Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Towards a coordination of European activities to diagnose and manage insect diseases in production facilities
Eilenberg, J. ; Oers, M.M. van; Jensen, A.B. ; Lecocq, A. ; Maciel-Vergara, G. ; Santacoloma, L.P.A. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Hesketh, H. - \ 2018
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 4 (2018)3. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 157 - 166.
Diagnostic service - Europe - Insect pathogen - Insect pathogen management - Insect production

The rapid increase in insect production for food and feed both in Europe and elsewhere in the world has led to a need for a coordinated action to assist producers in the diagnosis and management of insect diseases in production stock. Diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and other insect pathogens can be detrimental for reared insects and may cause significant economic loss to producers. Here, we suggest how academia, commercial companies and other insect producers can jointly develop best practice for diagnosing insect diseases early and thereby manage such diseases efficiently. First, we analyse different ways of transmission of insect diseases in closed and semi-closed production facilities. Thereafter we describe four recent cases where companies have requested advice about insect pathogens in their insect stock namely: with giant mealworm Zophobas morio, yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor, house cricket Acheta domesticus, and with lesser mealworm Alphitobius diaperinus. Our experience dealing with these cases gave us insight to suggest how we should coordinate European activities to establish a service to diagnose and provide advice, and how different European laboratories specialised in insect pathology should collaborate. An important issue will be to educate a new generation of insect pathologists, who with a combination of classical insect pathology methods and the most modern tools can become professionals in diagnosing and managing the various types of insect pathogens.

New European socio-economic scenarios for climate change research : operationalising concepts to extend the shared socio-economic pathways
Kok, Kasper ; Pedde, Simona ; Gramberger, Marc ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Holman, Ian P. - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change (2018). - ISSN 1436-3798 - 12 p.
Europe - Multi-scale - Narratives - Shared socio-economic pathways - Socio-economic scenario

Scenarios have been recognised as a useful tool for planning, which have resulted in a strong increase in the number of (multi-scale) scenarios in climate change research. This paper addresses the need for methodological progress and testing of conceptual considerations, by extending the global shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). We present a set of four European SSPs until 2100 and a novel method to develop qualitative stories for Europe equivalent to the global SSPs starting from an existing set of European scenarios. Similar to the global SSPs, the set includes a sustainable future with global cooperation and less intensive lifestyles (We are the World; Eur-SSP1); a future in which countries struggle to maintain living standards in a high-carbon intensive Europe (Icarus; Eur-SSP3); a world in which power becomes concentrated in a small elite and where Europe becomes an important player (Riders on the Storm; Eur-SSP4); and one where a lack of environmental concern leads to the over-exploitation of fossil fuel resources addressed by technological solutions (Fossil-fuelled Development; Eur-SSP5). We conclude that the global SSPs are a good starting point for developing equivalent continental scale scenarios that, in turn, can serve multiple purposes. There are, however, methodological challenges related to the choice for equivalence and the exact methods by which scenarios are constructed that need to be tested further.

Time for a European initiative for research to prevent cancer : A manifesto for Cancer Prevention Europe (CPE)
Forman, David ; Bauld, Linda ; Bonanni, Bernardo ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brown, Karen ; Dillner, Joakim ; Kampman, Ellen ; Manczuk, Marta ; Riboli, Elio ; Steindorf, Karen ; Storm, Hans ; Espina, Carolina ; Wild, Christopher P. - \ 2018
Journal of Cancer Policy 17 (2018). - p. 15 - 23.
Cancer prevention - Collaborative research - Europe - Health promotion - Knowledge hub - Multidisciplinary - Population-level - Translational research

A landmark resolution on cancer prevention and control was adopted by Member States at the World Health Assembly 2017, noting that “risk reduction has the potential to prevent around half of all cancers” and urging “to promote cancer research to improve the evidence base for cancer prevention and control”. Public health oriented strategies for cancer prevention and their optimal application in effective real-life programmes will be vital to circumvent the dramatic health and economic implications of a strategy and healthcare expenditure based primarily on cancer treatment. The inter-disciplinary nature of cancer prevention stretches from the sub-microscopic study of cancer pathways through to the supra-macroscopic analysis of the “causes of the causes” encompassing socio-economic and environmental factors. Research is required to provide new evidence-based preventive interventions and to understand the factors that hamper their implementation within health care systems and in the community. Successful implementation of cancer prevention requires long-term vision, a dedicated research agenda and funding, sustainable infrastructure and cooperation between countries and programmes. In order to develop world class prevention research in Europe that translates into effective cancer prevention guidelines and policies, we report on the creation of Cancer Prevention Europe. This international and multidisciplinary consortium of research institutes, organisations and networks of excellence with a common mission of reducing cancer morbidity and mortality in European populations through prevention, brings together different fields of expertise, from laboratory science through to policy research, as well as dissemination of the best evidence, the best quality indicators and the best practices used.

