Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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What do you mean by hot? Assessing the associations raised by the visual depiction of an image of fire on food packaging
Gil-Pérez, Ignacio ; Rebollar, Rubén ; Lidón, Iván ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 384 - 394.
Categorisation - Congruency - Expectations - Metaphors - Semiotics

The images shown on food packaging play an important role in the processes of identification, categorisation and the generation of expectations, since the consumer uses the images to infer information about the product. However, a given image may convey different meanings (e.g. in a food package, “fire” may mean barbecued or spicy), so it is very important for producers and designers to understand the factors responsible for consumers inferring a specific meaning. This paper addresses this problem and shows experimentally that the consumer tends to infer the meaning from the image which is most congruent with the product it is displayed with. 65 participants carried out two speeded classification tasks which results show an interaction between the product (congruent vs. incongruent) and the image (with fire vs. without fire): products congruent with a meaning of fire were categorised more quickly when shown with fire than without it, while products incongruent with a meaning of fire were categorised more slowly when shown with fire than without it. In addition, the results show that stimuli were categorised more quickly when the interpretation of fire was literal (e.g. barbecue) than in those that were metaphorical (e.g. spiciness), indicating that the rhetorical style of the image (literal or metaphorical) influences the cognitive effort required to process it. These contributions improve our understanding of the effect of the images shown on packaging in the communication between packaging and consumers.

Heart rate, skin conductance, and explicit responses to juice samples with varying levels of expectation (dis)confirmation
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 320 - 331.
Autonomic nervous system - Expectations - Heart rate - Skin conductance - Taste disconfirmation

Disconfirmations between consumers’ expectations and a product's actual properties can lead to different responses in consumers. Most researchers study these responses focusing on the final judgement of the product. However, looking at consumers’ physiological responses like those of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) could help complement what is known about consumer reactions and final response to disconfirmed expectations. This study evaluated how ANS responses change when tasting juice samples that were as expected, that differed slightly, or that differed greatly from manipulated expectations and whether these responses vary from those obtained when there is no manipulation of expectations. Eighty-six participants tasted fruit and vegetable juices in two separate sessions. They were divided in two conditions. In Condition A, expectations were manipulated by showing participants the image of an ingredient and then providing them with a juice whose flavour was as expected, differed slightly, or differed greatly from that of the image. In Condition B, each juice was first tasted without explicit information shown beforehand and the image of the ingredient was shown afterwards. The images were the same as in Condition A. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured. To confirm that participants perceived confirmations and large and small disconfirmations when tasting the juices, they rated the samples in different sensory properties before and after tasting them. Results from most of the sensory ratings, except sourness and taste intensity, showed that participants perceived the designed confirmation and disconfirmation of expectations accordingly. Regarding ANS responses, heart rate had a larger increase during the second session than during the first. Skin conductance responses increased in Condition A but decreased in Condition B. In conclusion, our design managed to create confirmations and varying levels of disconfirmations. ANS responses did not capture them but seemed to capture factors like attention and the orientation response.

Hot or not? Conveying sensory information on food packaging through the spiciness-shape correspondence
Gil-Pérez, Ignacio ; Rebollar, Rubén ; Lidón, Iván ; Martín, Javier ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 197 - 208.
Categorisation - Expectations - Implicit measures - Packaging design - Semiotics

The packaging of a product is a key element in the communication between producers and consumers, so getting the consumer to interpret the packaging visual signs in the desired way is crucial to be successful in the marketplace. However, this is not easy as images can be ambiguous and may be interpreted in different ways. For example, depicting an icon of fire on the front of a bag of nuts may lead the consumer to interpret either that the nuts are spicy or that the nuts have been roasted. This paper addresses this problem and, using this case as an example, assesses if the interpretation of a fire icon (spicy vs roasted) can be modulated by manipulating its shape (angular vs rounded). 66 participants carried out an experiment which results show that there is a crossmodal correspondence between spiciness and pointy shapes and that this association can be used to modulate sensory expectations: in a speeded classification task, the bags of nuts depicting pointy fire icons were categorised more quickly as being spicy than as being roasted, while the opposite was true for the bags of nuts displaying rounded fire icons. In addition, the results of a mediation analysis suggest that this effect occurs indirectly through affective appraisal: the pointy fire icons were judged as being more aggressive than the rounded fire icons, which in turn raised spiciness expectations. These findings contribute to the research on crossmodal correspondences and semiotics by showing that the association between spiciness and abstract shapes can be used to modulate how people interpret an ambiguous image.

