical features of the rural land rental market in China and discuss the policy implications.
The traditional Chinese philosophies in inter-cultural leadership : The case of Chinese expatriate managers in the Dutch context
Lin, Li ; Li, Peter Ping ; Roelfsema, Hein - \ 2018
Cross Cultural and Strategic Management 25 (2018)2. - ISSN 2059-5794 - p. 299 - 336.
China - Confucianism - Daoism - Dutch - Expatriate leadership - Legalism
Purpose: As the global presence of Chinese firms grows, increasing numbers of Chinese managers are working abroad as expatriates. However, little attention has been paid to such Chinese expatriate managers and their leadership challenges in an inter-cultural context, especially across a large cultural distance. To fill the gap in the literature concerning the leadership challenges for expatriate managers in an inter-cultural context, the purpose of this paper is to elucidate the leadership styles of Chinese expatriate managers from the perspectives of three traditional Chinese philosophies (i.e. Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism) in the inter-cultural context of the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach: The data for this qualitative study were collected via semi-structured, open-ended, narrative interviews with 30 Chinese expatriate managers in the Netherlands. Findings: The results clearly show that the leadership style of Chinese expatriate managers is deeply rooted in the three traditional Chinese philosophies of Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism, even in an inter-cultural context. Specifically, the study reveals two salient aspects of how Chinese expatriate managers frame and interact with a foreign cultural context from the perspectives of traditional Chinese philosophies. First, the Chinese expatriate managers reported an initial cultural shock related to frictions between the foreign cultural context and Confucianism or Taoism, but less so in the case of Legalism. Second, the Chinese expatriate managers also reported that their interactions with the Dutch culture are best described as a balance between partial conflict and partial complementarity (thus, a duality). In this sense, the leadership style of Chinese expatriate managers is influenced jointly by the three traditional Chinese philosophies and certain elements of the foreign cultural context. This is consistent with the Chinese perspective of yin-yang balancing. Originality/value: This study is among the first to offer a more nuanced and highly contextualized understanding of leadership in the unique case of expatriate managers from an emerging market (e.g. China) in an advanced economy (e.g. the Netherlands). The authors call for more research to apply the unique perspective of yin-yang balancing in an inter-cultural context. The authors posit that this approach represents the most salient implication of this study. For practical implications, the authors argue that expatriate leaders should carefully manage the interplay between their deep-rooted home-country philosophies and their salient host-country culture. Reflecting on traditional philosophies in another culture can facilitate inter-cultural leadership training for Chinese expatriates.
Mitigating land pollution through pesticide packages – The case of a collection scheme in Rural China
Jin, Shuqin ; Bluemling, Bettina ; Mol, Arthur P.J. - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 622-623 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 502 - 509.
China - Institutional arrangement - Land pollution - Packaging waste - Pesticides - Waste collection
Pesticide packages that are discarded on agricultural land can contaminate water bodies and pose a threat to the environment and human health. Little is known about how developing countries deal with this kind of land pollution. While in developed countries, packages are collected by professional organizations, the smallholder context in developing countries makes the collection of this waste much more difficult. This paper introduces and analyses a successful Pesticide Package Collection Scheme in one of the poorest regions in China, i.e. Guangxi Province. The purpose of the paper is to analyze and discuss how such a scheme can be established by multiple actors. The paper finds that the underlying success factors for establishing such a scheme are 1.) that a scheme piggy-bags on existing economic structures that reach out to farmers (e.g. associations); 2.) that the scheme itself facilitates actors' exchange of resources to establish a temporary resource equilibrium; 3.) that all stakeholders obtain returns on their investment, even if the quality and time scale of these returns may differ. The initiation of the scheme by a pesticide company however increased both its political and market influence. Caution hence has to be paid to whether the short-term improvement in land pollution happens at the expense of a dependency on and increased use of certain kinds of pesticides.
