Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Impact of drivers of change, including climatic factors, on the occurrence of chemical food safety hazards in fruits and vegetables : A Bayesian Network approach
Bouzembrak, Yamine ; Marvin, Hans J.P. - \ 2019
Food Control 97 (2019). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 67 - 76.
Food safety - Food supply chain - Holistic approach - Machine learning - Prediction

The presence and development of many food safety risks are driven by factors within and outside the food supply chain, such as climate, economy and human behaviour. The interactions between these factors and the supply chain are complex and a system or holistic approach is needed to reveal cause-effect relationships and to be able to perform effective mitigation actions to minimise food safety risks. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of the Bayesian Network (BN) approach to identify and quantify the strength of relationships and interactions between the presence of food safety hazards as reported in Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) for fruits and vegetables on one hand, and climatic factors, economic and agronomic data on the other. To this end, all food safety notifications in RASFF (i.e. 3781 notifications) on fruits and vegetables originating from India, Turkey and the Netherlands were collected for the period 2005–2015. In addition, climatic factors (e.g. temperature, precipitation), agricultural factors (e.g. pesticide use, fertilizer use) and economic factors (e.g. price, production volumes) were collected for the countries of origin of the product concurrent with the period of food safety notification in RASFF. A BN was constructed with 80% of the collected data using a machine-learning algorithm and optimised for each specific hazard category. The performance of the developed BN was determined in terms of accuracy of prediction of the hazard category in the evaluation set comprising 20% of the total data. The accuracy was high (95%) and the following factors contributed most: product category, notifying country, yearly production, number of notification, maximal residue level (MRL) ratio, country of origin, and the annual agricultural budget of a country. The assessment of the impact of interactions within the BN showed a significant interaction between the presence and level of a hazard as reported in RASFF and several drivers of change but at present, no definite conclusions can be drawn regarding the climatic factors and food safety hazards.

BIOFOS: micro-ring resonator-based biophotonic system for food analysis. Nut mycotoxin detection
Romero, A. ; Ninot, A. ; Hermoso, J.F. ; Zergioti, I. ; Kouloumentas, Ch. ; Avramopoulos, H. ; Leeuwis, H. ; Schreuder, E. ; Graf, S. ; Knapp, H. ; Barthelmebs, L. ; Noguer, T. ; Tsekenis, G. ; Scheres, L. ; Smulders, M. ; Zuilhof, H. ; Heesink, G. ; Reguillo, L. ; Risquez, A. - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Almonds and Pistachios. - International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462612167 - p. 339 - 343.
Analysis of aflatoxin B1 - Biosensor - Food safety

BIOFOS aims to further develop and validate a reusable and high-added value Lab-on-Chip (LoC) based, micro-biophotonic sensor platform for in situ monitoring of food contaminants. The Lab-on-Chip was tested on milk (aflatoxin M1, antibiotics and lactose), olive oil (pesticides and metals), nuts (aflatoxin B1) and dehydrated fruits (ochratoxin A). BIOFOS combines the most promising concepts from the photonic, biological, nanochemical and fluidic parts of Lab-on-Chip systems, aiming to achieve low sensitivity and high specificity, excellent reliability and compactness. Current methodologies for detection of food contamination based on heavy analytical tools cannot guarantee a safe and stable food supply. The reasons are the complexity, the long time-to-result (2-3 days) and the cost of these tools, which limit the number of samples that can be practically analyzed at food processing and storage sites. Preliminary results for almonds spiked with aflatoxin B1 are presented. First results suggest that BIOFOS has sensitivity enough for AFB1, even that the concentration is at ppb level. More data are still required, and many analyses are ongoing in the laboratory. Results are not enough to conclude about any characteristics of the device performance, even then repeatability seems very good (variation less than 3% at 25 ppb) and recovery is acceptable (78.4%), while decision limit and detection capability are still uncertain.

