Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Hyperspectral imaging, a non-destructive technique in medicinal and aromatic plant products industry : Current status and potential future applications
Kiani, Sajad ; Ruth, Saskia M. van; Minaei, Saeid - \ 2018
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 152 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 9 - 18.
Food industry - Fraud - Quality - Spices

Due to an increasing trend for on-line monitoring of food quality, safety and authenticity, the use of rapid, reliable and non-contact devices in food industry has attracted considerable attention. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI), based on spatially resolved spectroscopy, is such a non-destructive technique. Fusion of this technique with other measurement instruments would be a promising approach to gather various types of information on the appearance, nature, and special traits of food products and ingredients including aromatic/medicinal plants. These materials play an important role in flavouring of food products and traits of supplements and pharmaceuticals. Their quality and authenticity are key properties, which can be assured by using spectroscopy techniques, including HSI. This paper reviews (a) the basic principles of HSI, (b) scientific work on HSI and aromatic/medicinal plants, as well as their related products such as spices and (c) the existing and future applications in the related industry.

Exergy destruction in ammonia scrubbers
Zisopoulos, Filippos K. ; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M. - \ 2018
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 136 (2018). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 153 - 165.
Chemical separation - Food industry - Irreversibility - Resource use efficiency
A theoretical ammonia scrubbing process by sulfuric acid solution is assessed with the concept of exergy. The exergy destruction of chemical neutralization is mainly (75–94%) due to changes in the chemical exergy of streams and thermal effects from the reaction while mixing effects have a limited contribution (6–25%). The minimum exergy consumption to remove one mole of ammonia chemically from an airstream could be two to eight times larger than the latent heat of evaporation of one mole of water depending on whether a concentrated (98% w/w) or a dilute (1% w/w) sulfuric acid solution is used. The exergy destruction per mole of ammonia scrubbed could be reduced by up to 75% when both the sulfuric acid solution and the ammonia at the inlet airstream are highly concentrated. The use of sulfuric acid concentration in the range of 10–50% w/w could lead to a very low exergy efficiency (<50%). The exergy efficiency could be improved up to ∼87% by introducing an ammonia pre-concentration step right before the scrubbing process. The extension of system boundaries shows that the cumulative exergy loss rate for neutralizing a heavily loaded ammonia airstream with a flowrate of 1 kg s−1 ranges between 0.3–1.5 MW depending on the way sulfuric acid is produced. Consequently, an exergy-efficient scrubber design should balance between the minimization of the consumption of exergy-intensive resources, the minimization of the exergy destruction occurring in the separation process, and the maximization of output stream utilization.
Responsibility versus profit : The motives of food firms for healthy product innovation
Garst, Jilde ; Blok, Vincent ; Jansen, Léon ; Omta, Onno S.W.F. - \ 2017
Sustainability 9 (2017)12. - ISSN 2071-1050
Corporate social responsibility - CSR - Food industry - Instrumental motives - Moral motives - Motives - Product innovation - Public health - Responsible research and innovation - RRI