Continental-scale macrofungal assemblage patterns correlate with climate, soil carbon and nitrogen deposition
Andrew, Carrie ; Halvorsen, Rune ; Heegaard, Einar ; Kuijper, Thomas W. ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Bässler, Claus ; Egli, Simon ; Gange, Alan C. ; Høiland, Klaus ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Boddy, Lynne ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2018
Journal of Biogeography 45 (2018)8. - ISSN 0305-0270 - p. 1942 - 1953.
assemblage - biogeography - climate - ectomycorrhizal - Europe - fungi - macroecology - saprotrophic - temporal change

Aim: Macroecological scales of species compositional trends are well documented for a variety of plant and animal groups, but remain sparse for fungi, despite their ecological importance in carbon and nutrient cycling. It is, thus, essential to understand the composition of fungal assemblages across broad geographical scales and the underlying drivers. Our overall aim was to describe these patterns for fungi across two nutritional modes (saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal). Furthermore, we aimed to elucidate the temporal component of fruiting patterns and to relate these to soil carbon and nitrogen deposition. Location: Central and Northern Europe. Methods: A total of 4.9 million fungal fruit body observations throughout Europe, collected between 1970 and 2010, were analysed to determine the two main environmental and geographical gradients structuring fungal assemblages for two main nutritional modes, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Results: Two main gradients explaining the geography of compositional patterns were identified, for each nutritional mode. Mean annual temperature (and related collinear, seasonal measures) correlated most strongly with the first gradient for both nutritional modes. Soil organic carbon was the highest correlate of the second compositional gradient for ectomycorrhizal fungi, suspected as an indicator of vegetation- and pH-related covariates. In contrast, nitrogen deposition constituted a second gradient for saprotrophic fungi, likely a proxy for anthropogenic pollution. Compositional gradients and environmental conditions correlated similarly when the data were divided into two time intervals of 1970–1990 and 1991–2010. Evidence of compositional temporal change was highest with increasing elevation and latitude. Main conclusions: Fungal assemblage patterns demonstrate clear biogeographical patterns that relate the nutritional modes to their main environmental correlates of temperature, soil organic carbon and nitrogen deposition. With respect to global change impacts, the highest rates of compositional change by time suggest targeting higher latitudes and elevations for a better understanding of fungal dynamics. We, finally, suggest further examination of the ranges and dispersal abilities of fungi to better assess responses to global change.

Adoption of non-inversion tillage across Europe : Use of a behavioural approach in understanding decision making of farmers
Bijttebier, J. ; Ruysschaert, G. ; Hijbeek, R. ; Werner, M. ; Pronk, A.A. ; Zavattaro, L. ; Bechini, L. ; Grignani, C. ; Berge, H. ten; Marchand, F. ; Wauters, E. - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 78 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 460 - 471.
Adoption - Behavioural change - Europe - Non-Inversion tillage - Theory of planned behavior

Non-inversion tillage (NIT) is often recommended as a soil conservation measure, protecting soil structure and soil life and preventing erosion. As the adoption of this measure is still below policy targets in many European regions, this study aimed at gaining insights in constraints and drivers of implementing NIT to understand how to stimulate behavioural change. This study uses the theory of planned behaviour as a framework for understanding farmers’ decisions on applying NIT. This framework was applied in 8 case studies from 8 Farm Type Zones (FTZ) spread over 4 European countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Italy). We used a sequential mixed method, starting with qualitative semi-structured interviews followed by a quantitative survey. Our results show varying adoption rates ranging from 19% to more than 80% across the FTZs. There are large differences between FTZs and even more between countries regarding the number and nature of enabling and hampering factors identified. Although our results do reveal some widely acknowledged advantages and constraints (such as less labour/fuel needs and more weeds), several of them are restricted to one or only some of the FTZs. Some of the conditions favouring or discouraging NIT are related to biophysical characteristics of the FTZs. Besides these biophysical characteristics, agricultural specialization and especially the crops cultivated influence the decision whether or not to plough. Also timing of sowing and harvest of particular crops influences farmers’ perceptions on the ease or difficulty to apply NIT. Finally, cultural, political and socio-economic conditions of the regions are influencing adoption behaviour of the farmers, e.g. good results with ploughing, having nice-looking fields, availability of equipment, the existence of subsidies and the opinion of referents influence the decision whether or not to implement NIT in the singular FTZs. These insights in context-specific enabling and disabling conditions are helpful in defining targeted actions to stimulate adoption in a given region. This paper concludes with an overview of how the resulting insights in farmers’ behaviour might contribute in addressing effective intervention strategies to increase adoption of NIT.