Heart rate and skin conductance responses to taste, taste novelty, and the (dis)confirmation of expectations
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 65 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 9.
Autonomic nervous system - Expectations - Heart rate - Novelty - Skin conductance - Taste
It is unclear whether the responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can measure how people respond to food. Results focused on emotional responses are contradictory; therefore, the focus has shifted to other components of emotion, such as appraisals. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the differences in ANS responses related to appraisals; particularly taste novelty, valence, and the disconfirmation of expectations.A hundred and fifty-five participants joined this study. They tasted samples of different valence (sweet and bitter) twice: the first time without knowing the taste and the second while being informed of the taste. After this first block, participants tasted two additional samples: one that confirmed expectations and one that disconfirmed them. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Results show that the second experience with a taste led to cardiac deceleration. Heart rate changes were only related to valence when participants' expectations were (dis)confirmed. Heart rate decreased for those tastes that disconfirmed expectations and increased for those that confirmed them and the sweet sample had larger increases in heart rate than the bitter. Skin conductance changed in regards to novelty and valence but not to the disconfirmation of expectations. It increased for the bitter sample, decreased for the sweet, and was always higher during the first experience than during the second. In conclusion, the results suggest that cardiac responses are more sensitive to novelty and the disconfirmation of expectations while skin conductance responses capture novelty and valence.
Beyond expectations : The responses of the autonomic nervous system to visual food cues
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Schulte-Holierhoek, Aurelia ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2017
Physiology and Behavior 179 (2017). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 478 - 486.
ANS - Expectations - Heart rate - Image perception - Skin conductance - Tasting
Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms underlying ANS responses by evaluating the reactions to different images when expectations about a product are created (before tasting the product) and when they are confirmed and disconfirmed (after tasting the product). In a first study, seventy-five participants tasted four drinks (three identical soy-based drinks and one rice-based drink) and were told that they would be shown their main ingredient either before or after tasting. For the three identical drinks, the images shown were: worms, chocolate, and soy. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured during the procedure. The results showed that ANS responses followed similar patterns when images were presented before or after tasting. Heart rate decreased for all images, with the largest decrease found for chocolate and worms. Skin conductance increased, with the largest increase found for worms. To test whether the effects were solely caused by image perception, a second study was done in which forty participants only saw the images. The responses obtained were smaller and did not completely match those of the first study. In conclusion, it could be said that the ANS responses of the first study were a result of the sensory processing and defense mechanisms happening during the creation and (dis)confirmation of expectations. The second study confirmed that visual perception alone could not account for these effects and that it led to smaller changes. Hence, it seems that the context of use influences the patterns and magnitude of ANS responses to food cues.
What's in a name? The effect of congruent and incongruent product names on liking and emotions when consuming beer or non-alcoholic beer in a bar
Silva, Ana Patricia ; Jager, Gerry ; Voss, Hans Peter ; Zyl, Hannelize van; Hogg, Tim ; Pintado, Manuela ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 55 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 58 - 66.
Beer - Context of consumption - Emotions - Expectations - Label - Non-alcoholic beer - Product name

This study concerns the expectations, liking and emotions related to the consumption of conventional beer and non-alcoholic beer (NAB), which are related but different products. These beverages are derived from the same raw materials and have undistinguished visual sensory cues. However consumers acknowledge the differences between them in terms of flavour, functional and emotional conceptualisations. Of particular interest here is how prior experience with beer and NAB and the conceptual information this generates in a consumer, can influence his or her response to its consumption in an appropriate setting – a bar. The labelling of a sample as beer or non-alcoholic beer was employed as a prompt to study the effects on liking and emotions provoked, when drinking a beer or a NAB, in a bar. Over 4 sessions, 155 consumers drank a glass of beer or NAB under two different conditions, labelled either correctly or incorrectly with respect to the actual composition of the sample. Questionnaires were used to rate the liking and emotions prior to and after consumption. The naming of NAB as beer significantly increased the liking and changed one emotion towards a positive direction, namely participants felt more fulfilled. When beer was presented as NAB it did not affect the liking but did significantly reduce the intensity of six positive emotions. Participants felt less comforted, exuberant, good, happy, joyful and loving. This study showed that labelling and the conceptual information generated in consumers might influence their response after consumption of these beverages.

Food Color and Its Impact on Taste/Flavor Perception
Spence, Charles ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2016
In: Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience Through to the Marketplace / Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina, Spence, Charles, Amsterdam : Elsevier Inc. Academic Press (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition 298) - ISBN 9780081003510 - p. 107 - 132.
Expectations - Flavor - Liking - Multisensory - Sensory dominance - Taste - Vision

Color is perhaps the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting our expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of food and drink. To date, a large body of research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the color of a variety of different food and beverage items exerts a sometimes dramatic impact on the expectations, and often on the subsequent taste/flavor experiences of participants in the lab, as well as consumers under the more naturalistic conditions of everyday life. It is important to note that food colors can have rather different meanings, and hence give rise to differing expectations in these different age groups, not to mention in those from different cultures. By gaining a better understanding of the sensory and hedonic expectations that are elicited by food color in different groups of individuals, researchers are now coming to better understand the various ways in which what we see can modulate the multisensory perception of flavor, and alter our food behaviors.

High satiety expectations of a first course promote selection of less energy in a main course picture task
Bulsing, P.J. ; Gutjar, S. ; Zijlstra, N. ; Zandstra, E.H. - \ 2015
Appetite 87 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 236 - 243.
Expectations - Food choice - Restrained eaters - Satiety - Vision

One of the factors determining meal size is the expectation one has about satiating properties of foods. Foods eliciting low satiety expectations are often chosen in larger portions. We investigated whether satiety expectations of one food lead to a different portion size selection of other foods, using an online picture task. One hundred and twenty-six subjects (64 unrestrained, 62 restrained) participated in three conditions (within-subject). In two conditions subjects were asked to imagine they consumed soup as a first course. They were shown pictures of soups differing in terms of visual attributes, e.g. colour intensity, ingredients variety, etc. that conveyed a high or low expected satiety. In the control condition, no picture was shown. After viewing either a soup picture or no picture, subjects chose an ideal menu and portion size out of several other foods (meat, side dishes and vegetables) via an online choice task, specifically developed for this experiment. The energy (kcal) and weight (grams) selected for the main course was measured. More energy was chosen in the low satiety compared with the high satiety soup picture condition, but this effect was only significant for restrained eaters. This study shows that satiety expectations of a first course 'carry over' to the rest of the menu in people who carefully watch their diet, i.e. restrained eaters make satiety estimations for an entire menu. Our online choice task was able to capture these estimations in an implicit manner.

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