Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==Ecosystem services
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Incorporating soil ecosystem services into urban planning : status, challenges and opportunities
Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Delden, Hedwig van; Ploeg, Martine van der - \ 2018
Landscape Ecology (2018). - ISSN 0921-2973 - 16 p.
Ecosystem services - Integrated planning - Soil - Sustainable development - Urban planning

Context: Traditionally soils have not received much attention in urban planning. For this, tools are needed that can both be understood both by soil scientists and urban planners. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enhance the role of soil knowledge in urban planning practice, through the following objectives: (1) identifying the role soil plays in recent urban plans; (2) analysing the ecosystem services and indicators used in soil science in an urban context; and (3) inferring the main challenges and opportunities to integrate soil into urban planning. Methods: Seven urban plans and reports of world cities that include sustainability goals were analysed using text-mining and qualitative analysis, with a critical view on the inclusion of soil-related concepts. Secondly, the contribution of soil science to urban planning was assessed with an overview of case studies in the past decade that focus on soil-related ecosystem services in urban context. Results: The results show an overall weak attention to soil and soil-related ecosystem services in the implementation and monitoring phases of urban plans. The majority of soil science case studies uses a haphazard approach to measure ecosystem service indicators which may not capture the ecosystem services appropriately and hence lack relevance for urban planning. Conclusions: Even though the most urban plans assessed recognize soil as a key resource, most of them fail to integrate indicators to measure or monitor soil-related functions. There is a need to develop soil-related ecosystem services that can be easily integrated and understood by other fields.

Arguments for biodiversity conservation : factors influencing their observed effectiveness in European case studies
Tinch, Rob ; Bugter, Rob ; Blicharska, Malgorzata ; Harrison, Paula ; Haslett, John ; Jokinen, Pekka ; Mathieu, Laurence ; Primmer, Eeva - \ 2018
Biodiversity and Conservation 27 (2018). - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1763 - 1788.
Argument framing - Arguments for biodiversity conservation - Biodiversity policy - Ecosystem services - Science policy interfaces
Making a strong case for biodiversity protection is central to meeting the biodiversity targets in international agreements such as the CBD and achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Effective arguments are needed to convince diverse actors that protection is worthwhile, and can play a crucial role in closing the implementation gap between biodiversity policy targets and outcomes. Drawing on a database of arguments from 11 European case studies, along with additional interview and case study material from all 13 case studies of the BESAFE project, we analysed relationships between potential and observed effectiveness of arguments. Our results show that strong logic, robustness, and timing of arguments are necessary but not sufficient conditions for arguments to be effective. We find that use of multiple and diverse arguments can enhance effectiveness by broadening the appeal to wider audiences, especially when arguments are repeated and refined through constructive dialogue. We discuss the role of framing, bundling and tailoring arguments to audiences in increasing effectiveness. Our results provide further support for the current shift towards recognition of value pluralism in biodiversity science and decision-making. We hope our results will help to demonstrate more convincingly the value of biodiversity to stakeholders in decision processes and thus build better cases for its conservation.
Land-use trade-offs in the Kapuas peat forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Suwarno, Aritta ; Hein, Lars ; Weikard, Hans Peter ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Nugroho, Bayu - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 75 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 340 - 351.
Central Kalimantan - Ecosystem management - Ecosystem services - Forest management unit - Land-use - Peat forest ecosystems
Forest ecosystems provide benefits to people locally and globally. Sustainable management of forest resources is required to ensure continued supply of these benefits, but complex social-ecological processes are often a constraint to the design of such forest management strategies. In this study, we developed a model of adaptive forest zonation to facilitate forest ecosystem management. We employed the ecosystem services concept and a land-use change model to identify potential areas for conservation and for economic use in the Kapuas Protected Forest Management Unit in Indonesia. Local people actively participated in this study to jointly define management zones and stakeholders’ associated rights and responsibilities. Our results show that a stakeholder agreement facilitated the reduction of threats to forest ecosystems and increased local awareness of the need for forest ecosystem conservation. Compared to current forest zonation, we show that the availability of an economic development zone in adaptive forest zonation could potentially increase ecosystem benefits for local communities by about 40% through rattan and jelutong collection and agroforestry rubber and jelutong production. Although our results are specific for the Kapuas District, the methodology of adaptive forest zonation can be applied more generally. We recommend our methods be included in guidelines for zonation and management plans to help improve sustainable forest management practices of all forest management units in Indonesia.