Background: In responsible research and innovation (RRI), innovation is seen as a way in which humankind finds solutions for societal issues. However, studies on commercial innovation show that firms respond in a different manner and at a different speed to the same societal issue. This study investigates what role organizational motives play in the product innovation processes of firms when aiming for socially responsible outcomes. Methods: This multiple-case study investigates the motives of food firms for healthier product innovation by interviewing firms about the organizational motives behind product reformulation and innovation. Results: This study highlights the importance of having both instrumental and moral motives in the innovation process when aiming for socially responsible outcomes, and how both these motives interact and contribute to responsible innovation in industry. Furthermore, the study results question the nature of relational motives as a separate category from the other two categories of motives, as suggested by corporate social responsibility (CSR) scholars. Conclusions: If commercial innovation needs to contribute to solutions for societal issues, the importance of moral motives has to be stressed without annihilating the instrumental objectives of firms. Both motives contribute to the success factors of responsible product innovation in industry.
Processing concepts for the use of green leaves as raw materials for the food industry
Tamayo Tenorio, A. ; Schreuders, F.K.G. ; Zisopoulos, F.K. ; Boom, R.M. ; Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2017
Journal of Cleaner Production 164 (2017). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 736 - 748.
Decentralised processing - Exergy - Food industry - Leaf proteins - Soil quality - Sustainability
Large-scale processing of leaves for food applications requires quick processing or stabilisation to avoid perishability, due to the high moisture content in this biomass. Leaf perishability is compounded by the seasonal availability of crops, like sugar beet plants, of which the leaves are regarded as a potential protein source. This study evaluates the resource efficiency of a hypothetical sugar beet leaf processing chain by comparing supply chain options. First, two options consider leaf processing with and without stabilising the leaves by freezing. Then, these two options are considered in a centralised and decentralised process configuration. The latter places leaf freezing and pressing at the farm and further processes occur at a central facility. Energy usage and exergy consumption were used to quantify the thermodynamic performance of the processing options. Freezing has negligible effect on the process-ability of the leaves in terms of protein content and protein yield. The overall resource efficiency of the process was dominated by the amount of leaf material effectively used, which stresses the importance of full use of all (side-)streams. This outcome also explains the limited additional energy requirements for freezing. Exergetic indicators were affected by variations on the dry matter content of the starting biomass, compared to a negligible effect of other parameters (equipment scale, efficiency or energy use). Transportation load and soil quality were also discussed for the centralised and decentralised configurations. On-farm processing of the leaves (decentralised chain) clearly reduces the transportation load due to the large difference in bulk densities of leaves (73 kg/m3) and leaf juice (1000 kg/m3). Additionally, decentralised scenarios enable direct returning of the leaf pulp to the soil and thereby improving soil quality (i.e. nutrient retention and fe rtility). Soil quality is required to fully assess the use of biomass that is currently regarded as waste, but that actually plays a role in soil fertility. Therefore, the preferred chain configuration would be a decentralised system where the leaves are directly pressed at the farm, the pulp is used to fertilise the soil, and the leaf juice is chilled transported to a centralised factory.
Integrating environmental impact assessment into new product development and processing-technology selection : Milk concentrates as substitutes for milk powders
Depping, Verena ; Grunow, Martin ; Middelaar, Corina van; Dumpler, Joseph - \ 2017
Journal of Cleaner Production 149 (2017). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 1 - 10.
Dairy products - Energy consumption - Food industry - Life cycle assessment (LCA) - Product design - Supply chains

