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Prospective “warm-glow” of reducing meat consumption in China : Emotional associations with intentions for meat consumption curtailment and consumption of meat substitutes
Taufik, Danny - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Psychology 60 (2018). - ISSN 0272-4944 - p. 48 - 54.
Emotions - Meat consumption curtailment - Meat substitutes - Warm-glow

Consumers’ food choices strongly affect the environment, particularly as a result of the production and consumption of meat. From an environmental standpoint, it is important to gain a better understanding of how consumers can be motivated to eat less meat, particularly in non-Western countries where few studies on this topic have been conducted. The current study was conducted in China, where the level of meat consumption has increased rapidly. The findings indicate that prospective “warm-glow” feelings are positively related with consumers’ intention to reduce meat consumption; this relation is stronger than the respective relations of both perceived sustainability and perceived health benefits with the intention to reduce meat consumption. Prospective “warm-glow” feelings are more strongly positively associated with the intention to reduce meat consumption via curtailment, than with the intention to consume (more) meat substitutes.

Can bio-based attributes upgrade a brand? How partial and full use of bio-based materials affects the purchase intention of brands
Reinders, Machiel J. ; Onwezen, Marleen C. ; Meeusen, Marieke J.G. - \ 2017
Journal of Cleaner Production 162 (2017). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 1169 - 1179.
Attitude - Bio-based - Brand - Emotions - Personal environmental norm - Purchase intentions
To reduce human dependency on fossil fuels, increasing attempts are being made to substitute synthetic materials in products with bio-based materials. Global brands attempt to differentiate themselves by adding bio-based materials to their products. However, little is known about consumers' reactions regarding brands that use bio-based materials. Two experimental studies in six European countries on bio-based products were used to test whether consumers responded differently to brands that use materials that are fully bio-based (i.e., 100% bio-based) compared to brands that use materials that are partially bio-based. The results provide evidence that only brands with attributes that were 100% bio-based consistently resulted in enhanced purchase intentions. Instead, introducing partially bio-based attributes does not always result in a better evaluation of the brand compared to brands that do not contain any bio-based attributes. Additionally, the authors show how these effects occur (i.e., via brand attitude and brand emotions) and under which conditions these effects are enforced (i.e., environmentally conscious consumers and private labels). Finally, these effects are seen for multiple products, brands and countries. The study offers theoretical and practical implications and presents avenues for future research.
Emotional states and emotional contagion in pigs after exposure to a positive and negative treatment
Reimert, Inonge ; Fong, Stephanie ; Rodenburg, Bas ; Bolhuis, Liesbeth - \ 2017
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 193 (2017). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 37 - 42.
Behaviour - Emotional contagion - Emotions - Empathy - Pigs

After-effects of events that elicit an emotional state on both the animals that experienced these events and on their group members have only scarcely been studied. We investigated effects of a positive vs. negative treatment on the behaviour and emotional state of pigs and their naive pen mates afterwards. Behaviour of 96 pigs was observed in the home pen for 5. min on two different days (day 2 and 18), directly after two pigs per pen (N = 16) had been subjected to a positive or negative treatment in a test room. On day 2, treated pigs lay down more (30.78. ±. 4.07 vs. 15.25. ±. 3.74% of time, P = 0.01), walked less (17.91. ±. 2.82 vs. 26.87. ±. 2.32% of time, P = 0.02) and explored the pen less (12.30. ±. 1.34 vs. 18.29. ±. 1.71% of time, P = 0.01) after the negative compared to the positive treatment. Naive pigs simultaneously also lay more (45.67. ±. 6.00 vs. 18.79. ±. 5.88% of time, P = 0.003), walked less (6.33. ±. 0.80 vs. 12.83. ±. 1.74% of time, P. <. 0.001) and explored the pen less (6.80. ±. 1.23 vs. 13.47. ±. 2.34% of time, P = 0.02) after their pen mates' negative treatment. After their pen mates' positive treatment, in contrast, naive pigs showed more nosing behaviour, nose-nose (0.83. ±. 0.14 vs. 0.40. ±. 0.06 freq./min, P = 0.004) and nose-body contact (0.73. ±. 0.10 vs. 0.47. ±. 0.06 freq./min, P = 0.02), and tended to play more (0.10. ±. 0.03 vs. 0.01. ±. 0.01 freq./min, P = 0.09). On day 18, treated pigs were only found to eat longer after the negative than the positive treatment (10.75. ±. 3.73 vs. 0.96. ±. 0.79% of time, P = 0.02), whereas their naive pen mates, similar to day 2, lay more (45.01. ±. 5.16 vs. 22.59. ±. 5.52% of time, P = 0.006), stood (40.73. ±. 3.84 vs. 57.32. ±. 4.29% of time, P = 0.007) and walked less (7.00. ±. 1.21 vs. 10.88. ±. 1.04% of time, P = 0.01). After their pen mates' positive treatment, at day 18, they still nosed the nose (0.52. ±. 0.06 vs. 0.21. ±. 0.04 freq./min, P. <. 0.001) and body of their pen mates more (0.68. ±. 0.06 vs. 0.29. ±. 0.05 freq./min, P = 0.002) than after their pen mates' negative treatment, and they tended to wag their tails more (2.30. ±. 0.95 vs. 0.68. ±. 0.41% of time, P = 0.08). Thus, pigs still appeared to be in a negative emotional state for some time after the negative treatment had ended. Furthermore, their pen mates also seemed to be (emotionally) affected even though they were not subjected to the treatment themselves. Negative and positive events may thus have consequences that extend beyond the duration of these events, for both the welfare of the exposed animals and their group members.