Making a better case for biodiversity conservation : the BESAFE project
Bugter, Rob ; Harrison, Paula ; Haslett, John ; Tinch, Rob - \ 2018
Biodiversity and Conservation 27 (2018)7. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1549 - 1560.
Arguments for biodiversity conservation - Ecosystem services - Science policy interfaces
This Editorial to the BESAFE special issue introduces the project and its approach and case studies. The BESAFE (EC 7th Framework programme) project investigated how the effectiveness of different types of arguments for biodiversity conservation depends on the context in which they are used. Our results show that tailoring of argumentation to audience within the course of decision processes is the main factor determining effectiveness. We consistently found arguments linked to intrinsic value (e.g. moral or ethical obligation arguments) as shared and supported widely, and thus offering common ground between parties. Economic arguments are effective as additional ones, but not as replacements. Next generation biodiversity conservation strategies can probably improve their effectiveness by emphasizing and better explaining the synergies between traditional conservation and especially regulating and cultural services.
Insect community composition and functional roles along a tropical agricultural production gradient
Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson ; Svensson, Ola ; Den Brink, Paul J. van; Gunnarsson, Jonas ; Tedengren, Michael - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (2018)14. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 13426 - 13438.
Banana production - Costa Rica - Ecosystem services - Functional roles - Insect diversity - Management practices
High intensity agricultural production systems are problematic not only for human health and the surrounding environment, but can threaten the provision of ecosystem services on which farm productivity depends. This research investigates the effects of management practices in Costa Rica on on-farm insect diversity, using three different types of banana farm management systems: high-input conventional system, low-input conventional system, and organic system. Insect sampling was done using pitfall and yellow bowl traps, left for a 24-h period at two locations inside the banana farm, at the edge of the farm, and in adjacent forest. All 39,091 individual insects were classified to family level and then morphospecies. Insect species community composition and diversity were compared using multivariate statistics with ordination analysis and Monte Carlo permutation testing, and revealed that each of the management systems were significantly different from each other for both trap types. Insect diversity decreased as management intensity increased. Reduced insect diversity resulted in fewer functional groups and fewer insect families assuming different functions essential to ecosystem health. Organic farms had similar species composition on the farm compared to adjacent forest sites, whereas species composition increasingly differed between farm and forest sites as management intensity increased. We conclude that while organic production has minimal impact on insect biodiversity, even small reductions in management intensity can have a significantly positive impact on on-farm insect biodiversity and functional roles supported.
Exploring ecosystem services trade-offs in agricultural landscapes with a multi-objective programming approach
Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Yalew, Seleshi G. ; Rossing, Walter A.H. - \ 2018
Landscape and Urban Planning 172 (2018). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 29 - 36.
Ecosystem services - Landscape design - Multifunctional landscapes - Pareto-based multi-objective differential evolution
In this paper, we present the LandscapeIMAGES modeling framework for multi-scale spatially explicit analysis of tradeoffs and synergies among ecosystem services provisioning across agricultural landscapes. The framework generates large sets of spatially explicit land-use and management scenarios to inform discussions among stakeholders involved in landscape planning processes. The generated plans are evaluated and optimized for multiple indicators of ecosystem services provisioning. The framework has been developed with an object-oriented programming approach to allow rapid implementation of new indicators and application to new case study landscapes. The modeling system includes (i) a generic framework for Pareto-based multi-objective optimization to generate a set of land-use and management plans, (ii) an easily expandable collection of modules to quantify indicators of ecosystem services provisioning, which can be used as objectives or constraints in optimization, and (iii) a graphical user interface that allows parameterization of the model and inspection of the original and generated land-use and management plans. This allows visualization of trade-offs and synergies among ecosystem services as a consequence of land-use and management planning choices. LandscapeIMAGES is currently used in projects aiming to improve the provision of multiple ecosystem services within landscapes in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe.