Improving WOFOST model to simulate winter wheat phenology in Europe : Evaluation and effects on yield
Ceglar, A. ; Wijngaart, R. van der; Wit, A. de; Lecerf, R. ; Boogaard, H. ; Seguini, L. ; Berg, M. van den; Toreti, A. ; Zampieri, M. ; Fumagalli, D. ; Baruth, B. - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X
Calibration - Crop yield forecasting - Europe - Phenology - Triticum aestivum - WOFOST

This study describes and evaluates improvements to the MARS crop yield forecasting system (MCYFS) for winter soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Europe, based on the WOFOST crop simulation model, by introducing autumn sowing dates, realistic soil moisture initialization, adding vernalization requirements and photoperiodicity, and phenology calibration. Dataset of phenological observations complemented with regional cropping calendars across Europe is used. The calibration of thermal requirements for anthesis and maturity is done by pooling all available observations within European agro-environmental zones and minimizing an objective function that combines the differences between observed and simulated anthesis, maturity and harvest dates. Calibrated phenology results in substantial improvement in simulated dates of anthesis with respect to the original MCYFS simulations. The combined improvements to the system result in a physically more plausible spatial distribution of crop model indicators across Europe. Crop yield indicators point to better agreement with recorded national winter wheat yields with respect to the original MCYFS simulations, most pronounced in central, eastern and southern Europe. However, model skill remains low in large parts of western Europe, which may possibly be attributed to the impacts of wet conditions.

Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability
Andrew, Carrie ; Heegaard, Einar ; Høiland, Klaus ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Kuyper, Thomas W. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Gange, Alan C. ; Egli, Simon ; Bässler, Claus ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Boddy, Lynne ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2018
Ecology 99 (2018)6. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 1306 - 1315.
climate - distribution - Europe - fruit bodies - fungi - NDVI - nutritional mode - path analysis - phenology
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude, and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation, and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by approximately 25 d, primarily with latitude. Altitude affected fruiting by up to 30 d, with spring delays and autumnal accelerations. Fruiting was as much explained by the effects of bioclimatic variability as by their large-scale spatial patterns. Temperature drove fruiting of autumnal ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic groups as well as spring saprotrophic groups, while primary production and precipitation were major drivers for spring-fruiting ectomycorrhizal fungi. Species-specific phenology predictors were not stable, instead deviating from the overall mean. There is significant likelihood that further climatic change, especially in temperature, will impact fungal phenology patterns at large spatial scales. The ecological implications are diverse, potentially affecting food webs (asynchrony), nutrient cycling and the timing of nutrient availability in ecosystems.
Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes : a comparison of four European countries
Mertens, Elly ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Dofková, Marcela ; Mistura, Lorenza ; D’Addezio, Laura ; Turrini, Aida ; Dubuisson, Carine ; Favret, Sandra ; Havard, Sabrina ; Trolle, Ellen ; van’t Veer, Pieter ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2018
European Journal of Nutrition (2018). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 19.
Diet - Dietary guidelines - Europe - Foods - Nutrients - SUSFANS
Purpose: Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Methods: Individual-level dietary intake data in adults were obtained from nationally-representative surveys from Denmark and France using a 7-day diet record, Italy using a 3-day diet record, and Czech Republic using two replicates of a 24-h recall. Energy-standardised food and nutrient intakes were calculated for each subject from the mean of two randomly selected days. Results: There was clear geographical variability, with a between-country range for mean fruit intake from 118 to 199 g/day, for vegetables from 95 to 239 g/day, for fish from 12 to 45 g/day, for dairy from 129 to 302 g/day, for sweet beverages from 48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmark for dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (< 20 g/day), and nuts and seeds (< 5 g/day), but high for red and processed meat (> 80 g/day). Within countries, food intakes also varied by socio-economic factors such as age, gender, and educational level, but less pronounced by anthropometric factors such as overweight status. For nutrients, intakes were low for dietary fibre (15.8–19.4 g/day) and vitamin D (2.4–3.0 µg/day) in all countries, for potassium (2288–2938 mg/day) and magnesium (268–285 mg/day) except in Denmark, for vitamin E in Denmark (6.7 mg/day), and for folate in Czech Republic (212 µg/day). Conclusions: There is considerable variation in food and nutrient intakes across Europe, not only between, but also within countries. Individual-level dietary data provide insight into the heterogeneity of dietary habits beyond per capita food supply data, and this is crucial to balancing healthy and environmentally-friendly diets for European citizens.
Sketching sustainable land use in Europe by 2040 : a multi-stakeholder participatory approach to elicit cross-sectoral visions
Pérez-Soba, Marta ; Paterson, James ; Metzger, Marc J. ; Gramberger, Marc ; Houtkamp, Joske ; Jensen, Anne ; Murray-Rust, Dave ; Verkerk, Pieter J. - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 775 - 787.
Cross-sectoral - Europe - Land-use visions - Multifunctionality - Participatory process - Sustainability
The continuously growing global demands on a finite land resource will require better strategic policies and management of trade-offs to avoid conflicts between different land-use sectors. Visions of the future can support strategic planning by stimulating dialogue, building a consensus on shared priorities and providing long-term targets. We present a novel approach to elicit stakeholder visions of future desired land use, which was applied with a broad range of experts to develop cross-sectoral visions in Europe. The approach is based on (i) combination of software tools and facilitation techniques to stimulate engagement and creativity; (ii) methodical selection of stakeholders; (iii) use of land attributes to deconstruct the multifaceted sectoral visions into land-use changes that can be clustered into few cross-sectoral visions, and (iv) a rigorous iterative process. Three cross-sectoral visions of sustainable land use in Europe in 2040 emerged from applying the approach in participatory workshops involving experts in nature conservation, recreation, agriculture, forestry, settlements, energy, and water. The three visions—Best Land in Europe, Regional Connected and Local Multifunctional—shared a wish to achieve a land use that is sustainable through multifunctionality, resource use efficiency, controlled urban growth, rural renewal and widespread nature. However, they differ on the scale at which land services are provided—EU-wide, regional or local—reflecting the land-sparing versus land-sharing debate. We discuss the usefulness of the approach, as well as the challenges posed and solutions offered by the visions to support strategic land-use planning.
Adapting forest management to climate change in Europe : Linking perceptions to adaptive responses
Sousa-Silva, Rita ; Verbist, Bruno ; Lomba, Ângela ; Valent, Peter ; Suškevičs, Monika ; Picard, Olivier ; Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke A. ; Cosofret, Vasile Cosmin ; Bouriaud, Laura ; Ponette, Quentin ; Verheyen, Kris ; Muys, Bart - \ 2018
Forest Policy and Economics 90 (2018). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 22 - 30.