Environmental-impact reduction potential is great early in new product development. To exploit this potential, this study evaluates novel combinations of existent processing technologies. Process engineering is combined with an environmental product assessment along the supply chain. In the dairy sector, drying milk into milk powders is a highly energy-intensive process. This study investigates whether switching from milk powders to new products known as milk concentrates diminishes the overall environmental impact along the supply chains of dairy-containing products. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted, which considers individual processing steps that can be combined and operated in various ways to generate a multitude of different skim milk concentrates. For relevant environmental indicators such as cumulative energy demand, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, and acidification potential, concentrates were found to have a lower environmental impact than powders, even if the former are trucked up to 1000 km. This break-even distance is a conservative estimate. It depends upon the environmental impact of raw-milk production. The concentrate with the lowest environmental impact is produced by a combined concentration with reverse osmosis and evaporation to a dry-matter content of 35% and preservation via subsequent pasteurization. This holds for all indicators except eutrophication potential, for which this concentrate is the second-best option. This study identifies the frame within which milk concentrates are an advantageous substitution for milk powder and demonstrates the value of applying environmental assessment to product development and processing-technology selection.

Selecting food process designs from a supply chain perspective
Jonkman, Jochem ; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline ; Vorst, Jack G.A.J. van der; Padt, Albert van der - \ 2017
Journal of Food Engineering 195 (2017). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 52 - 60.
Facility location - Food industry - Optimization - Process design - Product portfolio - Supply chain configuration

The food industry can convert agro-materials into products using many alternative process designs. To remain competitive, companies have to select the design leading to the best supply chain performance. These designs differ in the technologies used and the product portfolio produced. Additionally, characteristics, such as seasonal production and quality decay of food products, lead to specific requirements regarding processing, transportation and storage. The importance of these characteristics of the food industry on process design selection is investigated using sugar beet processing as an illustrative case. The characteristics are included in a multi-period, multi-product location-allocation model. The model shows that a supply chain perspective leads to changes in process design selection. The design with the best portfolio value and processing costs does not lead to the best supply chain performance. This shows the importance of a chain perspective to avoid sub-optimization in food process design selection.

A resource efficiency assessment of the industrial mushroom production chain : The influence of data variability
Zisopoulos, Filippos K. ; Becerra Ramírez, Henry A. ; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M. - \ 2016
Journal of Cleaner Production 126 (2016). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 394 - 408.
Exergy analysis - Food industry - Recycling - Sustainability

We compare the exergetic performance of a conventional industrial mushroom production chain with a mushroom production chain where part of the compost waste is recycled and reused as raw material. The critical exergy loss points (CEPs) identified are the cooking-out process of the spent mushroom substrate, and the phase I composting process which are related to chemical and physical exergy losses, respectively. The total exergy input requirements for the conventional chain are higher (24 GJ per three flushes of mushrooms) than for the alternative chain (17 GJ per three flushes of mushrooms) since more raw materials are required. The largest exergy losses are due to unclosed material balances, i.e. chemical exergy losses, which represent 69% of the total exergy losses for the conventional chain, and 56% for the alternative production chain. Therefore, it only makes sense to reduce any avoidable physical exergy losses after utilizing all mass streams maximally that translate into chemical exergy flows. Further comparison of exergetic indicators (e.g. specific exergy losses, and exergetic cost) shows that recycling material streams would improve the resource efficiency of the industrial mushroom production chain considerably. The variations in the assumed electricity consumption values for the ventilation in phase I composting and for the ammonia scrubbing process affect greatly the exergetic indicators and the number of critical exergy loss points indicating that any further improvement on the exergetic performance of the mushroom production chain should focus on these two process variables. This study shows that variability in data can influence both quantitatively and qualitatively the outcome of exergetic analyses of food production chains since it can lead to the calculation of different values for the selected indicators as well as to the identification of completely different critical exergy loss points.

How environmental collaboration with suppliers and customers influences firm performance : Evidence from Dutch food and beverage processors
Grekova, K. ; Calantone, R.J. ; Bremmers, H.J. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2016
Journal of Cleaner Production 112 (2016)3. - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 1861 - 1871.
Environmental collaboration - Extended resource-based view - Firm performance - Food industry - Sustainable process improvements - Sustainable supply chain

Searching for sustainable growth opportunities, manufacturing firms are increasingly embedding sustainability concerns into their relationships with supply chain partners. In the present paper, we explore the potential of environmental collaboration with suppliers and customers to induce environmentally sustainable improvements to internal processes to address external sustainability pressures and to contribute to business performance. Grounded in resource based view spin-offs, this study claims that environmental collaboration can enhance the performance of the focal firm not only directly, but also indirectly - by stimulating the focal firm to implement more environmentally sustainable processes that in turn contribute to firm's performance. Providing manufacturing managers with a better understanding of the direct and indirect relationships between environmental collaboration and firm performance can gain them more control over the outcomes of environmental collaboration. Proposed relationships were tested in a sample of 139 Dutch food and beverage processors using structural equation modelling. The results indicate that environmental collaboration with suppliers can improve the performance of Dutch food and beverage processors directly as it induces cost savings. Nevertheless, such collaboration is not likely to assist firms seeking to improve environmental sustainability of their internal processes as one of the outcomes of environmental collaboration. On the contrary, environmental collaboration with customers induces performance indirectly, by stimulating food and beverage processors to implement sustainable process improvements that subsequently bring about cost savings and market gains.

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