New tools to identify the location of seagrass meadows : Marine grazers as habitat indicators
Hays, Graeme C. ; Alcoverro, Teresa ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Duarte, Carlos M. ; Hamann, Mark ; Macreadie, Peter I. ; Marsh, Helene D. ; Rasheed, Michael A. ; Thums, Michele ; Unsworth, Richard K.F. ; York, Paul H. ; Esteban, Nicole - \ 2018
Frontiers in Marine Science 4 (2018). - ISSN 2296-7745
Animal movement - Benthic habitat mapping - Blue carbon - Climate change mitigation - Drone surveys - Ecosystem services - Satellite tracking
Seagrasses are hugely valuable to human life, but the global extent of seagrass meadows remains unclear. As evidence of their value, a United Nations program exists (http://data.unep-wcmc.org/datasets/7) to try and assess their distribution and there has been a call from 122 scientists across 28 countries for more work to manage, protect and monitor seagrass meadows (http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-37606827). Emerging from the 12th International Seagrass Biology Workshop, held in October 2016, has been the view that grazing marine megafauna may play a useful role in helping to identify previously unknown seagrass habitats. Here we describe this concept, showing how detailed information on the distribution of both dugongs (Dugong dugon) and green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) obtained, for example, by aerial surveys and satellite tracking, can reveal new information on the location of seagrass meadows. We show examples of how marine megaherbivores have been effective habitat indicators, revealing major, new, deep-water seagrass meadows and offering the potential for more informed estimates of seagrass extent in tropical and sub-tropical regions where current information is often lacking.
Linking planetary boundaries and ecosystem accounting, with an illustration for the Colombian Orinoco river basin
Vargas, Leonardo ; Willemen, Louise ; Hein, Lars - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)5. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 1521 - 1534.
Ecosystem accounting - Ecosystem services - Natural resource management - Planetary boundaries
Economic development has increased pressures on natural resources during the last decades. The concept of planetary boundaries has been developed to propose limits on human activities based on earth processes and ecological thresholds. However, this concept was not developed to downscale planetary boundaries to sub-global level. The absence of boundaries at sub-global levels constrains the use of the concept in environmental governance and natural resource management, because decisions are typically taken at these levels. Decisions at the national level are currently supported, among others, by statistical frameworks in particular the System of National Accounts. However, statistical frameworks were not developed to compile environmental information, hindering environmental decision making. Our study examines if and how ecosystem accounting can be used in combination with the concept of planetary boundaries in guiding human activities at the level of a river basin. We assess the applicability of both frameworks for natural resource management in the Orinoco river basin, based on adaptive management components. Our analysis indicates that differences in the purpose of analysis, information provided, and methods constrain the potential integration of both frameworks. Nevertheless, the way both frameworks conceptualize the social system and the interactions between social and ecological systems can facilitate translating planetary boundaries into indicators considered in ecosystem accounting. The information recorded in national ecosystem accounts can support establishing ecological thresholds and, more fundamentally, to relate ecological thresholds to human impacts on ecosystem condition. Capitalizing on these synergies requires further exchange of experiences between the communities working on ecosystem accounting and planetary boundaries.
Governance Options to Enhance Ecosystem Services in Cocoa, Soy, Tropical Timber and Palm Oil Value Chains
Ingram, Verina ; Den Berg, Jolanda van; Oorschot, Mark van; Arets, Eric ; Judge, Lucas - \ 2018
Environmental Management (2018). - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 1 - 15.
