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Systematic Review of Methods to Determine the Cost-Effectiveness of Monitoring Plans for Chemical and Biological Hazards in the Life Sciences
Focker, M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2018
Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 17 (2018)3. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 633 - 645.
Cost-effectiveness - Food safety - Hazards - Models - Monitoring
This study reviews the methods used to determine the cost-effectiveness of monitoring plans for hazards in animals (diseases), plants (pests), soil, water, food, and animal feed, and assesses their applicability to food safety hazards. The review describes the strengths and weaknesses of each method, provides examples of different applications, and concludes with comments about their applicability to food safety. A systematic literature search identified publications assessing the cost-effectiveness of monitoring plans in the life sciences. Publications were classified into 4 groups depending on their subject: food safety, environmental hazards, animal diseases, or pests. Publications were reviewed according to the type of model and input data used, and the types of costs included. Three types of models were used: statistical models, simulation models, and optimization models. Input data were either experimental, historical, or simulated data. Publications differed according to the costs included. More than half the publications only included monitoring costs, whereas other publications included monitoring and management costs, or all costs and benefits. Only a few publications were found in the food safety category and all were relatively recent studies. This suggests that cost-effectiveness analysis of monitoring strategies in food safety is just starting and more research is needed to improve the cost-effectiveness of monitoring hazards in foods.
The status of biological control and recommendations for improving uptake for the future
Barratt, B.I.P. ; Moran, V.C. ; Bigler, F. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2018
BioControl 63 (2018)1. - ISSN 1386-6141 - p. 155 - 167.
Access and benefit-sharing - Biological control - Communication - Cost-effectiveness - IPM - Research approach - Risk assessment
Classical and augmentative biological control of insect pests and weeds has enjoyed a long history of successes. However, biocontrol practices have not been as universally accepted or optimally utilised as they could be. An International Organisation for Biological Control (IOBC) initiative brought together practitioners and researchers from widely diverse fields to identify the main limitations to biocontrol uptake and to recommend means of mitigation. Limitations to uptake included: risk averse and unwieldy regulatory processes; increasingly bureaucratic barriers to access to biocontrol agents; insufficient engagement and communication with the public, stakeholders, growers and politicians of the considerable economic benefits of biocontrol; and fragmentation of biocontrol sub-disciplines. In this contribution we summarise a range of recommendations for the future that emphasise the need for improved communication of economic, environmental and social successes and benefits of biological control for insect pests, weeds and plant diseases, targeting political, regulatory, grower/land manager and other stakeholder interests. Political initiatives in some countries which augur well for biocontrol in the future are discussed.
Effective sampling strategy to detect food and feed contamination : Herbs and spices case
Bouzembrak, Yamine ; Fels, Ine van der - \ 2018
Food Control 83 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 28 - 37.
Cost-effectiveness - Heterogeneous contamination - Sampling protocol - Simulation
Sampling plans for food safety hazards are aimed to be used to determine whether a lot of food is contaminated (with microbiological or chemical hazards) or not. One of the components of sampling plans is the sampling strategy. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three different sampling strategies, being simple random sampling (SRS), stratified random sampling (STRS), and systematic sampling (SS), with each other for their probability of detecting a heterogeneously distributed contamination in a lot of herbs or spices (i.e., a dry food product). To this end, a simulation model was developed, and applied to different scenarios for contamination level and numbers of samples collected. In addition, as a case study, the sampling plan of a company processing herbs and spices was evaluated using the simulation model. Results showed that the effectiveness of the sampling plan is influenced by the sampling strategy. With expected low contamination levels the SS strategy performs better than the two other strategies. At higher expected contaminated levels, the STRS strategy is preferred.
Cost-effectiveness of mass dog rabies vaccination strategies to reduce human health burden in Flores Island, Indonesia
Wera, Ewaldus ; Mourits, Monique C.M. ; Hogeveen, Henk - \ 2017
Vaccine 35 (2017)48. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 6727 - 6736.