Vertical coordination and cooperative member benefits : Case studies of four dairy farmers' cooperatives in China
Zhong, Zhen ; Zhang, Chen ; Jia, Fu ; Bijman, Jos - \ 2018
Journal of Cleaner Production 172 (2018). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 2266 - 2277.
Agricultural cooperatives - Case studies - China - Dairy industry - Member benefits - Vertical coordination
Agricultural cooperatives have grown exponentially in the past few decades. There is anecdotal evidence showing that vertical coordination of cooperatives with upstream and downstream supply chain bring benefits to cooperative members; however this relationship is far from clear. In particular, the common measurements for member benefits may not accurately represent cooperative practice in the literature. To fill this gap and using an ethnographic multiple case study method, 32 interviews were carried out with four dairy cooperatives in China. It is found that (1) there is a linear relationship between vertical coordination and cooperative performance; (2) Vertical coordination is associated with benefits distribution within the dairy cooperative, showing an inverted U-shaped relationship; (3) Member benefits are a function of both cooperative performance and benefits distribution.
Cooperative membership and farmers’ choice of marketing channels – Evidence from apple farmers in Shaanxi and Shandong Provinces, China
Hao, Jinghui ; Bijman, Jos ; Gardebroek, Cornelis ; Heerink, Nico ; Heijman, Wim ; Huo, Xuexi - \ 2018
Food Policy 74 (2018). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 53 - 64.
China - Cooperative membership - Endogenous switching probit model - Marketing channels
Cooperatives are established to improve farmers' production conditions, to increase their bargaining power and to enable them to benefit from modern value chains. In China, farmers are members of a cooperative for multiple reasons. Little is known on whether and how cooperative membership affects farmers’ choice of marketing channels. This paper examines determinants of farmers’ choice of marketing channels, especially how cooperative membership impacts upon this choice. Our analysis is based on survey data collected in 2015 among 625 apple growing farm households in the provinces Shaanxi and Shandong. We employ endogenous switching probit models to deal with potential endogeneity of membership in estimating the determinants of marketing channel choices. We find that cooperative membership has a positive impact on selling to wholesalers and a negative impact on selling to small dealers, but no significant impact on selling to the cooperative itself. As products sold through cooperatives generally comply with relatively stringent food quality and safety standards, these results imply that policies promoting cooperative members to sell their products through cooperatives are likely to have a significant impact on food quality and food safety in China.
Post-disaster aid and development of the manufacturing sector : Lessons from a natural experiment in China
Bulte, Erwin ; Xu, Lihe ; Zhang, Xiaobo - \ 2018
European Economic Review 101 (2018). - ISSN 0014-2921 - p. 441 - 458.
Aid - China - Dutch disease - Growth
We adopt a disaggregate approach to study the link between aid and Dutch Disease dynamics, using a natural experiment in China. Specifically, we examine whether post-disaster aid provided to a subsample of Chinese counties, devastated by an earthquake in 2008, affects the sectoral composition of local economies. Using different methods we consistently find that counties receiving (more) aid — even “nearby counties” not directly damaged by the earthquake — tend to suffer from a contraction of the manufacturing sector. Innovative features of the paper include its regional perspective; its identification strategy (resting on a special provision in Chinese policy—pairwise aid); and its focus on Dutch disease effects in the context of post-disaster aid.
More money, better performance? The effects of student loans and need-based grants in China's higher education
Huang, Wei ; Li, Fan ; Liao, Xiaowei ; Hu, Pingping - \ 2018
China Economic Review 51 (2018). - ISSN 1043-951X - p. 208 - 227.
China - Financial aid - Higher education - Need-based grants - Student achievement - Student loans