Ecosystem services - Integrated landscape approach - Tropical agricultural commodities - Value chain governance
Dutch policies have advocated sustainable commodity value chains, which have implications for the landscapes from which these commodities originate. This study examines governance and policy options for sustainability in terms of how ecosystem services are addressed in cocoa, soy, tropical timber and palm oil value chains with Dutch links. A range of policies addressing ecosystem services were identified, from market governance (certification, payments for ecosystem services) to multi-actor platforms (roundtables) and public governance (policies and regulations). An analysis of policy narratives and interviews identified if and how ecosystem services are addressed within value chains and policies; how the concept has been incorporated into value chain governance; and which governance options are available. The Dutch government was found to take a steering but indirect role in all the cases, primarily through supporting, financing, facilitating and partnering policies. Interventions mainly from end-of-chain stakeholders located in processing and consumption countries resulted in new market governance, notably voluntary sustainability standards. These have been successful in creating awareness of some ecosystem services and bringing stakeholders together. However, they have not fully addressed all ecosystem services or stakeholders, thus failing to increase the sustainability of value chains or of the landscapes of origin. We argue that chains sourced in tropical landscapes may be governed more effectively for sustainability if voluntary, market policy tools and governance arrangements have more integrated goals that take account of sourcing landscapes and impacts along the entire value chain. Given the international nature of these commodities. These findings have significance for debates on public-private approaches to value chain and landscape governance.
Handling a messy world : Lessons learned when trying to make the ecosystem services concept operational
Jax, Kurt ; Furman, Eeva ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Barton, David N. ; Delbaere, Ben ; Dick, Jan ; Duke, Guy ; Görg, Christoph ; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Maes, Joachim ; Pérez-Soba, Marta ; Saarela, Sanna Riikka ; Turkelboom, Francis ; Dijk, Jiska van; Watt, Allan D. - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 415 - 427.
Conceptual frameworks - Ecosystem services - Guiding principles - Integrative tools - OpenNESS project
The concept of ecosystem services is widely used in the scientific literature and increasingly also in policy and practice. Nevertheless, operationalising the concept, i.e. putting it into practice, is still a challenge. We describe the approach of the EU-project OpenNESS (Operationalisation of Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital), which was created in response to this challenge to critically evaluate the concept when applied to real world problems at different scales and in different policy sectors. General requirements for operationalization, the relevance of conceptual frameworks and lessons learnt from 27 case study applications are synthesized in a set of guiding principles. We also briefly describe some integrative tools as developed in OpenNESS which support the implementation of the principles. The guiding principles are grouped under three major headlines: ". Defining the problem and opening up the problem space", ". Considering ethical issues" and ". Assessing alternative methods, tools and actions". Real world problems are often "wicked" problems, which at first are seldom clear-cut and well-defined, but often rather complex and subject to differing interpretations and interests. We take account of that complexity and emphasise that there is not one simple and straightforward way to approach real world problems involving ecosystem services. The principles and tools presented are meant to provide some guidance for tackling this complexity by means of a transdisciplinary methodology that facilitates the operationalisation of the ecosystem services concept.
Maximising the value of research on ecosystem services : Knowledge integration and guidance tools mediating the science, policy and practice interfaces
Pérez-Soba, Marta ; Verweij, Peter ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Barton, David N. ; Furman, Eeva - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 599 - 607.
Assessment tools and methods - Case study finder - Ecosystem services - Knowledge transfer - Web-platform
Progress towards sustainable development ultimately depends on policy makers' and practitioners' capacities to protect Natural Capital (NC) stocks so that they are not exploited beyond Earth's capability to renew them. This involves a sound understanding of the benefits and values derived by society from NC and ecosystem services (ES). Scientific evidence to support this understanding is growing rapidly, but access to the data, methods, tools and expertise that underpins this evidence base is fragmented, particularly at the science - policy - practice interfaces. Two large EU research projects have therefore developed a joint knowledge platform - called Oppla - aimed at providing access to a wide range of resources on NC and ES. This new approach in the EU Research Area aims not only at integrating knowledge into one single platform, but also at making this knowledge operational amongst communities of science, policy and practice. Furthermore, it fosters the more efficient use of research funds by providing an open and freely available platform in which existing and new NC and ES projects can integrate their outcomes. This paper focuses on the knowledge integration and some guidance tools within Oppla to help users to find research outcomes.
