- Ana Patricia Silva (1)
- Hans Peter Voss (1)
- Manuela Pintado (1)
- Betina Piqueras-Fiszman (3)
- Aurelia Schulte-Holierhoek (1)
- Charles Spence (1)
- Hans Trijp van (2)
- Luz Verastegui-Tena (2)
- E.H. Zandstra (1)
- N. Zijlstra (1)
- Hannelize Zyl van (1)
Heart rate and skin conductance responses to taste, taste novelty, and the (dis)confirmation of expectations
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 65 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 9.
Autonomic nervous system - Expectations - Heart rate - Novelty - Skin conductance - Taste
It is unclear whether the responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can measure how people respond to food. Results focused on emotional responses are contradictory; therefore, the focus has shifted to other components of emotion, such as appraisals. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the differences in ANS responses related to appraisals; particularly taste novelty, valence, and the disconfirmation of expectations.A hundred and fifty-five participants joined this study. They tasted samples of different valence (sweet and bitter) twice: the first time without knowing the taste and the second while being informed of the taste. After this first block, participants tasted two additional samples: one that confirmed expectations and one that disconfirmed them. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Results show that the second experience with a taste led to cardiac deceleration. Heart rate changes were only related to valence when participants' expectations were (dis)confirmed. Heart rate decreased for those tastes that disconfirmed expectations and increased for those that confirmed them and the sweet sample had larger increases in heart rate than the bitter. Skin conductance changed in regards to novelty and valence but not to the disconfirmation of expectations. It increased for the bitter sample, decreased for the sweet, and was always higher during the first experience than during the second. In conclusion, the results suggest that cardiac responses are more sensitive to novelty and the disconfirmation of expectations while skin conductance responses capture novelty and valence.
Beyond expectations : The responses of the autonomic nervous system to visual food cues
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Schulte-Holierhoek, Aurelia ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2017
Physiology and Behavior 179 (2017). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 478 - 486.
ANS - Expectations - Heart rate - Image perception - Skin conductance - Tasting
Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms underlying ANS responses by evaluating the reactions to different images when expectations about a product are created (before tasting the product) and when they are confirmed and disconfirmed (after tasting the product). In a first study, seventy-five participants tasted four drinks (three identical soy-based drinks and one rice-based drink) and were told that they would be shown their main ingredient either before or after tasting. For the three identical drinks, the images shown were: worms, chocolate, and soy. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured during the procedure. The results showed that ANS responses followed similar patterns when images were presented before or after tasting. Heart rate decreased for all images, with the largest decrease found for chocolate and worms. Skin conductance increased, with the largest increase found for worms. To test whether the effects were solely caused by image perception, a second study was done in which forty participants only saw the images. The responses obtained were smaller and did not completely match those of the first study. In conclusion, it could be said that the ANS responses of the first study were a result of the sensory processing and defense mechanisms happening during the creation and (dis)confirmation of expectations. The second study confirmed that visual perception alone could not account for these effects and that it led to smaller changes. Hence, it seems that the context of use influences the patterns and magnitude of ANS responses to food cues.
What's in a name? The effect of congruent and incongruent product names on liking and emotions when consuming beer or non-alcoholic beer in a bar
Silva, Ana Patricia ; Jager, Gerry ; Voss, Hans Peter ; Zyl, Hannelize van; Hogg, Tim ; Pintado, Manuela ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 55 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 58 - 66.
Beer - Context of consumption - Emotions - Expectations - Label - Non-alcoholic beer - Product name
This study concerns the expectations, liking and emotions related to the consumption of conventional beer and non-alcoholic beer (NAB), which are related but different products. These beverages are derived from the same raw materials and have undistinguished visual sensory cues. However consumers acknowledge the differences between them in terms of flavour, functional and emotional conceptualisations. Of particular interest here is how prior experience with beer and NAB and the conceptual information this generates in a consumer, can influence his or her response to its consumption in an appropriate setting – a bar. The labelling of a sample as beer or non-alcoholic beer was employed as a prompt to study the effects on liking and emotions provoked, when drinking a beer or a NAB, in a bar. Over 4 sessions, 155 consumers drank a glass of beer or NAB under two different conditions, labelled either correctly or incorrectly with respect to the actual composition of the sample. Questionnaires were used to rate the liking and emotions prior to and after consumption. The naming of NAB as beer significantly increased the liking and changed one emotion towards a positive direction, namely participants felt more fulfilled. When beer was presented as NAB it did not affect the liking but did significantly reduce the intensity of six positive emotions. Participants felt less comforted, exuberant, good, happy, joyful and loving. This study showed that labelling and the conceptual information generated in consumers might influence their response after consumption of these beverages.
Food Color and Its Impact on Taste/Flavor Perception
Spence, Charles ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2016
In: Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience Through to the Marketplace / Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina, Spence, Charles, Amsterdam : Elsevier Inc. Academic Press (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition 298) - ISBN 9780081003510 - p. 107 - 132.
Expectations - Flavor - Liking - Multisensory - Sensory dominance - Taste - Vision
Color is perhaps the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting our expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of food and drink. To date, a large body of research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the color of a variety of different food and beverage items exerts a sometimes dramatic impact on the expectations, and often on the subsequent taste/flavor experiences of participants in the lab, as well as consumers under the more naturalistic conditions of everyday life. It is important to note that food colors can have rather different meanings, and hence give rise to differing expectations in these different age groups, not to mention in those from different cultures. By gaining a better understanding of the sensory and hedonic expectations that are elicited by food color in different groups of individuals, researchers are now coming to better understand the various ways in which what we see can modulate the multisensory perception of flavor, and alter our food behaviors.
High satiety expectations of a first course promote selection of less energy in a main course picture task
Bulsing, P.J. ; Gutjar, S. ; Zijlstra, N. ; Zandstra, E.H. - \ 2015
Appetite 87 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 236 - 243.
Expectations - Food choice - Restrained eaters - Satiety - Vision
One of the factors determining meal size is the expectation one has about satiating properties of foods. Foods eliciting low satiety expectations are often chosen in larger portions. We investigated whether satiety expectations of one food lead to a different portion size selection of other foods, using an online picture task. One hundred and twenty-six subjects (64 unrestrained, 62 restrained) participated in three conditions (within-subject). In two conditions subjects were asked to imagine they consumed soup as a first course. They were shown pictures of soups differing in terms of visual attributes, e.g. colour intensity, ingredients variety, etc. that conveyed a high or low expected satiety. In the control condition, no picture was shown. After viewing either a soup picture or no picture, subjects chose an ideal menu and portion size out of several other foods (meat, side dishes and vegetables) via an online choice task, specifically developed for this experiment. The energy (kcal) and weight (grams) selected for the main course was measured. More energy was chosen in the low satiety compared with the high satiety soup picture condition, but this effect was only significant for restrained eaters. This study shows that satiety expectations of a first course 'carry over' to the rest of the menu in people who carefully watch their diet, i.e. restrained eaters make satiety estimations for an entire menu. Our online choice task was able to capture these estimations in an implicit manner.