Microbial food safety in the 21st century : Emerging challenges and foodborne pathogenic bacteria
Franz, Charles M.A.P. ; Besten, Heidy M.W. den; Böhnlein, Christina ; Gareis, Manfred ; Zwietering, Marcel H. ; Fusco, Vincenzina - \ 2018
Trends in Food Science and Technology 81 (2018). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 155 - 158.
Food safety - Microbial risk assessment - Pathogens
Comparison of three modelling approaches for predicting deoxynivalenol contamination in winter wheat
Liu, Cheng ; Manstretta, Valentina ; Rossi, Vittorio ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2018
Toxins 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2072-6651
Cereal grains - DON - Food safety - Forecast - Mycotoxin - Validation

Forecasting models for mycotoxins in cereal grains during cultivation are useful for pre-harvest and post-harvest mycotoxin management. Some of such models for deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat, using two different modelling techniques, have been published. This study aimed to compare and cross-validate three different modelling approaches for predicting DON in winter wheat using data from the Netherlands as a case study. To this end, a published empirical model was updated with a new mixed effect logistic regression method. A mechanistic model for wheat in Italy was adapted to the Dutch situation. A new Bayesian network model was developed to predict DON in wheat. In developing the three models, the same dataset was used, including agronomic and weather data, as well as DON concentrations of individual samples in the Netherlands over the years 2001–2013 (625 records). Similar data from 2015 and 2016 (86 records) were used for external independent validation. The results showed that all three modelling approaches provided good accuracy in predicting DON in wheat in the Netherlands. The empirical model showed the highest accuracy (88%). However, this model is highly location and data-dependent, and can only be run if all of the input data are available. The mechanistic model provided 80% accuracy. This model is easier to implement in new areas given similar mycotoxin-producing fungal populations. The Bayesian network model provided 86% accuracy. Compared with the other two models, this model is easier to implement when input data are incomplete. In future research, the three modelling approaches could be integrated to even better support decision-making in mycotoxin management.