Adaptive capacity - Awareness - Climate change - Europe - Forest management - Regional differences
Climate change will impact forests and may impair their ability to provide essential ecosystem services in the decades to come. Addressing this challenge requires adjustments to forest management strategies as of now, but it is still unclear to what extent this is already in progress. Using data from surveys of 1131 forest owners and managers from seven European countries, we assessed how they perceive their role in adapting forest management to climate change. The surveys focused on foresters' observations of climate change impacts, the degree to which climate change is a part of their operational and strategic management, and their ability to address related risks and opportunities. We found evidence of a strong continent-wide climate change awareness among respondents, with 73% foresters convinced that climate change will impact their forest. However, only about one-third (36%) reported having modified their management practices, though figures vary widely between countries, from 14% in Portugal to 57% in Slovakia. Among the constraints limiting their actions, lack of knowledge and information emerged as a major barrier towards forest adaptation. Differences between countries could be linked to their socio-economic and political contexts. Our results further suggest that severely damaging events, such as windstorms, fires and pest outbreaks, present relevant opportunities to engage people with climate change and encourage action. Further work needs to be done in strengthening the relationship between scientific research and practice, working out context dependent measures to foster adaptation to changing climate and disturbance regimes in forest management.
Increased transgenerational epigenetic variation, but not predictable epigenetic variants, after environmental exposure in two apomictic dandelion lineages
Preite, Veronica ; Oplaat, Carla ; Biere, Arjen ; Kirschner, Jan ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Verhoeven, Koen J.F. - \ 2018
Ecology and Evolution 8 (2018)5. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 3047 - 3059.
DNA methylation - drought - Europe - salicylic acid - stress memory - Taraxacum officinale
DNA methylation is one of the mechanisms underlying epigenetic modifications. DNA methylations can be environmentally induced and such induced modifications can at times be transmitted to successive generations. However, it remains speculative how common such environmentally induced transgenerational DNA methylation changes are and if they persist for more than one offspring generation. We exposed multiple accessions of two different apomictic dandelion lineages of the Taraxacum officinale group (Taraxacum alatum and T. hemicyclum) to drought and salicylic acid (SA) treatment. Using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (MS-AFLPs) we screened anonymous methylation changes at CCGG restriction sites throughout the genome after stress treatments and assessed the heritability of induced changes for two subsequent unexposed offspring generations. Irrespective of the initial stress treatment, a clear buildup of heritable DNA methylation variation was observed across three generations, indicating a considerable background rate of heritable epimutations. Less evidence was detected for environmental effects. Drought stress showed some evidence for accession-specific methylation changes, but only in the exposed generation and not in their offspring. By contrast, SA treatment caused an increased rate of methylation change in offspring of treated plants. These changes were seemingly undirected resulting in increased transgenerational epigenetic variation between offspring individuals, but not in predictable epigenetic variants. While the functional consequences of these MS-AFLP-detected DNA methylation changes remain to be demonstrated, our study shows that (1) stress-induced transgenerational DNA methylation modification in dandelions is genotype and context-specific; and (2) inherited environmental DNA methylation effects are mostly undirected and not targeted to specific loci.
Climate Impacts in Europe Under +1.5°C Global Warming
Jacob, Daniela ; Kotova, Lola ; Teichmann, Claas ; Sobolowski, Stefan P. ; Vautard, Robert ; Donnelly, Chantal ; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G. ; Grillakis, Manolis G. ; Tsanis, Ioannis K. ; Damm, Andrea ; Sakalli, Abdulla ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van - \ 2018
Earth's Future 6 (2018)2. - ISSN 2328-4277 - p. 264 - 285.
+1.5oC and +2oC global warming - Climate Change - Climate Change Impacts - Europe - IMPACT2C project
The Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change aims not only at avoiding +2°C warming (and even limit the temperature increase further to +1.5°C), but also sets long-term goals to guide mitigation. Therefore, the best available science is required to inform policymakers on the importance of and the adaptation needs in a +1.5°C warmer world. Seven research institutes from Europe and Turkey integrated their competencies to provide a cross-sectoral assessment of the potential impacts at a pan-European scale. The initial findings of this initiative are presented and key messages communicated. The approach is to select periods based on global warming thresholds rather than the more typical approach of selecting time periods (e.g., end of century). The results indicate that the world is likely to pass the +1.5°C threshold in the coming decades. Cross-sectoral dimensions are taken into account to show the impacts of global warming that occur in parallel in more than one sector. Also, impacts differ across sectors and regions. Alongside the negative impacts for certain sectors and regions, some positive impacts are projected. Summer tourism in parts of Western Europe may be favored by climate change; electricity demand decreases outweigh increases over most of Europe and catchment yields in hydropower regions will increase. However, such positive findings should be interpreted carefully as we do not take into account exogenous factors that can and will influence Europe such as migration patterns, food production, and economic and political instability.
Family Systems and Fertility Intentions : Exploring the Pathways of Influence
Mönkediek, Bastian ; Bras, Hilde - \ 2018
European Journal of Population 34 (2018)1. - ISSN 0168-6577 - p. 33 - 57.
Europe - Family systems - Fertility - Fertility intentions - Pathways - Theory of planned behaviour