What's in a name? The effect of congruent and incongruent product names on liking and emotions when consuming beer or non-alcoholic beer in a bar
Silva, Ana Patricia ; Jager, Gerry ; Voss, Hans Peter ; Zyl, Hannelize van; Hogg, Tim ; Pintado, Manuela ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 55 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 58 - 66.
Beer - Context of consumption - Emotions - Expectations - Label - Non-alcoholic beer - Product name

This study concerns the expectations, liking and emotions related to the consumption of conventional beer and non-alcoholic beer (NAB), which are related but different products. These beverages are derived from the same raw materials and have undistinguished visual sensory cues. However consumers acknowledge the differences between them in terms of flavour, functional and emotional conceptualisations. Of particular interest here is how prior experience with beer and NAB and the conceptual information this generates in a consumer, can influence his or her response to its consumption in an appropriate setting – a bar. The labelling of a sample as beer or non-alcoholic beer was employed as a prompt to study the effects on liking and emotions provoked, when drinking a beer or a NAB, in a bar. Over 4 sessions, 155 consumers drank a glass of beer or NAB under two different conditions, labelled either correctly or incorrectly with respect to the actual composition of the sample. Questionnaires were used to rate the liking and emotions prior to and after consumption. The naming of NAB as beer significantly increased the liking and changed one emotion towards a positive direction, namely participants felt more fulfilled. When beer was presented as NAB it did not affect the liking but did significantly reduce the intensity of six positive emotions. Participants felt less comforted, exuberant, good, happy, joyful and loving. This study showed that labelling and the conceptual information generated in consumers might influence their response after consumption of these beverages.

Combining Emotion Appraisal Dimensions and Individual Differences to Understand Emotion Effects on Gift Giving
Hooge, I.E. De - \ 2017
Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 30 (2017)2. - ISSN 0894-3257 - p. 256 - 269.
Agency - Appraisal dimensions - Emotions - Gift giving - Interpersonal orientation - Valence
Multiple studies have revealed that emotion appraisal dimensions can predict the effects of emotions on decision making. For example, givers' intention to buy gifts depends on whether they feel positive or negative (valence) and on whether the feeling is caused by the givers themselves or by gift receivers (agency). However, there is little understanding of how the effects of such appraisal dimensions might depend on individual characteristics. The current research addresses this gap by studying the interaction effects of emotions and individual characteristics on gift giving. Study 1 demonstrates that emotion effects on gift-giving behavior are explained by two things: the cause of those emotions (self or others, agency) and whether those emotions are positive or negative (valence). Moreover, four studies reveal that these effects depend on the givers' interpersonal orientation. For high interpersonally oriented givers, who care mostly about interpersonal relationships, emotion effects on gift giving depend on both valence and agency. In contrast, for low interpersonally oriented givers, who care mostly about their own gains, emotion effects on gift giving depend only on valence. Together, these findings suggest that although a focus on appraisal dimensions can be useful, individual characteristics should also be taken into account when trying to understand emotion effects on gift giving, in particular, and on decision making, in general.
The incidental influence of memories of past eating occasions on consumers' emotional responses to food and food-related behaviors
Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Jaeger, Sara R. - \ 2016
Frontiers in Psychology 7 (2016)JUN. - ISSN 1664-1078
Affect infusion - Consumer research - Emotions - Food - Memory priming - Overeating - Recalled meals