Analysing the impacts of air quality policies on ecosystem services; a case study for Telemark, Norway
Hein, L. ; White, L. ; Miles, A. ; Roberts, P. - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Management 206 (2018). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 650 - 663.
Air pollution - Ecosystem services - Nitrogen deposition - Norway
There is an increasing interest in considering the effects of air pollution on ecosystem services supply in order to enhance cost-benefit analyses of air pollution policies. This paper presents a generic, conceptual approach that can be used to link atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to ecosystem services supply and societal benefits. The approach is applied in a case study in the Telemark county of Norway. First, we examine the potential effects of four European air quality policy scenarios on N deposition in the ecosystems of this county. Second, we analyse the subsequent impacts on the supply of three ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, timber production and biodiversity. Changes in the supply of the first two services are analysed in both physical and monetary units, biodiversity effects are only analysed in physical terms. The scenarios derive from work conducted in the context of the European National Emissions Ceilings Directive. In the 2010 base case the benefits of carbon sequestration are estimated at 13 million euro per year and the value of timber harvesting at 2.9 million euro per year. Under the examined policy scenarios aiming to reduce nitrogen emissions the societal benefits resulting from these two ecosystem services in Telemark are found to be reduced; the scenarios have little effect on terrestrial biodiversity. Such results cannot be scaled up, individual ecosystem services respond differently to changes in air pollution depending upon type of pollutant, type of ecosystem, type of service, and the magnitude of change. The paper further presents an analysis of the uncertainties that need to be considered in linking air pollution and ecosystem services including those in deposition rates, ecosystem responses, human responses and in the values of ecosystem services. Our conceptual approach is also useful for larger scale analysis of air pollution effects on ecosystem services, for example at national or potentially European scale.
Knowledge gaps about mixed forests : What do European forest managers want to know and what answers can science provide?
Coll, Lluís ; Ameztegui, Aitor ; Collet, Catherine ; Löf, Magnus ; Mason, Bill ; Pach, Maciej ; Verheyen, Kris ; Abrudan, Ioan ; Barbati, Anna ; Barreiro, Susana ; Bielak, Kamil ; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés ; Ferrari, Barbara ; Govedar, Zoran ; Kulhavy, Jiri ; Lazdina, Dagnija ; Metslaid, Marek ; Mohren, Frits ; Pereira, Mário ; Peric, Sanja ; Rasztovits, Ervin ; Short, Ian ; Spathelf, Peter ; Sterba, Hubert ; Stojanovic, Dejan ; Valsta, Lauri ; Zlatanov, Tzvetan ; Ponette, Quentin - \ 2018
Forest Ecology and Management 407 (2018). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 106 - 115.
Ecosystem services - Forest management and functioning - Forest stability - Participatory process - Research challenges - Review - Species mixtures

Research into mixed-forests has increased substantially in the last decades but the extent to which the new knowledge generated meets practitioners’ concerns and is adequately transmitted to them is unknown. Here we provide the current state of knowledge and future research directions with regards to 10 questions about mixed-forest functioning and management identified and selected by a range of European forest managers during an extensive participatory process. The set of 10 questions were the highest ranked questions from an online prioritization exercise involving 168 managers from 22 different European countries. In general, the topics of major concern for forest managers coincided with the ones that are at the heart of most research projects. They covered important issues related to the management of mixed forests and the role of mixtures for the stability of forests faced with environmental changes and the provision of ecosystem services to society. Our analysis showed that the current scientific knowledge about these questions was rather variable and particularly low for those related to the management of mixed forests over time and the associated costs. We also found that whereas most research projects have sought to evaluate whether mixed forests are more stable or provide more goods and services than monocultures, there is still little information on the underlying mechanisms and trade-offs behind these effects. Similarly, we identified a lack of knowledge on the spatio-temporal scales at which the effects of mixtures on the resistance and adaptability to environmental changes are operating. Our analysis may help researchers to identify what knowledge needs to be better transferred and to better design future research initiatives meeting practitioner's concerns.