Next generation microbiological risk assessment—Potential of omics data for hazard characterisation
Haddad, Nabila ; Johnson, Nick ; Kathariou, Sophia ; Métris, Aline ; Phister, Trevor ; Pielaat, Annemarie ; Tassou, Chrysoula ; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J. ; Zwietering, Marcel H. - \ 2018
International Journal of Food Microbiology 287 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 28 - 39.
Dose-response - Food safety - Functional genomics - Pathogenicity - Public health - Quantitative transcriptomics and proteomics - Risk analysis - Virulence
According to the World Health Organization estimates in 2015, 600 million people fall ill every year from contaminated food and 420,000 die. Microbial risk assessment (MRA) was developed as a tool to reduce and prevent risks presented by pathogens and/or their toxins. MRA is organized in four steps to analyse information and assist in both designing appropriate control options and implementation of regulatory decisions and programs. Among the four steps, hazard characterisation is performed to establish the probability and severity of a disease outcome, which is determined as function of the dose of toxin and/or pathogen ingested. This dose-response relationship is subject to both variability and uncertainty. The purpose of this review/opinion article is to discuss how Next Generation Omics can impact hazard characterisation and, more precisely, how it can improve our understanding of variability and limit the uncertainty in the dose-response relation. The expansion of omics tools (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) allows for a better understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms and virulence levels of bacterial strains. Detection and identification of virulence genes, comparative genomics, analyses of mRNA and protein levels and the development of biomarkers can help in building a mechanistic dose-response model to predict disease severity. In this respect, systems biology can help to identify critical system characteristics that confer virulence and explain variability between strains. Despite challenges in the integration of omics into risk assessment, some omics methods have already been used by regulatory agencies for hazard identification. Standardized methods, reproducibility and datasets obtained from realistic conditions remain a challenge, and are needed to improve accuracy of hazard characterisation. When these improvements are realized, they will allow the health authorities and government policy makers to prioritize hazards more accurately and thus refine surveillance programs with the collaboration of all stakeholders of the food chain.
Systematic Review of Methods to Determine the Cost-Effectiveness of Monitoring Plans for Chemical and Biological Hazards in the Life Sciences
Focker, M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2018
Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 17 (2018)3. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 633 - 645.
Cost-effectiveness - Food safety - Hazards - Models - Monitoring
This study reviews the methods used to determine the cost-effectiveness of monitoring plans for hazards in animals (diseases), plants (pests), soil, water, food, and animal feed, and assesses their applicability to food safety hazards. The review describes the strengths and weaknesses of each method, provides examples of different applications, and concludes with comments about their applicability to food safety. A systematic literature search identified publications assessing the cost-effectiveness of monitoring plans in the life sciences. Publications were classified into 4 groups depending on their subject: food safety, environmental hazards, animal diseases, or pests. Publications were reviewed according to the type of model and input data used, and the types of costs included. Three types of models were used: statistical models, simulation models, and optimization models. Input data were either experimental, historical, or simulated data. Publications differed according to the costs included. More than half the publications only included monitoring costs, whereas other publications included monitoring and management costs, or all costs and benefits. Only a few publications were found in the food safety category and all were relatively recent studies. This suggests that cost-effectiveness analysis of monitoring strategies in food safety is just starting and more research is needed to improve the cost-effectiveness of monitoring hazards in foods.
Drivers of existing and emerging food safety risks : Expert opinion regarding multiple impacts
Kendall, Helen ; Kaptan, Gulbanu ; Stewart, Gavin ; Grainger, Matthew ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Naughton, Paul ; Clark, Beth ; Hubbard, Carmen ; Raley, Marian ; Marvin, Hans J.P. ; Frewer, Lynn J. - \ 2018
Food Control 90 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 440 - 458.
Delphi technique - Emerging risk - Existing risk - Expert opinion - Food safety
Considerable research effort is invested in the development of evidence to help policy makers and industry deal with the challenges associated with existing and emerging food safety threats. This research aimed to elicit expert views regarding the relationship between the drivers of existing and emerging food safety risks, in order to facilitate their control and mitigation, and to provide the basis for further international policy integration. A Delphi approach involving repeated polling of n = 106 global food safety experts was adopted. The primary drivers of existing and emerging food safety risks were identified to be demographic change, economic driving forces, resource shortages, environmental driving forces, increased complexity of the food supply chain, water security and malevolent activities. The identification of socio-economic and biophysical drivers emphasises the need for a transdisciplinary and systems approach to food safety management and mitigation. The mitigation of hazards on a case-by-case basis is unlikely to have a major impact on food safety hazards but may have unintended effects (where positive or negative) across a broad spectrum of food safety issues. Rather a holistic or systems approach is required which can address both the intended and unintended effects of different drivers and their interactions.