Our memories of past eating experiences are influential in shaping food preferences and consumption behavior, and the emotions that people associate to these memories are linked to their attitudes toward foods and their everyday food-related behaviors. This work studies the impact that food-related memories have on peoples' emotional state and how this state is projected in a subsequent evaluation of images pertaining to food and food-related behaviors. Focus is placed on guilt and shame emotions. Through an online survey, three memories were investigated (a positive meal, a routine evening meal, and an overeating occasion) among UK consumers (N = 710). Participants primed with the overeating memory evaluated images related to junk food as conveying more feelings of guilt and shame than did participants primed with the memory of a positive meal. Moreover, this effect was moderated by participants' dietary restraint status. Participants classified as having a high dietary restraint had stronger associations with the emotions guilt and shame than participants classified as low in dietary restraint. In contrast, a memory of a positive meal did not lead to positive valuations of any of the food-related images shown. Overall, the findings from the present study illustrate the partial impact that personal food memories have on consumers' emotional response toward food-related issues, which in turn has the potential to affect future behavior. This study therefore contributes to the literature about cognitive effects on food attitudes and behavior. Furthermore, the results suggest that the empirical approach may be tapping into possibly unconscious emotions toward foods and food-related behavior.

When indifference is ambivalence : Strategic ignorance about meat consumption
Onwezen, Marleen C. ; Weele, Cor N. van der - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 52 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 96 - 105.
Cognitive dissonance - Emotions - Ignorance - Meat - Wilful blindness

Meat consumption is associated with a tension, for example the tension between love of meat and concern about animal welfare or health. Based on the literature we propose four consumer segments that each respond differently to (potential) conflicting thoughts in the context of meat: struggling-, coping-, strategically ignoring-, and indifferent consumers. As proposed we identified the four segments (of which one segment can be divided in two separate segments) in two separate cases (N = 1842). This study is the first to identify a group of strategically ignorant consumers for a real life issue (i.e., conflicting experiences regarding meat consumption). The findings indicate that previously labelled indifferent consumers consists of 1) consumers who do not care and, therefore, ignore the issue and 2) consumers who do care but strategically choose to ignore the issue. We discuss the theoretical implications of strategic ignorance and the practical implications for reducing meat consumption.

Functional or emotional? How Dutch and Portuguese conceptualise beer, wine and non-alcoholic beer consumption
Silva, Ana Patricia ; Jager, Gerry ; Bommel, Roelien van; Zyl, Hannelize van; Voss, Hans Peter ; Hogg, Tim ; Pintado, Manuela ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 49 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 54 - 65.
Beer - Beverage choice - Conceptualisations - Cross-cultural - Drinking behaviour - Emotions - Non-alcoholic beer - Qualitative research - Wine

Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and compared to beer and wine conceptualisations in the Netherlands and Portugal. A qualitative study was performed using a focus group approach with moderate consumers of both countries (n= 56). Content analysis followed by correspondence analysis were used to explore conceptualisations. This study showed similar conceptualisations of the beverages in both countries. NAB has a limited conceptual content, which is mostly functional as a substitute. Beer and wine are rich in both functional and emotional content. Wine is associated with positive low arousal emotional responses, such as calm and loving. Beer is associated with positive high arousal emotional responses, such as adventurous and energetic. NAB evokes neutral and negative emotional responses, such as rational, conscious, and disappointed. The difference in conceptualisations of NAB versus beer/wine might be why NAB is not adopted more widely as a substitute as it does not deliver a comparable emotional response to consumers. NAB should be treated as a beverage in its own right and it might be wise to avoid direct conceptual comparisons with beer. Should the image of NAB be communicated and understood with positive and high arousal associations, such as energetic and convivial, in communication and advertisements, a higher level of congruency between expectation and experience could be achieved.

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