Knowledge needs for the operationalisation of the concept of ecosystem services
Carmen, Esther ; Watt, Allan D. ; Carvalho, Laurence ; Dick, Jan ; Fazey, Ioan ; Garcia-Blanco, Gemma ; Grizzetti, Bruna ; Hauck, Jennifer ; Izakovicova, Zita ; Kopperoinen, Leena ; Liquete, Camino ; Odee, David ; Steingröver, Eveliene ; Young, Juliette C. - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 441 - 451.
Ecosystem services - Knowledge needs - Operationalisation - Transdisciplinary research
As environmental challenges and their management are increasingly recognised as complex and uncertain, the concept of ecosystem services has emerged from within scientific communities and is gaining influence within policy communities. To better understand how this concept can be turned into practice we examine knowledge needs from the perspective of the different stakeholders directly engaged with the operationalisation of ecosystem systems concept within ten socio-ecologically different case studies from different countries, levels of governance and ecosystems.We identify four different but interrelated areas of knowledge needs, namely; (i) needs related to develop a common understanding, (ii) needs related to the role of formal and informal institutions in shaping action on the ground, (iii) needs related to linking knowledge and action, and (iv) and needs related to accessible and easy to use methods and tools. These findings highlight the need to view knowledge as a process which is orientated towards action. We discuss the potential to develop transdisciplinary research approaches and the development of tools and methods explicitly as boundary objects in the ecosystem service science community to develop more collaborative practices with other stakeholders and facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of ecosystem services across contexts.
The superior effect of nature based solutions in land management for enhancing ecosystem services
Keesstra, Saskia ; Keesstra, Saskia ; Nunes, Joao P. ; Novara, Agata ; Finger, David ; Avelar, David ; Kalantari, Zahra ; Cerdà, Artemi - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 610-611 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 997 - 1009.
Ecosystem services - Nature based solutions - SDGs - System dynamics
The rehabilitation and restoration of land is a key strategy to recover services -goods and resources- ecosystems offer to the humankind. This paper reviews key examples to understand the superior effect of nature based solutions to enhance the sustainabilit y of catchment systems by promoting desirable soil and landscape functions. The use of concepts such as connectivity and the theory of system thinking framework allowed to review coastal and river management as a guide to evaluate other strategies to achieve sustainability. In land management NBSs are not mainstream management. Through a set of case studies: organic farming in Spain; rewilding in Slovenia; land restoration in Iceland, sediment trapping in Ethiopia and wetland construction in Sweden, we show the potential of Nature based solutions (NBSs) as a cost-effective long term solution for hydrological risks and land degradation. NBSs can be divided into two main groups of strategies: soil solutions and landscape solutions. Soil solutions aim to enhance the soil health and soil functions through which local eco-system services will be maintained or restored. Landscape solutions mainly focus on the concept of connectivity. Making the landscape less connected, facilitating less rainfall to be transformed into runoff and therefore reducing flood risk, increasing soil moisture and reducing droughts and soil erosion we can achieve the sustainability. The enhanced eco-system services directly feed into the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations.
Managing trap-nesting bees as crop pollinators : Spatiotemporal effects of floral resources and antagonists
Dainese, Matteo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, David ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)1. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 195 - 204.