The goal of this study is to examine the effect of student loans and need-based grants on financially disadvantaged student academic performance in China's higher education. We used a large sampled data from 101 universities to conduct our study. By employing different matching methods, we found that receiving a student loan did not improve student academic performance, but slightly increased students' likelihood of doing a part-time job. Likewise, receiving a need-based grant had no significant effect on student academic performance. We argue that current financial aid programs do not yield any measurable improvement on student performance. Reform and more rigorous evaluations are needed to design an effective financial aid program to promote the development of higher education in China.

Modeling soil acidification in typical Chinese cropping systems
Zhu, Qichao ; Liu, Xuejun ; Hao, Tianxiang ; Zeng, Mufan ; Shen, Jianbo ; Zhang, Fusuo ; Vries, Wim De - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 613-614 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1339 - 1348.
China - Cropland - Mitigation - Scenarios - Soil acidification - VSD + model

We applied the adapted model VSD + to assess cropland acidification in four typical Chinese cropping systems (single Maize (M), Wheat-Maize (W-M), Wheat-Rice (W-R) and Rice-Rice (R-R)) on dominant soils in view of its potential threat to grain production. By considering the current situation and possible improvements in field (nutrient) management, five scenarios were designed: i) Business as usual (BAU); ii) No nitrogen (N) fertilizer increase after 2020 (N2020); iii) 100% crop residues return to cropland (100%RR); iv) manure N was applied to replace 30% of chemical N fertilizer (30%MR) and v) Integrated N2020 and 30%MR with 100%RR after 2020 (INMR). Results illustrated that in the investigated calcareous soils, the calcium carbonate buffering system can keep pH at a high level for > 150 years. In non-calcareous soils, a moderate to strong decline in both base saturation and pH is predicted for the coming decades in the BAU scenario. We predicted that approximately 13% of the considered croplands may suffer from Al toxicity in 2050 following the BAU scenario. The N2020, 100%RR and 30%MR scenarios reduce the acidification rates by 16%, 47% and 99%, respectively, compared to BAU. INMR is the most effective strategy on reducing acidification and leads to no Al toxicity in croplands in 2050. Both improved manure and field management are required to manage acidification in wheat-maize cropping system.

How China's nitrogen footprint of food has changed from 1961 to 2010
Guo, Mengchu ; Chen, Xiaohui ; Bai, Zhaohai ; Jiang, Rongfeng ; Galloway, James N. ; Leach, Allison M. ; Cattaneo, Lia R. ; Oenema, Oene ; Ma, Lin ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)10. - ISSN 1748-9318
China - Nitrogen footprint - nitrogen losses - virtual nitrogen factor
People have increased the amount of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment as a result of food production methods and consumption choices. However, the connection between dietary choices and environmental impacts over time has not yet been studied in China. Here we combine a nitrogen footprint tool, the N-Calculator, with a food chain model, NUFER (NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use), to analyze the N footprint of food in China. We use the NUFER model to provide a detailed estimation of the amounts and forms of Nr released to the environment during food production, which is then used to calculate virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs, unit: kg N released/kg N in product) of major food items. The food N footprint consists of the food consumption N footprint and food production N footprint. The average per capita food N footprint increased from 4.7 kg N capita-1 yr-1 in the 1960s to 21 kg N capita-1 yr-1 in the 2000s, and the national food N footprint in China increased from 3.4 metric tons (MT) N yr-1 in the 1960s to 28 MT N yr-1 in the 2000s. The proportion of the food N footprint that is animal-derived increased from 37% to 54% during this period. The food production N footprint accounted for 84% of the national food N footprint in the 2000s, compared to 62% in the 1960s. More Nr has been added to the food production systems to produce enough food for a growing population that is increasing its per-capita food consumption. The increasing VNFs in China indicate that an increasing amount of Nr is being lost per unit of N embedded in food products consumed by humans in the past five decades. National N losses from food production increased from 6 MT N yr-1 in the 1960s to 23 MT N yr-1 in the 2000s. N was lost to the environment in four ways: ammonia (NH3) emissions and dinitrogen (N2) emissions through denitrification (each account for nearly 40%), N losses to water systems (20%), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (1%). The average per capita food N footprint in China is relatively high compared with those of developed countries in the 2000s. To reduce the food N footprint in China, it is important to both reduce the Nr losses during food production and encourage diets associated with a lower N footprint, such as shifting towards a more plant-based diet.
The development of biodiversity conservation measures in China's hydro projects : A review
Bai, Ruiqiao ; Liu, Xuehua ; Liu, Xiaofei ; Liu, Lanmei ; Wang, Jianping ; Liao, Sihui ; Zhu, Annah ; Li, Zhouyan - \ 2017
Environment International 108 (2017). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 285 - 298.
Biodiversity conservation - China - Hydropower - Policy - Research