Cost-effectiveness - Dog - Post-exposure treatment - Rabies - Vaccination strategies - Years of life lost
The cost-effectiveness of different mass dog rabies vaccination strategies, defined as the costs per year of life lost (YLL) averted was evaluated for a period of 10 years by means of a dynamic simulation study for a typical village on Flores Island.In the base strategy (no dog vaccination and no post-exposure treatment (PET) of human bite cases), the model showed that the introduction of the virus by one infectious dog into an isolated village with 1500 inhabitants and 400 dogs resulted in 881 YLLs during a 10-year simulation period, which is equivalent to 30 human rabies cases. An annual dog vaccination campaign with a coverage of 70% using a short-acting vaccine saved 832 YLLs, while the cumulative costs for the public sector were US$3646 or US$4.38 per YLL averted. Switching to a long-acting vaccine, the annual vaccination strategies with a coverage of 50% (AV_156_50) or 70% (AV_156_70) reduced the baseline YLLs from 881 to respectively 78 and 26 YLLs with cumulative costs of US$3716 and US$2264 or US$4.63 and US$2.65 per YLL averted, respectively. In general, dog vaccination was more cost-effective than PET alone (US$2.65-4.63 per YLL averted versus US$23.29 per YLL averted). Although a combination of PET with AV_156_70 was less cost-effective compared to AV_156_70 alone, this strategy was able to prevent all human deaths due to rabies. A combination of PET with annual vaccination using a short-acting vaccine at a coverage of 50% was far from being cost-effective, suggesting that the currently applied rabies control in Flores Island is not an efficient investment in reducing human rabies burden. An increased investment in either an increase in the current coverage or in a switch from the short-acting vaccine to the long-acting vaccine type would certainly pay off.
Are there ethical differences between stopping and not starting blood safety measures?
Kramer, K. ; Verweij, M.F. ; Zaaijer, H.L. - \ 2017
Vox Sanguinis 112 (2017)5. - ISSN 0042-9007 - p. 417 - 424.
Cost-effectiveness - Donor blood safety - Ethics - Transfusion-transmissible infections - Withdrawing vs. withholding
Background and Objectives: Concern with the costs of blood safety is growing, which raises the question whether safety measures that reduce risk only marginally should be discontinued. Withdrawing such safety measures would allow reallocating resources to more efficient health care interventions, but it might raise moral objections. Materials and Methods: This study evaluates two ethical arguments why discontinuing blood safety measures would be more objectionable than not implementing them. The first argument is that whereas withdrawing protective measures causes harm to patients, not starting protective measures 'merely' omits to prevent harm. The second argument is that patients who benefit from protective measures are historically entitled to the continuation of those protective measures. Results: Both arguments are unconvincing. There is only a weak causal connection between removing blood safety measures and harms that transfusion recipients suffer. Moreover, patients are not entitled to the continuation of protective measures that prove very inefficient, unless applying these protective measures rectifies past injustice towards them. Conclusion: Unless stronger ethical objections can be found, blood system operators and regulators should be more willing to withdraw inefficient safety measures.
Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Horne, P.L.M. van; Sommer, H.M. ; Nauta, M.J. - \ 2016
Microbial Risk Analysis 2-3 (2016). - p. 53 - 62.
Broiler - Campylobacter - Cost-effectiveness - Europe - Farm - Intervention
Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and United Kingdom. The cost-effectiveness ratio of an intervention was the estimated costs of the intervention divided by the estimated public health benefits due to the intervention, and was expressed in euro per avoided disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Interventions were selected on the basis of a European risk factor study and other risk factor research. A deterministic simulation model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention, if it would be implemented on all broiler farms in a country where it isn't implemented yet and implementation is possible. The model considered differences between countries in number and size of broiler farms and established practices, in import, export and transit of live broilers, broiler meat and meat products, in effect of interventions on Campylobacter prevalence in broilers, in disease burden of Campylobacter related human illness, in national economic factors, such as interest rate and general cost levels, and in technical and economic farm performance. Across interventions, cost-effectiveness ratios were the lowest for Poland and Spain, and highest for Norway and Denmark. Across countries, applying designated tools for each farm house and building an anteroom with hygiene barrier in each farm house had the lowest cost-effectiveness ratios, whereas a ban on thinning (partial depopulation), slaughter at 35 days, replacing old houses by new houses, and applying drink nipples without cup had the highest. Applying fly screens in Denmark had an intermediate cost-effectiveness ratio. A maximum downtime between flocks of ten days had a negative cost-effectiveness ratio (i.e. revenue) in Poland, a low positive cost-effectiveness ratio in Spain and high positive cost-effectiveness ratios in Denmark, the Netherlands and United Kingdom. Estimated cost-effectiveness ratios of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms differed substantially between the six countries, but the order of interventions in increasing cost-effectiveness ratio was generally similar across the countries.