Ecosystem services - Landscape context - Mass-flowering crops - Natural enemies - Nesting resources - Off-field practices - Oilseed rape - Resource limitation - Solitary bees - Top-down or bottom-up control

The decline of managed honeybees and the rapid expansion of mass-flowering crops increase the risk of pollination limitation in crops and raise questions about novel management approaches for wild pollinators in agroecosystems. Adding artificial nesting sites, such as trap nests, can promote cavity-nesting bees in agroecosystems, but effectiveness could be limited by the availability of floral resources in the surrounding landscape and by natural antagonists. In two European regions, we exposed artificial trap nests in paired field boundaries adjacent to oilseed rape (OSR) fields or non-flowering crops for 2 years within 32 landscapes covering two independent gradients of OSR cover and semi-natural habitat (SNH) cover in the landscape. We analysed the effects of local and landscape-wide floral resource availability, land-use intensity, landscape complexity and natural antagonists on community composition and population dynamics of trap-nesting bees. Numbers of brood cells showed a strong, three-fold increase in response to the additional nesting sites. Species richness and abundance of cavity-nesting bees that were active during OSR flowering increased significantly with increasing amounts of early season landscape-wide floral resource availability, such as the cultivation of OSR. Later foraging species benefited instead from the availability of late-season alternative flower resources or SNH cover once the mass-flowering had ceased. Density-dependent parasitism increased following mass-flowering, while no density-dependent effect was found during mass-flowering. Structural equation modelling revealed that the influence of floral resource availability on community growth rate was mediated by community size. Community size showed a strong negative effect on community growth rate. Despite positive density-dependent parasitism, antagonists had only weak regulating effects on community growth rate. Synthesis and applications. Trap-nesting bee populations grow markedly with the increasing availability of food resources in the landscape and effectiveness of trap nests is only marginally limited by natural antagonists. Thus, trap nests could be a simple pollinator-supporting strategy to accompany the current expansion of mass-flowering crops and to ensure pollination services for insect-pollinated crops. Trap nests benefit, not only early season active generalist bees during oilseed rape flowering, but also species with later phenology if accompanied by other pollinator-supporting practices.

Adoption of the ecosystem services concept in EU policies
Bouwma, Irene ; Schleyer, Christian ; Primmer, Eeva ; Winkler, Klara Johanna ; Berry, Pam ; Young, Juliette ; Carmen, Esther ; Špulerová, Jana ; Bezák, Peter ; Preda, Elena ; Vadineanu, Angheluta - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 28 (2018)pt. B. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 213 - 222.
Directives - Ecosystem services - European Union - Policies
The concept of ecosystem services has gained a strong political profile during the last 15 years. However, there is no specific EU policy devoted to governing ecosystem services. This article shows that the ecosystem services concept is already embedded in recent EU (environmentally-related) policies, such as the Biodiversity Strategy 2020 and the Invasive Alien Species Regulation. Our review of 12 policies shows that, overall, the coherence between existing policies and the ecosystem services concept is moderate. Policies showing very high coherence are confined to the policy arenas that address natural ecosystems, forestry, or agriculture. Given the sectoral nature of most EU policies and the limited options for revision in the near future, opportunities for improving coherence are most apparent in furthering the integration of the ecosystem services concept in the implementation of existing EU policies at national and regional levels.
Barriers for the ecosystem services concept in European water and nature conservation law
Kistenkas, Frederik H. ; Bouwma, Irene M. - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt B. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 223 - 227.
Ecosystem services - EU law - Governance modes - Sustainable development - Water Framework Directive - Water law
In the 2015 River Weser case the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) appears to demand a rather strict one-dimensional protection of water quality under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Article 4 WFD, the very essence of this EU directive, should then be read as a strict water quality assessment on good ecological potential and other ecological WFD criteria. This jurisprudence could surely be welcomed as it secures blue environmental interests, but it may at the same time easily be encountered and criticized as a contradiction of modern EU policy documents on sustainable development and green or blue growth, as it may de iure subordinate socio-economic interests. It also may exclude clusters of ecosystem services; not only provisioning and cultural services, but also other not legally protected regulating services. Here, a CJEU-induced limited testing on only a few limited ecological criteria of Article 4 WFD might tend to resemble the one-criterion testing of the Natura 2000 habitats assessment and its possible shortcomings in terms of sustainable multi-functionality. In the derogation regimes of both WFD and Habitats Directive only overriding public interests may outweigh environmental objectives. In a recent 2016 case on hydropower the CJEU makes it clear renewable energy production can be such an overriding public interest, but still not all interests or ecosystem services do qualify to be part of a weighing process in the derogation stage. We should be aware this may contrast with current EU environmental policy documents like Green Infrastructure and Blue Growth. It would help if EU policy documents could be more explicit that sustainable development might be the default throughout Europe, but not necessarily in WFD waters and Natura 2000 sites.