Development and in-house validation of a rapid and simple to use ELISA for the detection and measurement of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin
Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina ; Reiring, Claudine ; Sajic, Nermin ; Haasnoot, Willem ; Brabet, Catherine ; Campbell, Katrina ; Elliott, Christopher T. ; Salden, Martin - \ 2018
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 410 (2018)12. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 3017 - 3023.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay - Food safety - Immunoassay - Mycotoxin
Sterigmatocystin (STG) is a highly toxic secondary fungal metabolite structurally closely related to the well-known carcinogenic aflatoxins. Its presence has been reported in grains and grain-based products as well as in other foodstuffs like nuts, green coffee beans, spices, beer and cheese. Due to the lack of suitable data on the occurrence of STG, in 2013, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) could not characterise its risk for human health and recommended that more data on STG in food and feed needed to be collected. In order to provide a new tool for the specific detection of STG, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, optimised and validated in this study based on a sensitive monoclonal antibody specific to STG with no cross-reactivity with aflatoxins. The sample preparation method for rice, wheat and maize was based on a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) approach. The assay was validated for the detection of STG in rice, wheat and maize in accordance with the guidelines for validation of semi-quantitative screening methods included in Commission Regulation (EU) 519/2014. The screening target concentration (STC) was set at 1.5 μg/kg. The cutoffs for rice, wheat and maize were 1.2, 1.2 and 1.3 μg/kg and the false suspected rates were 0.34, 1.15 and 0.78%, respectively. Good correlation was found between the results obtained by the STG ELISA and LC-MS/MS method for naturally contaminated rice samples. This validated method can be applied as a sensitive and high-throughput screening for the presence of STG in a range of agricultural commodities. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Tolerance and excretion of the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A by alphitobius diaperinus and hermetia illucens from contaminated substrates
Camenzuli, Louise ; Dam, Ruud van; Rijk, Theo de; Andriessen, Rob ; Schelt, Jeroen van; Fels-Klerx, H.J.I. van der - \ 2018
Toxins 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 2072-6651
Alphitobius diaperinus - Bioaccumulation - Black soldier fly - Contaminants - Excretion - Feed safety - Food safety - Hermetia illucens - Insects - Lesser mealworm
This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P1, aflatoxin Q1, and aflatoxin M1, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and α- and β-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required.
Next generation of microbiological risk assessment : Potential of omics data for exposure assessment
Besten, Heidy M.W. den; Amézquita, Alejandro ; Bover-Cid, Sara ; Dagnas, Stéphane ; Ellouze, Mariem ; Guillou, Sandrine ; Nychas, George ; O'Mahony, Cian ; Pérez-Rodriguez, Fernando ; Membré, Jeanne Marie - \ 2018
International Journal of Food Microbiology 287 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 18 - 27.
Food safety - Microbial dynamics - Microbiota - Public health - Variability
In food safety and public health risk evaluations, microbiological exposure assessment plays a central role as it provides an estimation of both the likelihood and the level of the microbial hazard in a specified consumer portion of food and takes microbial behaviour into account. While until now mostly phenotypic data have been used in exposure assessment, mechanistic cellular information, obtained using omics techniques, will enable the fine tuning of exposure assessments to move towards the next generation of microbiological risk assessment. In particular, metagenomics can help in characterizing the food and factory environment microbiota (endogenous microbiota and potentially pathogens) and the changes over time under the environmental conditions associated with processing, preservation and storage. The difficulty lies in moving up to a quantitative exposure assessment, because the development of models that enable the prediction of dynamics of pathogens in a complex food ecosystem is still in its infancy in the food safety domain. In addition, collecting and storing the environmental data (metadata) required to inform the models has not yet been organised at a large scale. In contrast, progress in biomarker identification and characterization has already opened the possibility of making qualitative or even quantitative connection between process and formulation conditions and microbial responses at the strain level. In term of modelling approaches, without changing radically the usual model structure, changes in model inputs are expected: instead of (or as well as) building models upon phenotypic characteristics such as for example minimal temperature where growth is expected, exposure assessment models could use biomarker response intensity as inputs. These new generations of strain-level models will bring an added value in predicting the variability in pathogen behaviour. Altogether, these insights based upon omics techniques will increase our (quantitative) knowledge on pathogenic strains and consequently will reduce our uncertainty; the exposure assessment of a specific combination of pathogen and food will be then more accurate. This progress will benefit the whole community of safety assessors and research scientists from academia, regulatory agencies and industry.
Marine biotoxins and associated outbreaks following seafood consumption : Prevention and surveillance in the 21st century
Nicolas, Jonathan ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Hendriksen, Peter J.M. ; Bodero Baeza, Marcia ; Bovee, Toine F.H. ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Gerssen, Arjen - \ 2017
Global Food Security 15 (2017). - ISSN 2211-9124 - p. 11 - 21.
Food safety - Human health - Marine biotoxins - Outbreaks - Seafood monitoring