Family systems, as normative frameworks in which family processes unfold, are believed to exert a major influence on fertility. While a number of studies have addressed family system effects on family size and the timing of births, the question of how family systems influence fertility intentions has remained largely unexplored. Because fertility intentions are often not realized, studying the pathways through which these intentions are framed warrants further attention. Addressing this research gap, this paper explores the pathways of influence between family systems and people’s intentions to start or to extend their family in the framework of the theory of planned Behaviour. We use a path analysis to analyse data from the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) on fertility intentions of 28,988 individuals from nine European countries that considerably vary in family systems. Regional indicators of family systems were constructed on the basis the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and incorporated in the analytical sample. The results demonstrate an important link between family systems and fertility intentions. Family systems frame people’s intentions by influencing their attitudes towards children and their ideas about existing norms regarding fertility. This influence works partly through affecting household size and partly through influencing people’s ideas about the requirements for having children. Family system effects vary between intentions to start and to extend a family. While nearness to kin decreased positive attitudes towards having children of childless respondents, having kin nearby had the opposite effect for those that were already parents.

Simulating and delineating future land change trajectories across Europe
Stürck, Julia ; Levers, Christian ; Zanden, Emma Henriëtta van der; Schulp, Catharina Johanna Elizabeth ; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes ; Kuemmerle, Tobias ; Helming, John ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Popp, Alexander ; Schrammeijer, Elizabeth ; Verburg, Peter - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 733 - 749.
Ecosystem service - Europe - Land system - Land use change - Modeling - Scenario

Explorations of future land use change are important to understand potential conflicts between competing land uses, trade-offs associated with particular land change trajectories, and the effectiveness of policies to steer land systems into desirable states. Most model-based explorations and scenario studies focused on conversions in broad land use classes, but disregarded changes in land management or focused on individual sectors only. Using the European Union (EU) as a case study, we developed an approach to identifying typical combinations of land cover and management changes by combining the results of multimodel simulations in the agriculture and forest sectors for four scenarios from 2000 to 2040. We visualized land change trajectories by mapping regional hotspots of change. Land change trajectories differed in extent and spatial pattern across the EU and among scenarios, indicating trajectory-specific option spaces for alternative land system outcomes. In spite of the large variation in the area of change, similar hotspots of land change were observed among the scenarios. All scenarios indicate a stronger polarization of land use in Europe, with a loss of multifunctional landscapes. We analyzed locations subject to change by comparing location characteristics associated with certain land change trajectories. Results indicate differences in the location conditions of different land change trajectories, with diverging impacts on ecosystem service provisioning. Policy and planning for future land use needs to account for the spatial variation of land change trajectories to achieve both overarching and location-specific targets.