Taking stock of the spectrum of arguments for biodiversity
Howard, Bruce ; Braat, Leon C. ; Bugter, Rob J.F. ; Carmen, Esther ; Hails, Rosemary S. ; Watt, Allan D. ; Young, Juliette C. - \ 2018
Biodiversity and Conservation 27 (2018)7. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1561 - 1574.
Arguments - Biodiversity - Ecosystem services - Valuation

This paper provides an analysis of the spectrum of arguments associated with the term biodiversity, as expressed in the literature. Through sampling of the grey and peer-review literature, and testing of results through semi-structured interviews, this review presents a total of 31 different instrumental and non-instrumental premises used in arguments for biodiversity. Based on the identified premise statements, this review offers a simple classification by which to understand the complex public discourse associated with arguments for biodiversity, and outlines the current frequency of use of arguments in the literature. Although a wide range of premise statements were identified, the majority of arguments were instrumental with the most frequently used ones putting forward economic perspectives as well as emphasising the role of biodiversity in underpinning ecosystem services. Results from interviews with decision-makers emphasise the need to combine arguments in order to strengthen biodiversity conservation generally, and minimise possible risks associated with individual arguments.

Climate change mitigation through adaptation : The effectiveness of forest diversification by novel tree planting regimes
Hof, Anouschka R. ; Dymond, Caren C. ; Mladenoff, David J. - \ 2017
Ecosphere 8 (2017)11. - ISSN 2150-8925
Assisted migration - Boreal forest - Carbon stocks - Climate change - Ecosystem services - Forestry - Modeling - Temperate forest
Climate change is projected to have negative implications for forest ecosystems and their dependent communities and industries. Adaptation studies of forestry practices have focused on maintaining the provisioning of ecosystem services; however, those practices may have implications for climate change mitigation as well by increasing biological sinks or reducing emissions. Assessments of the effectiveness of adaptation strategies to mitigate climate change are therefore needed; however, they have not been done for the world’s northern coniferous forests. Diversifying the forest by planting tree species more likely suited to a future climate is a potential adaptation strategy to increase resilience. The efficacy of this strategy to reduce the risks of climate change is uncertain, and other ecosystem services provided by the forest are also likely to be affected. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape modeling framework (LANDIS-II) to simulate the effects of planting a range of native tree species in colder areas than where they are currently planted in a managed temperate coniferous forest landscape in British Columbia, Canada. We investigated impacts on carbon pools, fluxes, tree species diversity, and harvest levels under different climate scenarios for 100 yr (2015–2115) and found that the capacity of our forest landscape to sequester carbon would largely depend on the precipitation rates in the future, rather than on temperature. We further found that, irrespective of the climate prediction model, current planting standards led to relatively low levels of resilience as indicated by carbon fluxes and stocks, net primary productivity (NPP), and species diversity. In contrast, planting a mix of alternative tree species was generally superior in increasing the resilience indicators: carbon stocks and fluxes, NPP, and tree species diversity, but not harvest rates. The second best novel planting regime involved adding Pinus contorta to the stocking standard in three ecoregions; however, that species is susceptible to a high number of insects and pathogens. We conclude that although the capacity of temperate coniferous forest landscapes to sequester carbon in the future is largely dependent on the precipitation regime, negative effects may be counteracted to some extent by increasing resilience through tree species diversity in forests.
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