Marine biotoxins are mostly produced by phytoplankton. Proliferation of algae producing marine biotoxins, also known as harmful algal bloom (HAB), occurs worldwide. Such event depends on environmental conditions, including temperature, water pH/salinity, current patterns and anthropogenic nutrient input. Marine biotoxins can accumulate in seafood products and as such present a threat to consumers.This paper reviews and compiles up-to-date literature on reported human intoxications following exposure to marine biotoxins through seafood consumption. The review includes a discussion about prevention of such outbreaks and surveillance programs to identify possible limitations and approaches for limiting the impact of HABs on human health. It is concluded that marine biotoxins represent a threat to human health as thousands of poisonings following consumption of seafood contaminated with marine biotoxins were reported in the 21st century, emphasizing the need for carrying on/developing surveillance programs to detect the presence of HABs, and for development, validation and implementation of sensitive high-throughput methods for detecting these biotoxins in seafood to protect consumers. Regarding the possible presence of unknown toxins and general lack of standards for many known toxins, in vitro effect-based bioassays may play an important role in the monitoring for biotoxins.

Risk assessment or assessment of risk? Developing an evidence-based approach for primary producers of leafy vegetables to assess and manage microbial risks
Monaghan, J.M. ; Augustin, J.C. ; Bassett, J. ; Betts, R. ; Pourkomailian, B. ; Zwietering, M.H. - \ 2017
Journal of Food Protection 80 (2017)5. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 725 - 733.
Food safety - Leafy vegetables - Qualitative risk assessment - Quantitative risk assessment

Over the last 10 years, some high-profile foodborne illness outbreaks have been linked to the consumption of leafy greens. Growers are required to complete microbiological risk assessments (RAs) for the production of leafy crops supplied either to retail or for further processing. These RAs are based primarily on qualitative judgements of hazard and risks at various stages in the production process but lack many of the steps defined for quantitative microbiological RAs by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This article is based on the discussions of an industry expert group and proposes a grower RA approach based on a structured qualitative assessment, which requires all decisions to be based on evidence and a framework for describing the decision process that can be challenged and defended within the supply chain. In addition, this article highlights the need for evidence to be more easily available and accessible to primary producers and identifies the need to develop hygiene criteria to aid validation of proposed interventions.

A four-year survey in the farming region of Chile, occurrence and human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and dioxin -like polychlorinated biphenyls in different raw meats
San Martin, B.V. ; Pizarro-Aránguiz, N. ; García-Mendoza, D. ; Araya-Jordan, C. ; Maddaleno, A. ; Abad, E. ; Galbán-Malagón, C.J. - \ 2016
Science of the Total Environment 573 (2016). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1278 - 1286.
Dl-PCBs - Exposure assessment - Food safety - PCDDs - PCDFs

For the first time in South America, a four-year survey (2011-2014) was conducted to assess the occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in different raw meats (bovine, pork, ovine, chicken, and turkey) sampled from ten of the fifteen regions of Chile. When expressed as pg World Health Organization Toxic Equivalent (WHO-TEQ2005)g- 1 fat, the highest PCDD/F values for each species were 0.54 (bovine-2012), 0.27 (pork-2013), 0.23 (ovine-2011), 0.61 (chickens-2013), and 0.34 (turkey-2012). The highest mean dl-PCBs levels were 0.18 (bovine-2011), 0.05 (pork-2014), 0.13 (ovine-2011), 0.1 (chicken-2014), and 0.21 (turkey-2013). Penta- and tetra-chlorinated congeners dominated PCDD/F WHO-TEQ2005 profiles during the survey, while PCB 126 dominated dl-PCBs profiles. Statistically significant interspecies differences were found. Dietary intake was also estimated, and the highest total PCDD/F and dl-PCBs values, found in poultry meat, were 0.09pgWHO-TEQ2005 kg- 1 bwd- 1 (2013) for adults and 0.36pgWHO-TEQ2005 kg- 1 bwd-1 (2013) for children. The concentrations and dietary intakes for the studied compounds in raw meat were below international and national maximum permitted limits.

European alerting and monitoring data as inputs for the risk assessment of microbiological and chemical hazards in spices and herbs
Banach, J.L. ; Stratakou, I. ; Fels, Ine van der; Besten, H.M.W. den; Zwietering, M.H. - \ 2016
Food Control 69 (2016). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 237 - 249.
Food safety - Foodborne pathogen - Hazard identification - Mycotoxin - Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF)

Food chains are susceptible to contaminations from food-borne hazards, including pathogens and chemical contaminants. An assessment of the potential product-hazard combinations can be supported by using multiple data sources. The objective of this study was to identify the main trends of food safety hazards in the European spice and herb chain, and then, evaluate how the data sources can be used during each step of a microbiological and a toxicological risk assessment. Thereafter, the possibilities and limitations of the selected data sources for the risk assessment of certain hazards in spices and herbs are examined. European governmental alerting and monitoring data and legislation were examined and evaluated for particular product-hazard combinations. Pathogenic microorganisms, particularly Salmonella spp. and pathogenic Bacillus spp., were identified as a potential concern in black pepper and dried herbs, while mycotoxins like aflatoxin (B1) and ochratoxin A were a probable concern in chilies (including chili powder and cayenne), paprika, and nutmeg. Evaluating multiple, accessible, data sources can support several steps during the risk assessment process as seen for the hazard identification step. Therefore, identifying the potential spice and herb food safety hazards in the chain and other specific data can support risk assessors in compiling a comprehensive risk assessment.