Vector competence of European mosquitoes for west Nile virus
Vogels, Chantal B.F. ; Göertz, Giel P. ; Pijlman, Gorben P. ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. - \ 2017
Emerging Microbes and Infections 6 (2017)11. - ISSN 2222-1751
Europe - Innate immune responses - Midgut barrier - Mosquito - Salivary gland barrier - Surveillance - Vector competence - West nile virus
West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus of high medical and veterinary importance. The main vectors for WNV are mosquito species of the Culex genus that transmit WNV among birds, and occasionally to humans and horses, which are 'deadend' hosts. Recently, several studies have been published that aimed to identify the mosquito species that serve as vectors for WNV in Europe. These studies provide insight in factors that can influence vector competence of European mosquito species for WNV. Here, we review the current knowledge on vector competence of European mosquitoes for WNV, and the molecular knowledge on physical barriers, anti-viral pathways and microbes that influence vector competence based on studies with other flaviviruses. By comparing the 12 available WNV vector competence studies with European mosquitoes we evaluate the effect of factors such as temperature, mosquito origin and mosquito biotype on vector competence. In addition, we propose a standardised methodology to allow for comparative studies across Europe. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps regarding vector competence that, once addressed, will provide important insights into WNV transmission and ultimately contribute to effective strategies to control WNV.
Re-thinking the politics of migration. On the uses and challenges of regime perspectives for migration research
Horvath, Kenneth ; Amelinaz, Anna ; Peters, Karin - \ 2017
Migration Studies 5 (2017)3. - ISSN 2049-5838 - p. 301 - 314.
Borders - Europe - Migration politics - Migration regimes - Mobilities - Regime theory
The aim of this special issue is to critically assess the potential of regime theory for migration research. Against the background of contemporary political dynamics, regime terminology has become rather popular in migration studies. There has, however, been little debate on the foundations and implications of the very notion of 'regime'. Although regime is anything but a unified concept, in this article we argue that there are commonalities in analytical perspectives useful for migration research. Current usages in migration research are informed by at least four different strands of theory building that differ in their epistemological, ontological, and methodological foundations: (i) international relations-notions of regimes as international regulatory frameworks, (ii) conceptualizations informed by welfare regime theories, (iii) regime notions that stem from the French regulation school, and (iv) regime theories inspired by governmentality studies. The collection of articles in this special issue mirrors this constellation. The contributions come from different disciplinary and methodological backgrounds, employ different regime notions, and focus on a wide range of aspects of contemporary European migration politics. While it seems crucial to acknowledge this conceptual variety, we argue that there are also important points of convergence between these strands of theory building: attention to the complexities and contradictions of regulatory practices, a focus on normative and discursive orders, and consideration of relations of power and inequality. This specific simultaneity of variety and convergence may open spaces for academic debates that move beyond established conceptual and methodological boundaries.
A framework for modeling adaptive forest management and decision making under climate change
Yousefpour, Rasoul ; Temperli, Christian ; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl ; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark ; Meilby, Henrik ; Lexer, Manfred J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Bugmann, Harald ; Borges, Jose G. ; Palma, João H.N. ; Ray, Duncan ; Zimmermann, Niklaus E. ; Delzon, Sylvain ; Kremer, Antoine ; Kramer, Koen ; Reyer, Christopher P.O. ; Lasch-Born, Petra ; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi ; Hanewinkel, Marc - \ 2017
Ecology and Society 22 (2017)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
Behavioral adaptation - Europe - Forest management - Knowledge management - Mathematical programming - Process-based models - Spatial planning
Adapting the management of forest resources to climate change involves addressing several crucial aspects to provide a valid basis for decision making. These include the knowledge and belief of decision makers, the mapping of management options for the current as well as anticipated future bioclimatic and socioeconomic conditions, and the ways decisions are evaluated and made. We investigate the adaptive management process and develop a framework including these three aspects, thus providing a structured way to analyze the challenges and opportunities of managing forests in the face of climate change. We apply the framework for a range of case studies that differ in the way climate and its impacts are projected to change, the available management options, and how decision makers develop, update, and use their beliefs about climate change scenarios to select among adaptation options, each being optimal for a certain climate change scenario. We describe four stylized types of decision-making processes that differ in how they (1) take into account uncertainty and new information on the state and development of the climate and (2) evaluate alternative management decisions: the “no-change,” the “reactive,” the “trend-adaptive,” and the “forward-looking adaptive” decision-making types. Accordingly, we evaluate the experiences with alternative management strategies and recent publications on using Bayesian optimization methods that account for different simulated learning schemes based on varying knowledge, belief, and information. Finally, our proposed framework for identifying adaptation strategies provides solutions for enhancing forest structure and diversity, biomass and timber production, and reducing climate change-induced damages. They are spatially heterogeneous, reflecting the diversity in growing conditions and socioeconomic settings within Europe.
Gap assessment in current soil monitoring networks across Europe for measuring soil functions
Leeuwen, J.P. Van; Saby, N.P.A. ; Jones, A. ; Louwagie, G. ; Micheli, E. ; Rutgers, M. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Spiegel, H. ; Toth, G. ; Creamer, R.E. - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)12. - ISSN 1748-9318
Europe - soil attributes - soil functions - soil monitoring networks

Soil is the most important natural resource for life on Earth after water. Given its fundamental role in sustaining the human population, both the availability and quality of soil must be managed sustainably and protected. To ensure sustainable management we need to understand the intrinsic functional capacity of different soils across Europe and how it changes over time. Soil monitoring is needed to support evidence-based policies to incentivise sustainable soil management. To this aim, we assessed which soil attributes can be used as potential indicators of five soil functions; (1) primary production, (2) water purification and regulation, (3) carbon sequestration and climate regulation, (4) soil biodiversity and habitat provisioning and (5) recycling of nutrients. We compared this list of attributes to existing national (regional) and EU-wide soil monitoring networks. The overall picture highlighted a clearly unbalanced dataset, in which predominantly chemical soil parameters were included, and soil biological and physical attributes were severely under represented. Methods applied across countries for indicators also varied. At a European scale, the LUCAS-soil survey was evaluated and again confirmed a lack of important soil biological parameters, such as C mineralisation rate, microbial biomass and earthworm community, and soil physical measures such as bulk density. In summary, no current national or European monitoring system exists which has the capacity to quantify the five soil functions and therefore evaluate multi-functional capacity of a soil and in many countries no data exists at all. This paper calls for the addition of soil biological and some physical parameters within the LUCAS-soil survey at European scale and for further development of national soil monitoring schemes.