Effects of budget constraints on conservation network design for biodiversity and ecosystem services
Remme, Roy P. ; Schröter, Matthias - \ 2016
Ecological Complexity 26 (2016). - ISSN 1476-945X - p. 45 - 56.
Biodiversity conservation - Budget allocation - Cost-effectiveness - Modelling - Netherlands - Priority setting
Limited budgets and budget cuts hamper the development of effective biodiversity conservation networks. Optimizing the spatial configuration of conservation networks given such budget constraints remains challenging. Systematic conservation planning addresses this challenge. Systematic conservation planning can integrate both biodiversity and ecosystem services as conservation targets, and hence address the challenge to operationalize ecosystem services as an anthropocentric argument for conservation. We create two conservation scenarios to expand the current conservation network in the Dutch province of Limburg. One scenario focuses on biodiversity only and the other integrates biodiversity and ecosystem services. We varied conservation budgets in these scenarios and used the software Marxan to assess differences in the resulting network configurations. In addition, we tested the network's cost-effectiveness by allocating a conservation budget either in one or in multiple steps. We included twenty-nine biodiversity surrogates and five ecosystem services. The inclusion of ecosystem services to expand Limburg's conservation network only moderately changed prioritized areas, compared to only conserving biodiversity. Network expansion in a single time-step is more efficient in terms of compactness and cost-effectiveness than implementing it in multiple time-steps. Therefore, to cost-effectively plan conservation networks, the full budget should ideally be available before the plans are implemented. We show that including ecosystem services to cost-effectively expand conservation networks can simultaneously encourage biodiversity conservation and stimulate the protection of conservation-compatible ecosystem services.
Management of agricultural soils for greenhouse gas mitigation : Learning from a case study in NE Spain
Sánchez, B. ; Iglesias, A. ; McVittie, A. ; Álvaro-Fuentes, J. ; Ingram, J. ; Mills, J. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Kuikman, P.J. - \ 2016
Journal of Environmental Management 170 (2016). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 37 - 49.
Cost-effectiveness - Marginal abatement costs curves - Mitigation strategies - Soil organic carbon management - Stabilisation wedges
A portfolio of agricultural practices is now available that can contribute to reaching European mitigation targets. Among them, the management of agricultural soils has a large potential for reducing GHG emissions or sequestering carbon. Many of the practices are based on well tested agronomic and technical know-how, with proven benefits for farmers and the environment. A suite of practices has to be used since none of the practices can provide a unique solution. However, there are limitations in the process of policy development: (a) agricultural activities are based on biological processes and thus, these practices are location specific and climate, soils and crops determine their agronomic potential; (b) since agriculture sustains rural communities, the costs and potential for implementation have also to be regionally evaluated and (c) the aggregated regional potential of the combination of practices has to be defined in order to inform abatement targets. We believe that, when implementing mitigation practices, three questions are important: Are they cost-effective for farmers? Do they reduce GHG emissions? What policies favour their implementation? This study addressed these questions in three sequential steps. First, mapping the use of representative soil management practices in the European regions to provide a spatial context to upscale the local results. Second, using a Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC) in a Mediterranean case study (NE Spain) for ranking soil management practices in terms of their cost-effectiveness. Finally, using a wedge approach of the practices as a complementary tool to link science to mitigation policy. A set of soil management practices was found to be financially attractive for Mediterranean farmers, which in turn could achieve significant abatements (e.g., 1.34 MtCO2e in the case study region). The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of potential farming and policy choices to shape realistic mitigation policy at European regional level.