Edible insects are the future?
Huis, Arnold van - \ 2016
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 75 (2016)3. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 294 - 305.
Consumer acceptance - Entomophagy - Ethno-entomology - Food safety - Insects as food and feed - Nutrition

The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

Shifting configurations of shopping practices and food safety dynamics in Hanoi, Vietnam : a historical analysis
Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. ; Spaargaren, Gert - \ 2016
Agriculture and Human Values 33 (2016)3. - ISSN 0889-048X - p. 655 - 671.
Consumption - Food safety - Food sovereignty - Practices theory - Retail modernization - Social change

This paper offers a historical analysis of contemporary practices of shopping for vegetables in the highly dynamic context of urban Hanoi during the period from 1975 to 2014. Focusing on everyday shopping practices from a food safety perspective, we assess the extent to which the policy-enforced process of supermarketization has proven to be an engine of change in daily vegetable purchasing while improving food safety. In depicting transitions in shopping practices, we combine a social practices approach with historical analysis. Providing a historical analysis of a broad and complex spectrum of everyday practices of purchasing fresh vegetables, we identify the key drivers of change. We discuss different modalities of shopping and demonstrate that no single retail modernization format can be said to exist. Rather than contrasting an idealized supermarket model with the traditional modalities of food shopping, we offer a varied, more diverse set of shopping practices that displays different strategies for coping with food safety issues. When discussed from a historical perspective, food practices are shown to be highly dynamic, being constantly reinvented and reconfigured by consumers who use their established skills, routines, and social networks to sometimes resist top-down enforced supermarketization while developing the coping strategies that best suit their local circumstances.

Consumer Behavior and Food Science
Fischer, A.R.H. - \ 2015
In: Reference Module in Food Science / Smithers, G.W., Elsevier - ISBN 9780081005965 - 2 p.
Consumer science - Food quality - Food safety
From the consumer's point of view, food is at the same time among the most trivial and the most complex of all product groups. Food is at the same time a mundane and a functional product. Sometimes we eat for sustenance, for example, while sitting behind our desks when typing reports, and at other times having an elaborate dinner is a pleasurable situation and helps us to strengthen family and friendship bonds.

Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood - European database on contaminant levels
Vandermeersch, Griet ; Lourenço, Helena Maria ; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana ; Cunha, Sara ; Diogène, Jorge ; Cano-Sancho, German ; Sloth, Jens J. ; Kwadijk, Christiaan ; Barcelo, Damia ; Allegaert, Wim ; Bekaert, Karen ; Fernandes, José Oliveira ; Marques, Antonio ; Robbens, Johan - \ 2015
Environmental Research 143 (2015). - ISSN 0013-9351 - p. 29 - 45.
Emerging food contaminants - Environmental contaminants - European database - Food safety - Seafood

Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed.

A critical view on microplastic quantification in aquatic organisms
Vandermeersch, Griet ; Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth Van; Janssen, Colin R. ; Marques, Antonio ; Granby, Kit ; Fait, Gabriella ; Kotterman, M.J.J. ; Diogène, Jorge ; Bekaert, Karen ; Robbens, Johan ; Devriese, Lisa - \ 2015
Environmental Research 143 (2015)part B. - ISSN 0013-9351 - p. 46 - 55.
Contamination - Food safety - Microplastics - Mussel - Seafood

Microplastics, plastic particles and fragments smaller than 5mm, are ubiquitous in the marine environment. Ingestion and accumulation of microplastics have previously been demonstrated for diverse marine species ranging from zooplankton to bivalves and fish, implying the potential for microplastics to accumulate in the marine food web. In this way, microplastics can potentially impact food safety and human health. Although a few methods to quantify microplastics in biota have been described, no comparison and/or intercalibration of these techniques have been performed. Here we conducted a literature review on all available extraction and quantification methods. Two of these methods, involving wet acid destruction, were used to evaluate the presence of microplastics in field-collected mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from three different "hotspot" locations in Europe (Po estuary, Italy; Tagus estuary, Portugal; Ebro estuary, Spain). An average of 0.18±0.14 total microplastics g-1 w.w. for the Acid mix Method and 0.12±0.04 total microplastics g-1 w.w. for the Nitric acid Method was established. Additionally, in a pilot study an average load of 0.13±0.14 total microplastics g-1 w.w. was recorded in commercial mussels (Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis) from five European countries (France, Italy, Denmark, Spain and The Netherlands). A detailed analysis and comparison of methods indicated the need for further research to develop a standardised operating protocol for microplastic quantification and monitoring.

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