The hydropower capacity of China ranks first in the world and accounts for approximately 20% of the total energy production in the country. While hydropower has substantially contributed to meeting China's renewable energy targets and providing clean energy to rural areas, the development of hydropower in China has been met with significant controversy. Ecologically, hydro projects alter the landscape, with potential impacts to the country's aquatic biodiversity. Over the past four decades in China, various mainstream opinions and misunderstandings have been presented concerning how to alleviate the negative impacts of hydro projects on aquatic ecosystems. This article reviews research concerning potential mitigation measures to enhance aquatic biodiversity conservation in hydro projects in China. Based on the academic attention such research has attracted, three technical measures for aquatic biodiversity conservation are considered: (1) fish passages, (2) restocking efforts and (3) river and lake renovations. This article provides a historical comparison of these three practices in China to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The article also reviews the relevant legislation, regulations and technical guidelines concerning China's hydro projects dating back to 1979. The dynamics in research, publications, and patents concerning these three mitigation measures are summarized to demonstrate their technological developments in the context of legislative and policy advances. Data were gathered through the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database and the State Intellectual Property Office of the People's Republic of China. Based on the analysis provided, the article recommends an expansion of China's environmental certification system for hydro projects, more robust regional legislation to bolster the national framework, the cooperation between upstream and downstream conservation mechanisms, and better monitoring to determine the efficacy of mitigation measures.

Reactive nitrogen losses from China's food system for the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs)
Wang, Mengru ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Strokal, Maryna ; Ma, Lin - \ 2017
Science of the Total Environment 605-606 (2017). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 884 - 893.
China - Food system - Reactive nitrogen losses - Scenarios - Shared socioeconomic pathways

Food production in China has been changing fast as a result of socio-economic development. This resulted in an increased use of nitrogen (N) in food production, and also to increased reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses to the environment, causing nitrogen pollution. Our study is the first to quantify future Nr losses from China's food system for the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). We show that Nr losses differ largely among SSPs. We first qualitatively described the five SSP storylines for China with a focus on food production and consumption. Next, we interpreted these SSP scenarios quantitatively for 2030 and 2050, using the NUFER (NUtrient Flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use) model to project the Nr losses from China's food system. The results indicate that Nr losses from future food system in China are relatively low for SSP1 and SSP2, and relatively high for SSP3 and SSP4. In SSP5 Nr losses from China's food system are projected to be slightly lower than the level of today.

