- Geoff Frampton (1)
- Christer Hogstrand (1)
- Christopher John Topping (1)
- Robert Luttik (1)
- Fabrice Martin-Laurent (1)
- Edwin Nuijten (1)
- Agnes Rortais (1)
- Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren (1)
- Wopke Werf van der (1)
Towards resilience through systems-based plant breeding. A review
Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T. ; Struik, Paul C. ; Eekeren, Nick van; Nuijten, Edwin - \ 2018
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 38 (2018)5. - ISSN 1774-0746
Agrobiodiversity - Breeding strategies - Common good - Ecological resilience - Entrepreneurial models - Resource use efficiency - Seed systems - Social justice - Societal resilience - Sustainability
How the growing world population can feed itself is a crucial, multi-dimensional problem that goes beyond sustainable development. Crop production will be affected by many changes in its climatic, agronomic, economic, and societal contexts. Therefore, breeders are challenged to produce cultivars that strengthen both ecological and societal resilience by striving for six international sustainability targets: food security, safety and quality; food and seed sovereignty; social justice; agrobiodiversity; ecosystem services; and climate robustness. Against this background, we review the state of the art in plant breeding by distinguishing four paradigmatic orientations that currently co-exist: community-based breeding, ecosystem-based breeding, trait-based breeding, and corporate-based breeding, analyzing differences among these orientations. Our main findings are: (1) all four orientations have significant value but none alone will achieve all six sustainability targets; (2) therefore, an overarching approach is needed: “systems-based breeding,” an orientation with the potential to synergize the strengths of the ways of thinking in the current paradigmatic orientations; (3) achieving that requires specific knowledge development and integration, a multitude of suitable breeding strategies and tools, and entrepreneurship, but also a change in attitude based on corporate responsibility, circular economy and true-cost accounting, and fair and green policies. We conclude that systems-based breeding can create strong interactions between all system components. While seeds are part of the common good and the basis of agrobiodiversity, a diversity in breeding approaches, based on different entrepreneurial approaches, can also be considered part of the required agrobiodiversity. To enable systems-based breeding to play a major role in creating sustainable agriculture, a shared sense of urgency is needed to realize the required changes in breeding approaches, institutions, regulations and protocols. Based on this concept of systems-based breeding, there are opportunities for breeders to play an active role in the development of an ecologically and societally resilient, sustainable agriculture.
Ecological Recovery and Resilience in Environmental Risk Assessments at the European Food Safety Authority
Brock, Theo ; Bigler, Franz ; Frampton, Geoff ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Luttik, Robert ; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice ; Topping, Christopher John ; Werf, Wopke van der; Rortais, Agnes - \ 2018
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 14 (2018)5. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 586 - 591.
Ecological resilience - Ecosystem services delivery - Internal and external recovery - Normal operating range - Systems approach
A conceptual framework was developed by a working group of the Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to guide risk assessors and risk managers on when and how to integrate ecological recovery and resilience assessments into environmental risk assessments (ERA). In this commentary we advocate that a systems approach is required to integrate the diversity of ecosystem services (ES) providing units, environmental factors, scales, and stressor-related responses necessary to address the context dependency of recovery and resilience in agricultural landscapes. A future challenge in the resilience assessment remains to identify the relevant bundles of ecosystem services provided by different types of agroecosystem that need to be assessed in concert. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:586–591.
The international legal framework for the management of the global oceans social-ecological system
Bigagli, E. - \ 2016
Marine Policy 68 (2016). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 155 - 164.
Ecological resilience - International law - Oceans - Social-ecological systems - UNCLOS
This paper evaluates the international agreements in place for the protection of the environment and the regulation of human activities taking place in world's oceans and seas. 500 multilateral agreements were reviewed against a framework of reference, grounded on the theoretical approaches of Adaptive Management and Transition Management. According to this framework, oceans complex systems management should: (1) consider the global oceans as a Social-Ecological System (SES); (2) aim to achieve or maintain their ecological resilience; and (3) implement iterative, learning-based management strategies, supported by science-based advice to policy and management. The results show that the present international legal framework for the global oceans does not require countries to adopt an adaptive, complex systems approach for global oceans ecological resilience. Instead, this study supports the perspective of a double fragmentation among international agreements. First, global agreements focus on issue-based objectives for determined human activities, ecological components or anthropogenic pressures. Second, regional agreements have a wider scope, but also a varying level of inclusion of ecological resilience considerations. There is the need to foster the inclusion of such an approach into existing and future international agreements and their implementation, including through soft-law, project-based initiatives at global and regional scales.