The need for European OneHealth/EcoHealth networks
Keune, Hans ; Flandroy, Lucette ; Thys, Séverine ; Regge, Nick De; Mori, Marcella ; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ; Vanhove, Maarten P.M. ; Rebolledo, Javiera ; Gucht, Steven Van; Deblauwe, Isra ; Hiemstra, Wim ; Häsler, Barbara ; Binot, Aurélie ; Savic, Sara ; Ruegg, Simon R. ; Vries, Sjerp de; Garnier, Julie ; Berg, Thierry van den - \ 2017
Archives of Public Health 75 (2017). - ISSN 0778-7367 - 8 p.
Community of Practice - Cross-sectorial - EcoHealth - Europe - Interdisciplinarity - One Health - Transdisciplinarity

Elaborating from the European One Health/Ecohealth (OH/EH) workshop that took place in fall 2016 and aimed to bring together different communities and explore collaborative potential, the creation of European networks focusing on the development of important OH/EH perspectives was a direct output from discussions at the end of some sessions, in particular: - A network on transdisciplinary One Health education. - A network integrating inputs from social sciences in One Health/EcoHealth actions and networks. - A network aiming at translating research findings on the Environment-Microbiome-Health axis into policy making, with a view to make healthy ecosystems a cost-effective disease prevention healthcare strategy. It was also suggested that a European Community of Practice could be initiated in order to support these several concrete networking initiatives, and to help to promote the building of other emerging initiatives.

Do farmers perceive a deficiency of soil organic matter? A European and farm level analysis
Hijbeek, R. ; Cormont, A. ; Hazeu, G. ; Bechini, L. ; Zavattaro, L. ; Janssen, B. ; Werner, M. ; Schlatter, N. ; Guzmán, Gema ; Bijttebier, J. ; Pronk, A.A. ; Eupen, M. van; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2017
Ecological Indicators 83 (2017). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 390 - 403.
Agriculture - Arable farming - Critical level - Crops - Europe - Farmers' perceptions - Land use - Productive capacity - Risk indicator - Soil organic carbon - Soil organic matter - SOM deficiency - Threshold value

Agricultural soils with too little soil organic matter (SOM) content are characterized by fertility problems. A number of authors have tried to specify threshold values for SOM content to indicate what is ‘too little', ranging from 1 to 5%, below which yields may be affected. How much SOM content is sufficient, however, depends on a number of environmental factors. In addition, up to date farmers' perceptions were not included when developing thresholds. Therefore, this study focuses on the following three objectives: (1) to identify a risk indicator on SOM deficiency based on environmental factors and agricultural land use; (2) to test the risk indicator using farmers' perceptions and (3) to establish threshold values for SOM content based on farmers' perceptions. For objective 1, literature was reviewed on effects of environmental factors and land use on SOM deficiency. Findings were combined into nine options for a risk indicator on SOM deficiency, mapped at European scale. For objective 2, a farm survey was done among 1452 arable farmers in five European countries (Belgium, Germany, Austria, Spain and Italy). Associations between perceived deficiency of SOM by farmers and environmental factors, land use and the risk indicator were investigated. For objective 3, farmers' perceptions on SOM deficiency were related to the average SOM content of their fields. Mapping the risk indicator at European scale gives a high to very high risk of SOM deficiency for 7 to 37% of European agricultural land, mainly located in Southern and Eastern Europe. Of the farmers in our survey, 18% perceived a high to very high SOM deficiency. A weak correlation was found between the risk indicator and farmers' perceptions of SOM deficiency (0.15-0.18, Spearman's rank correlation). Stronger relations were found between separate environmental factors and perceived SOM deficiency. Apparently, having a more extreme environmental condition for one factor gives a higher chance of perceiving a deficiency of SOM than a combination of moderate environmental conditions. Based on farmers' perceptions threshold intervals for SOM content were established (sand: 1.2–4.7%, loam: 0.6–2.6% and clay: 1.0–2.4%). If policies on SOM management want to include benefits for productive capacity, targeting areas with a relatively high risk of SOM deficiency, more extreme environmental conditions or with very low SOM contents (below the given threshold intervals) seems most promising.

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