Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==Contaminants
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Tolerance and excretion of the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A by alphitobius diaperinus and hermetia illucens from contaminated substrates
Camenzuli, Louise ; Dam, Ruud van; Rijk, Theo de; Andriessen, Rob ; Schelt, Jeroen van; Fels-Klerx, H.J.I. van der - \ 2018
Toxins 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 2072-6651
Alphitobius diaperinus - Bioaccumulation - Black soldier fly - Contaminants - Excretion - Feed safety - Food safety - Hermetia illucens - Insects - Lesser mealworm
This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P1, aflatoxin Q1, and aflatoxin M1, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and α- and β-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required.
A model for risk-based monitoring of contaminants in feed ingredients
Fels, Ine van der; Adamse, P. ; Jong, J. de; Hoogenboom, R. ; Nijs, M. de; Bikker, P. - \ 2017
Food Control 72 (2017)part B. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 211 - 218.
Compound feed - Contaminants - Dioxins - Feed ingredients - Food/feed safety - Risk based monitoring

A qualitative spreadsheet model has been developed for ranking feed ingredients on the basis of the potential risk of exceeding existing guidance or maximum levels in the EU for a certain contaminant, and the potential consequence of the presence of this contaminant on the health of animals and/or humans. The approach was based on the general concept of risk, being frequency times consequences of presence of the contaminant. Contamination of compound feeds due to presence of the contaminant in feed ingredients was estimated, per animal category, by: annual volumes of feed ingredients used for feed production, stratified per country of origin; the portion of each ingredient in compound feed formulations used for various animal categories; and the potential contamination of an ingredient per country of origin. The consequences of the contamination were accounted for by two consequence factors, both estimated per animal category: one for the potential impact of the contaminant on the health of the target animal, and one for the impact on human health, related to the possible formation of residues in animal derived food products.The use of the model was demonstrated by its application to the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in compound feed for farm animals produced in the Netherlands in 2013 and 2014. Model results include the relative contribution, based on relative ranking scores, of each feed ingredient to the chance of exceeding limits and potential consequences on animal and human health. Feed ingredients ranking highest were palm oil, other fats and oils, dried products like bakery products, sunflower expeller/extracted, maize, and fish meal.The model can be used by risk managers in feed industry and by governmental bodies for supporting decision making on the optimal allocation of resources for control of ingredients for compound feed production for presence of contaminants.

Low organotin contamination of harbour sediment in Svalbard
Den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J. van; Szczybelski, Ariadna S. ; Den Brink, Nico W. van; Kotterman, Michiel J.J. ; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F. ; Evenset, Anita ; Murk, Albertinka J. - \ 2016
Polar Biology 39 (2016)10. - ISSN 0722-4060 - p. 1699 - 1709.
Arctic - Contaminants - Kongsfjorden - Pollution - Sediment - Shipping - Spitsbergen - TBT

Arctic sea routes are opening up for maritime transport due to sea ice retreat leading to increasing human activities in the Arctic and concomitant pressures on the environment. Organotin compounds are used in antifouling paints of large seagoing vessels and are known to leach into the marine environment and accumulate in sediments and biota. As organotin levels in Svalbard sediments have not been documented in peer-reviewed literature before, this study describes the levels in sediment of harbours around Svalbard (Ny-Ålesund, Longyearbyen, Svea, Pyramiden and Barentsburg). Organotin levels in sediments of Svalbard harbours were low (below the detection limit up to 14 ng Sn/g dw sum-butyltin) compared to other Arctic regions with a longer history of shipping. Levels were below known no effect levels and in accordance, no imposex was found in marine whelks from Ny-Ålesund harbour. Of all other analysed compounds in sediments of Kongsfjorden (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated compounds) PAH levels were highest and in one sample above action levels. It is advised to continue monitoring contaminant levels, for which the current results form a good basis. If contaminant levels rise, mitigation measures can be taken in time.

Analytical techniques combined with chemometrics for authentication and determination of contaminants in condiments : A review
Reinholds, Ingars ; Bartkevics, Vadims ; Silvis, Isabelle C.J. ; Ruth, Saskia M. van; Esslinger, Susanne - \ 2015
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 44 (2015). - ISSN 0889-1575 - p. 56 - 72.
Contaminants - Food analysis - Food fraud - Food safety and quality - Herbs - Multivariate analysis - Spices - Targeted and non-targeted methods

Spices and herbs play an important role as flavorings, colorants, and also as bioactive compounds used in medicine and cosmetics. The presence of common contaminants, e.g., mycotoxins, pesticide residues, heavy metals, and the adulterants, e.g., azo dyes, filth and extraneous matter have been permanently monitored in condiments in order to control their quality, compliance to market, and safety to human health. The present paper shows a comprehensive overview of the analytical methods, based on the modern instrumental techniques and the most perspective statistical tools, based on univariate and multivariate (chemometrics) statistics, used for qualitative and quantitative determination of contaminant levels and for the authentication issues of different spices and herbs, discriminated by their geographic or biological origin. The review comprises more than sixty studies covering the last decade, describing the benefits of different analytical methods including multidimensional (non-targeted and targeted) approaches combined with multivariate chemometric techniques for the assessment of contaminants in spices and herbs in relation to research of their safety and quality issues. The methods based on multivariate data description and regression techniques are among the most promising techniques for the authentication of spices/herbs and determination of their contamination or adulteration risks with potential hazards.

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