Environmental Information Disclosure in China : in the Era of Informatization and Big Data
Zhang, L. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Yang, Shuai - \ 2017
Frontiers of Law in China 12 (2017)1. - ISSN 1673-3428 - p. 57 - 75.
informatization - China - environmental information disclosure - big data
The past decade has seen remarkable progress made in the field of environmental information disclosure in China. While the overall institutional changes and the motivation/willingness of the government to open up information are important conditions, China’s encounter with revolutionary Information and Communication Technological (ICT) advancement and rapidly emerging big data quickly changed China from an “information poor environment” to an “information complex environment.” While most previous studies centered on those drives/constraints that were recognized in established informational governance framework, recent advancement in ICTs and emerging big data posed new challenges, opportunities and research questions. When increasing information disclosure became a new game changer in environmental governance, China has had to cope with risks and pitfalls in a new technology-empowered information environment as well. This article updated previous studies on legislation/regulations/policies regarding environmental information disclosure in China and their implementation effectiveness, and paid special attention to China’s recent informatization progress and emerging big data. Information disclosure was treated as a process that includes data/information generation/collection, disclosure, functional pathways of communication, and direct/indirect impacts. Changes in environmental information disclosure should be understood in a broader context of overall changing environmental governance and informatization in China. It is important to understand ICTs and information disclosure as a double-edged sword. Normative, substantive, and instrumental benefits of disclosure as well as collection and reporting costs, the issue of targeted transparency, and the risk of unintended use should be strategically considered. Principles and guidelines need to be developed to avoid pitfalls while maximizing benefits.
Public and self-organized land readjustment in rural China − A comparison
Tan, Rong ; Heerink, Nico - \ 2017
Journal of Rural Studies 53 (2017). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 45 - 57.
China - Eminent domain - Land readjustment - Self-organization - Transaction costs
The role of land readjustment for urban and rural development has attracted more and more attention worldwide. Research on how land readjustment can be organized most effectively, however, is still in its infancy. This paper firstly develops a framework for comparing different organization modes of land readjustment based on transaction cost economics. It then introduces and compares two different modes of land readjustment that have recently been developed in China, i.e., a public mode and a self-organized mode. We argue, and provide evidence from two case studies in Zhejiang Province and in Sichuan Province, that the (mis)fit between the transaction attributes of land readjustment and the adopted readjustment mode greatly affects their performance. Our findings are intended to serve as a reference both for further research and for policy making on land readjustment.
Reducing future river export of nutrients to coastal waters of China in optimistic scenarios
Strokal, Maryna ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Wang, Mengru ; Ma, Lin - \ 2017
Science of the Total Environment 579 (2017). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 517 - 528.
Animal manure recycling - China - Current policy - Optimistic scenarios - River export of dissolved N and P - Sewage control

Coastal waters of China are rich in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and thus often eutrophied. This is because rivers export increasing amounts of nutrients to coastal seas. Animal production and urbanization are important sources of nutrients in Chinese rivers. In this study we explored the future from an optimistic perspective. We present two optimistic scenarios for 2050 (OPT-1 and OPT-2) for China. Maximized recycling of manure on land in OPT-1 and OPT-2, and strict sewage control in OPT-2 (e.g., all sewage is collected and treated efficiently) are essential nutrient strategies in these scenarios. We also analyzed the effect of the current policy plans aiming at “Zero Growth in Synthetic Fertilizers after 2020” (the CP scenario). We used the MARINA (a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs) model to quantify dissolved N and P export by Chinese rivers to the Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea and South China Sea and the associated coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The Global Orchestration (GO) scenario of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was used as a basis. GO projects increases in river export of dissolved N and P (up to 90%) between 2000 and 2050 and thus a high potential for coastal eutrophication (ICEP > 0). In contrast, the potential for coastal eutrophication is low in optimistic scenarios (ICEP

Living under the dome : Individual strategies against air pollution in Beijing
Johnson, Thomas ; Mol, Arthur P.J. ; Zhang, Lei ; Yang, Shuai - \ 2017
Habitat International 59 (2017). - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 110 - 117.
Air pollution - China - Health risk - Inverted quarantine: Individualization

Although poor air quality has been a fact of life for millions of Chinese citizens for at least two decades, individual actions to alleviate the impact of air pollution are a more recent phenomenon. Anecdotal evidence suggests that individualized responses to environmental risks and threats, which Andrew Szasz (2007) termed “inverted quarantine,” are becoming increasingly common in China. However, there is little indication about how far inverted quarantine prevails. To address this gap, in 2015 we surveyed over 1000 Beijing residents into strategies for coping with air pollution. The results are partly consistent with other findings in relation to food safety, providing further evidence of the prevalence of inverted quarantine in response to public health risks in contemporary China. Our empirical evidence also shows public skepticism about the efficacy of individualized solutions to ambient air pollution. Without a serious preventive alternative, inverted quarantine is, at best, a temporary expedient.

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